A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Sailing ship is now used to refer to any large Wind -powered Vessel. The English name comes from Javanese jong (Malay: adjong), meaning 'ship' or 'large vessel'. Javanese is the language of the people in the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the  Junks were originally developed during the Han Dynasty (220 BC–200 AD) and further evolved to represent one of the most successful ship types in history. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. This article is about the history of Junks. For modern developments and sailing technique see Junk Rig. The Junk rig also known as the Chinese lugsail and Sampan rig, is a type of sail rig in which rigid members called Battens, span
Junks were efficient and sturdy ships that were traveling across oceans as early as the 2nd century AD. The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. They incorporated numerous technical advances in sail plan and hull designs that were later adopted in Western shipbuilding. A sail is any type of surface intended to generate Thrust by being placed in a Wind &mdashin essence a vertically-oriented Wing. A hull is the body of a Ship or Boat. It is a central concept in floating vessels as it provides the Buoyancy that keeps the vessel from sinking See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a
The historian H. Warington Smyth considered the junk one of the most efficient ship designs:
The structure and flexibility of junk sails make the junk easy to sail, and fast. The Junk rig also known as the Chinese lugsail and Sampan rig, is a type of sail rig in which rigid members called Battens, span Unlike a traditional square rigged ship, the sails of a junk can be moved inward, toward the long axis of the ship, allowing the junk to sail into the wind. Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal Spars which are perpendicular or square
The sails include several horizontal members ("battens") which provide shape and strength. A sail is any type of surface intended to generate Thrust by being placed in a Wind &mdashin essence a vertically-oriented Wing. A batten is a thin strip of solid material (usually Wood) Battens are used for various purposes in Building construction, as well as other various fields Junk sails are controlled at their trailing edge by lines much in the same way as the mainsail on a typical sailboat; however, in the junk sail each batten has a line attached to its trailing edge where on a typical sailboat this line (the sheet) is attached only to the boom. The sails can also be easily reefed and adjusted for fullness, to accommodate various wind strengths. The battens also make the sails more resistant than traditional sails to large tears, as a tear is typically limited to a single "panel" between battens. Junk sails have much in common with the most aerodynamically efficient sails used today in windsurfers or catamarans, although their design can be traced back as early the 3rd century AD. Windsurfing is a surface water sport using a windsurf board also commonly called a sailboard usually two to five meters long and powered by a single sail A catamaran (From Tamil 'kattumaram' is a type of Multihulled Boat or Ship consisting of two hulls or vakas joined by some
The standing rigging is simple or absent. Rigging (from Anglo-Saxon wrigan or wringing, "to clothe" is on Sailboats and Sailing ships the collection of
The sail-plan is also spread out between multiple masts, allowing for a powerful sail surface, and a good repartition of efforts. A sail-plan is a set of drawings usually prepared by a naval architect. The rig allows for good sailing into the wind.
Flags were also hung from the masts to bring good luck and women to the sailors on board. A legend among the Chinese during the junk's heyday regarded a dragon which lived in the clouds. It was said that when the dragon became angry, it created typhoons and storms. Bright flags, with Chinese writing on them, were said to please the dragon. Red was the best color, as it would make the dragon likely to help the sailors.
Classic junks were built of softwoods (although of teak in Guangdong) with multiple compartments accessed by separate hatches and ladders, reminiscent of the interior structure of bamboo. Softwood is a generic term used in Woodworking and the Lumber industries for Wood from Conifers (needle-bearing trees from the order Pinales Teak ( Tectona) is a genus of tropical Hardwood Trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the The largest junks were built for world exploration in the 1400s, and were around 120 (400+ feet) meters in length. (See Zheng He)
Junks employed stern-mounted rudders centuries before their adoption in the West, though the rudder, origin, form and construction was completely different. Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui A rudder is a device used to steer a Ship, Boat, Submarine, Hovercraft, or other conveyance that move through a fluid (generally air or It was an innovation which permitted the steering of large, high-freeboard ships, and its well-balanced design allowed adjustment according to the depth of the water. Freeboard or FREEBOARD may refer to Sporting Goods. The six-wheeled skateboard which acts like a snowboard (on pavement A sizable junk can have a rudder that needs up to three members of the crew to control in strong weather. The world's oldest known depiction of a stern-mounted rudder can be seen on a pottery model of a junk dating from the 1st Century AD, though some scholars think this may be a steering oar - a possible interpretation given that the model is of a river boat that was probably towed or poled. By contrast, the West's oldest known stern-mounted rudder can be found on church carvings dating to around 1180 AD.
Also, from sometime in the 13th-15th centuries many junks incorporated "fenestrated rudders" (rudders with holes in them), an innovation adopted in the West in 1901 to decrease the vulnerability of torpedo boats' rudders when manoeuvering at high speed. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval Ship designed to carry Torpedoes into battle Likewise, the Chinese discovery was probably adopted to lessen the force needed to direct the steering of the rudder.
