The Junto was a club established in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin for mutual improvement in Philadelphia. Year 1727 ( MDCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Also known as the Leather Apron Club, its purpose was to debate questions of morals, politics, and natural philosophy, and to exchange knowledge of business affairs.
Franklin organized a group of friends to provide a structured forum for discussion. The group, initially composed of twelve members, called itself the Junto (the word is a mistaken use of the masculine singular Spanish adjective "joined", mistaken for the feminine singular noun "junta", "a meeting". Both derive from Latin "junct-", past participle of "jungere", "to join"). The members of the Junto were drawn from diverse occupations and backgrounds, but they all shared a spirit of inquiry and a desire to improve themselves, their community, and to help others. Among the original members were printers, surveyors, a cabinetmaker, a cobbler, a clerk, and a merchant. A printer is a company that provides commercial Printing services often also offering Typesetting and Book-binding services Cabinet making is the practice of utilizing various Woodworking skills to create cabinets shelving and Furniture. Although most of the members were older than Franklin, he was clearly their leader.
At just 21 years of age, he oversaw five men, including Hugh Meredith, Stephen Potts, and George Webb, who were soon to form the core of the Junto. Franklin was an outgoing, social individual and had become acquainted with some of the businessmen at a club called the Every Night Club. This gathering included prominent merchants who met informally to drink and discuss the business of the day. Franklin’s congenial ways attracted many unique and learned individuals, and from these, he selected the members for the Junto.
All members lived in Philadelphia and came from diverse areas of interest and business. Along with Meredith, Potts and Webb, they included Joseph Breintnall, merchant and scrivener, who also loved poetry and natural history. A scrivener (or scribe) was traditionally a person who could read and write. Thomas Godfrey was a glazier, mathematician and inventor, and Nicholas Scull and William Parsons were both surveyors. Thomas Godfrey (December 1704 – December 1749 was an optician and inventor in the American colonies who around 1730 invented the octant. A Glazier is a Construction professional that selects cuts installs replaces and removes Residential, commercial, and Artistic Glass A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. William Parsons may refer to William Parsons (surveyor (1701&ndash1757 Surveyor General founder of Easton Pennsylvania Sir William Parsons Scull was also a bibliophile and Parsons a cobbler and astrologer. Bibliophilia is the love of Books Accordingly a bibliophile loves books but especially "for Qualities of Format. Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems William Maugridge was a cabinetmaker, William Coleman a merchant’s clerk, and Robert Grace a gentleman. William Coleman (1704-1769 was a lawyer municipal official and judge in colonial Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Grace’s wealth meant he did not have to work, but apparently he brought an intellectual element to the group, plus a fine library. The twelfth member of the Junto remained a mystery until 2007, when Professor George Boudreau of Penn State discovered a long-forgotten account of the club's refreshments, and verified that shoemaker John Jones, Jr. was an original member. Jones was a Philadelphia Quaker, a neighbor of Franklin's, and later a founding member of the Library Company of Philadelphia. The club met Friday nights, first in a tavern and later in a house, to discuss moral, political and scientific topics of the day.
Franklin describes the formation and purpose of the Junto in his autobiography:
I should have mentioned before, that, in the autumn of the preceding year,  I had form'd most of my ingenious acquaintance into a club of mutual improvement, which we called the Junto; we met on Friday evenings. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is the traditional name for the unfinished record of his own life written by Benjamin Franklin from 1771 to 1790 however Franklin himself The rules that I drew up required that every member, in his turn, should produce one or more queries on any point of Morals, Politics, or Natural Philosophy, to be discuss'd by the company; and once in three months produce and read an essay of his own writing, on any subject he pleased.
Our debates were to be under the direction of a president, and to be conducted in the sincere spirit of inquiry after truth, without fondness for dispute or desire of victory; and to prevent warmth, all expressions of positiveness in opinions, or direct contradiction, were after some time made contraband, and prohibited under small pecuniary penalties.
The Junto's Friday evening meetings were organized around a series of questions that Franklin devised, covering a range of intellectual, personal, business, and community topics. These questions were used as a springboard for discussion and community action. In fact, through the Junto, Franklin promoted such concepts as volunteer fire-fighting clubs, improved security (night watchmen), and a public hospital.
This is the list of questions Franklin devised to guide the discussions at Junto meetings (from Franklin's papers, dated 1728, and included in some editions of his autobiography):
Any person to be qualified as a member was to stand up, lay his hand upon his breast, and be asked the following questions, viz. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Temperance ( Sophrosyne in Greek) is the practice of Moderation.
There are several modern-day Juntos modeled on Franklin's original meeting operating today. Hedge fund manager Victor Niederhoffer has been running the New York City Junto since 1985. A hedge fund is a private Investment fund open to a limited range of investors which is permitted by regulators to undertake a wider range of activities than other investment Victor Niederhoffer (born 1943 is a Hedge fund manager champion squash player and statistician. The City of New York Meeting monthly, the New York Junto focuses on libertarianism, Objectivism (the philosophy of Ayn Rand), and investing. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Objectivism is a Philosophy developed by Ayn Rand in the 20th century that encompasses positions on Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ayn Rand (ˈaɪn ˈrænd &ndash March 6 1982 born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Алиса Зиновьевна Розенбаум was a Russian born American
Nicholas Vardy has been running the London Junto since 2005. Nicholas Vardy is Managing Director of Hayek Capital Management London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The London Junto meets monthly in the heart of London's hedge-fund community at the Lansdowne Club, where Franklin signed the Treaty of Paris with Lord Shelburne. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally William Petty-FitzMaurice 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, PC (2 May 1737 &ndash 7 May 1805 known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784 by which It attracts some of the leading global investment minds of today, engaging them in critical, Socratic-style discussions.
Pittsburgh has had a Junta patterned after Franklin's concept since the 1870s. It currently has about 30 members who meet every three weeks, wear tuxedos, and listen to a few members on an assigned topic. The topics are wide-ranging.
Easton Area High School's newspaper is called the Junto.
The Indianapolis Junto meets sporadically to discuss the finer points of asset-based community development.
The University of Massachusetts Amherst is developing a Junto. The University of Massachusetts Amherst (otherwise known as UMass Amherst, Massachusetts, or UMass) is a research and Land-grant university in