The rudder is reported to be the strongest part of the junk. In the Tiangong Kaiwu "Exploitation of the Works of Nature" (1637), Song Yingxing wrote, "The rudder-post is made of elm, or else of langmu or of zhumu. Song Yingxing ( Traditional Chinese:宋應星 Simplified Chinese:宋应星 Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD was a Chinese " The Ming author also applauds the strength of the langmu wood as "if one could use a single silk thread to hoist a thousand jun or sustain the weight of a mountain landslide. "
Another characteristic of junks, interior compartments, allowed reinforced ship structure and reduced the rapidity of flooding in case of holing. Floodability is a characteristic of the construction of a Ship to resist Flooding. Ships built in this manner were written of in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks, published by 1119 AD during the Song Dynasty. Zhu Yu ( was an author of the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms  Again, this type of construction for Chinese ship hulls was attested to by the Moroccan Muslim Berber traveler Ibn Batutta (1304-1377 AD), who described it in great detail (refer to Technology of the Song Dynasty). Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta (أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة (born February The Song Dynasty (宋朝 960–1279 CE provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen  Although some historians have questioned whether the compartments were watertight, most believe that watertight compartments did exist in Chinese junks. A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a Ship. Other kinds of partition elements within a ship are decks and Deckheads Etymology All wrecks discovered so far have limber holes; these are located only in the foremost and aftermost compartments.
In 1795, Sir Samuel Bentham, inspector of dockyards of the Royal Navy, and designer of six new sailing ships, argued for the adoption of "partitions contributing to strength, and securing the ship against foundering, as practiced by the Chinese of the present day". Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Sir Samuel Bentham ( 11 January 1757 in England - 31 May 1831 in London, England) was a noted English The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) His idea was not adopted. Bentham had been in China in 1782, and he acknowledged that he had got the idea of watertight compartments by looking at Chinese junks there. Bentham was a friend of Isambard Brunel, so it is possible that he had some influence on Brunel's adoption of longitudinal, strengthening bulkheads in the lower deck of the SS Great Britain. Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 &ndash 15 September 1859 (ˈɪzəmbɑrd ˈkɪŋdəm brʊˈnɛl was a British Engineer. History The SS Great Britain was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and William Patterson
Due to the numerous foreign primary sources that hint to the existence of true watertight compartments in junks, historians such as Joseph Needham proposed that the limber holes were stopped up during leakage. Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham, CH, FRS, FBA ( December 9, 1900 – March 24 1995) was a British He addresses this issue in pg 422 of Science and Civilisation in Ancient China:
Less well known is the interesting fact that in some types of Chinese craft the foremost(and less frequently also the aftermost) compartments is made free-flooding. Holes are purposely contrived in the planking. This is the case with the salt-boats which shoot the rapids down from Tzuliuching in Szechuan, the gondola-shaped boats of the Poyang Lake, and many sea going junks. The Szechuanese boatmen say that this reduces resistance to the water to a minimum, and the device must certainly cushion the shocks of pounding when the boat pitches heavily in the rapids, for she acquires and discharges water ballast rapidly just at the time when it is most desirable to counteract buffeting at stem and stern. The sailors say that it stops junks flying up into the wind. It may be the reality at the bottom of the following story, related by Liu Ching-Shu of the +5th century, in his book I Yuan (Garden of Strange Things):
- In Fu-Nan (Cambodia) gold is always used in transactions. Once there were (some people who) having hired a boat to go from east to west near and far, had not reached their destination when the time came for the payment of the pound (of gold) which had been agreed upon. They therefore wished to reduce the quantity (to be paid). The master of the ship then played a trick upon them. He made (as it were) a way for the water to enter the bottom of the boat, which seemed to be about to sink, and remained stationary, moving neither forward nor backward. All the passengers were very frightened and came to make offerings. The boat (afterwards) returned to its original state.
This, however, would seem to have involved openings which could be controlled, and the water pumped out afterwards. This was easily effected in China (still seen in Kuangtung and Hong Kong), but the practice was also known in England, where the compartment was called the 'wet-well', and the boat in which it was built, a 'well-smack'. If the tradition is right that such boats date in Europe from +1712 then it may well be that the Chinese bulkhead principle was introduced twice, first for small coastal fishing boats at the end of the seventeenth century, and then for large ships a century later.
Leeboards and centerboards, used to stabilize the junk and to improve its capability to sail upwind are documented from a 759 AD book by Li Chuan, an innovation adopted by Portuguese and Dutch ships around 1570. A leeboard is a lifting foil used by a sailboat much like a Centerboard, but located on the Leeward side of the boat centreboard is a retractable Keel which pivots out of a slot in the hull of a Sailboat, known as a centerboard trunk (US or case Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
Other innovations included the square-pallet bilge pump, which were adopted by the West during the 16th century. The bilge is the lowest compartment on a ship where the two sides meet Junks also relied on the compass for navigational purposes. A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists
The first records of junks can be found in references dating to Han Dynasty (220 BC-200 AD). The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China.
The 3rd century book "Strange Things of the South" (南州異物志) by Wan Chen (萬震) describes junks capable of carrying 700 people together with 260 tons of cargo ("more than 10,000 "斛"). He explains the ship's design as follows:
A 260 AD book by Kang Tai (康泰) also described ships with seven masts, traveling as far as Syria. Events By Place Roman Empire Gallienus becomes Emperor Gallienus defends what remains of the empire against barbarians and Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية
The great trading dynasty of the Song employed junks extensively. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The naval strength of the Song, both mercantile and military, became the backbone of the naval power of the following Yuan dynasty. In particular the Mongol invasions of Japan (1274-1284), as well as the Mongol invasion of Java essentially relied on recently acquired Song naval capabilities. The of 1274 and 1281 were major Military operations undertaken by Kublai Khan to invade the Japanese Islands after conquering Korea The ship to the wright's dimensions are 360'x 110'x 120'.
The enormous dimensions of the Chinese ships of the Medieval period are described in Chinese sources, and are confirmed by Western travelers to the East, such as Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta and Niccolò da Conti. Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta (أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة (born February Niccolò Da Conti (also Nicolò de' Conti) (1395&ndash1469 was a Venetian merchant and explorer born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and According to Ibn Battuta, who visited China in 1347:
The largest junks ever built were probably those of Admiral Zheng He, for his expeditions in the Indian Ocean. Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface According to Chinese sources, the fleet comprised 30,000 men and over 300 ships at its height.
The 1405 expedition consisted of 27,000 men and 317 ships. The dimensions of Zheng He's ships according to ancient Chinese chronicles and disputed by modern scholars (see below):
Recent research, however, suggests that the actual length of the biggest treasure ships may have rather lain between 390-408 feet long and 160-166 feet wide instead while others estimate them to be 200-250 feet in length. 
Niccolò da Conti in his relations of his travels in Asia between 1419 and 1444, matter-of-factly describes huge junks of about 2,000 tons:
Also, in 1456, the Fra Mauro map described the presence of junks in the Indian Ocean as well as their construction:
Chinese junks were used extensively in Asian trade during the 16th and 17th century, especially to Japan, where they competed with Japanese Red Seal Ships, Portuguese carracks and Dutch galleons, and to Southeast Asia. -HK CityHall Seaview 51217 5png|thumb|300px|A modern junk in Hong Kong]]A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. Sakoku ( Japanese: 鎖国 literally "country in chains" or "lock up of country" was the Foreign relations policy of Japan under which For the RCA or RCA Victor record series see RCA Red Seal Records Red seal ships (朱印船 Shuinsen) were Japanese A carrack or nau was a three- or four- masted Sailing ship developed in the Atlantic Ocean in the 15th century by the Portuguese A galleon was a large multi-decked Sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries Richard Cocks, the head of the English trading factory in Hirado, Japan, recorded that 50 to 60 Chinese junks visited Nagasaki in 1612 alone. Richard Cocks was the head of the British East India Company trading post in Hirado, Japan, between 1613 to 1623 from its creation and lasting to its is a city in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It occupies an Island connected to the larger island of Kyūshū by the Hirado Bridge For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan.
These junks were usually three masted, and averaging between 200 and 800 tons in size, the largest ones having around 130 sailors, 130 traders and sometimes hundreds of passengers.
Junks remained considerable in size and played a key role in Asian trade until the 19th century. One of these junks, Keying, sailed from China around the Cape of Good Hope to the United States and England between 1846 and 1848. New York visit The Keying was the first ship from China to visit New York China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک The United States of America —commonly referred to as the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap
In 1955, six young men sailed an old Chinese junk from Formosa (Taiwan) to San Francisco. The four month journey aboard the "Free China" was captured on film and their arrival into San Francisco made international front-page news. The five Chinese-born friends saw an advertisement for an international trans-Atlantic yacht race, and jumped at the opportunity for adventure. They were joined by the then US Vice-Consul to Taiwan, who was credited with capturing the courageous journey on film.
Enduring typhoons and mishaps, the crew, having never sailed a century old junk before, learned along the way. The crew included Reno Chen, Paul Chow, Loo-chi Hu, Benny Hsu, Calvin Mehlert and were led by skipper Marco Chung. After their journey began 6,000 miles away, the "Free China" and her crew arrived into San Francisco Bay under a majestic fog on August 8, 1955.
Shortly after the historic journey, the footage was featured on ABC television's "Bold Journey" travelogue. Hosted by John Stephenson and narrated by ship's navigator Paul Chow, the program highlighted the adventures and challenges of the junk's sailing across the Pacific as well as some humorous moments aboard ship. 
In 1968, Bill King sailed a junk schooner in the controversial Sunday Times Golden Globe Race. The Sunday Times Golden Globe Race was a
A growing number of designs of modern recreational junk rigged sail boats has emerged. Notably: Benford Design Groups "Badger" known from Annie Hill's book "Voyaging on a small income". Annie Hill (born 1955 in Liverpool) is an English sailor author of books and articles about sailboat voyaging living on a small amount of money and sailing Also Tom MacNaughton of MacNaughton Group has several popular junk rigged designs.
For long travels with few crew, the simplicity of the junk rig in terms of construction, maintenance and handling makes it an important alternative to more prevalent designs. Most notably the safety that follows from extremely simple reefing, which is particularly important with few crew and deteriorating conditions, minimizing the need to work on deck while exposed to bad weather. Simple construction means lower cost and simpler repairs.