Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. Shakespeare wrote Tragedies from the beginning of his career One of his earliest plays was the Roman tragedy Titus Andronicus, which he followed a few William Shakespeare ( baptised It portrays the conspiracy against the Roman dictator of the same name, his assassination and its aftermath. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute It is one of several Roman plays that he wrote, based on true events from Roman history, which also include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra. The History of the city of Rome spans 2800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center Coriolanus is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, based on the life of the legendary Roman leader Gaius Martius Coriolanus. Antony and Cleopatra is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare. It was first printed in the First Folio of 1623
Although the title of the play is Julius Caesar, Caesar is not the central character in its action; he appears in only three scenes, and is killed at the beginning of the third act. The protagonist of the play is Marcus Brutus, and the central psychological drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honour, patriotism, and friendship. The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. Honor or Honour (see spelling differences) (the latter directly from the Latin word honos honoris) is the evaluation of a person's Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more beings
The play reflected the general anxiety of England over succession of leadership. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland At the time of its creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth, a strong ruler, was elderly and had refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a civil war similar to that of Rome might break out after her death. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state
Julius Caesar was first published in the First Folio in 1623, but a performance was mentioned by Thomas Platter in his diary in September 1599. Mr William Shakespeares Comedies Histories & Tragedies is the first published collection of William Shakespeare 's plays Mr William Shakespeares Comedies Histories & Tragedies is the first published collection of William Shakespeare 's plays The play is not mentioned in the list of Shakespeare's plays published by Francis Meres in 1598. Francis Meres (1565 &ndash January 29, 1647) was an English churchman and Author. Based on these two points, as well as a number of contemporary allusions, and the belief that the play is similar to Hamlet in vocabulary, and to Henry V and As You Like It in metre, scholars have suggested 1599 as a probable date. Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601 As You Like It is a Pastoral Comedy by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1599 or early 1600 and first published 
The text of Julius Caesar in the First Folio is the only authoritative text for the play. Mr William Shakespeares Comedies Histories & Tragedies is the first published collection of William Shakespeare 's plays The authority of a text is its reliability as a witness to the Author 's intentions The Folio text is notable for its quality and consistency; scholars judge it to have been set into type from a theatrical prompt-book.  The source used by Shakespeare was Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Life of Brutus and Life of Caesar. Sir Thomas North (1535 - 1604 was an English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c 
The play contains many anachronistic elements from the Elizabethan period. An anachronism (from the Greek "ana" " ανά " "against anti-" and "chronos" " χρόνος " Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era The characters mention objects such as hats and doublets (large, heavy jackets) - neither of which existed in ancient Rome. Caesar is mentioned to be wearing an Elizabethan doublet instead of a Roman toga. At one point a clock is heard to strike and Brutus notes it with "Count the clock".
Shakespeare deviated from these historical facts in order to curtail time and compress the facts so that the play could be staged more easily. The tragic force is condensed into a few scenes for heightened effect.
Marcus Brutus is Caesar's close friend; his ancestors were famed for driving the tyrannical King Tarquin from Rome (described in Shakespeare's earlier The Rape of Lucrece). Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Marcus Aemilius Lepidus ( Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVSborn ca 90 BC died 13 BC, was a Patrician Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. For the Roman consul see Gaius Cassius Longinus (consul 171 BC. Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC Gaius Trebonius (died 43 BC was a military commander and politician of the late Roman Republic, a trusted associate of Julius Caesar who later participated in his Quintus Ligarius was a Roman soldier circa 50 BC. He was accused of Treason for having opposed Julius Caesar in a war in Africa, For others with this cognomen see Albinus (cognomen. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born circa 85 BC died 43 BC was a Roman politician Lucius Tullius (or Tillius) Cimber was a Roman senator, one of the Assassins of Julius Caesar and the one to give the signal for the Cinna was a Roman Patrician family of the Gens Cornelia. Prominent members of this family include Lucius Cornelius Lucius Caesetius Flavius (fl 1st century BC was a Roman politician and tribune of the people ( tribunus plebis) Cnidus or Knidos ( Greek: Κνίδος /Knidos at the modern-day locality called Tekir in Turkey) was an ancient Greek Gaius Helvius Cinna was a Poet of the late Roman Republic. Practically nothing is known of his life except that he was the friend of Catullus, whom Titinius was a Nomen of ancient Rome. Marcus Titinius tribune 450 BC Lucius Titinius Pansa Saccus consular tribune Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus (64 BC - AD 8) was a Roman general author and patron of literature and art Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder Calpurnia Pisonis ( 1st century BC) daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar Portia Catonis, also known simply as Porcia ( Classical Latin: PORCIA•CATONIS•FILIA ca Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven Legendary Kings of Rome, son of Tarquinius The Rape of Lucrece ( 1594) is a Narrative poem by William Shakespeare about the legendary Lucretia. Brutus allows himself to be cajoled into joining a group of conspiring senators because of a growing suspicion—implanted by Caius Cassius—that Caesar intends to turn republican Rome into a monarchy under his own rule. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. For the Roman consul see Gaius Cassius Longinus (consul 171 BC. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Traditional readings of the play maintain that Cassius and the other conspirators are motivated largely by envy and ambition, whereas Brutus is motivated by the demands of honour and patriotism; other commentators, such as Isaac Asimov, suggest that the text shows Brutus is no less moved by envy and flattery. Envy (also called invidiousness) may be defined as an Emotion that "occurs when a person lacks another’s superior quality achievement or possession and Honor or Honour (see spelling differences) (the latter directly from the Latin word honos honoris) is the evaluation of a person's Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country Isaac Asimov (c January 2 1920 &ndash April 6 1992 ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmʌv originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as, was a Russian  One of the central strengths of the play is that it resists categorizing its characters as either simple heroes or villains. The early scenes deal mainly with Brutus' arguments with Cassius and his struggle with his own conscience. Conscience is a hypothesized Ability or faculty that distinguishes whether our actions are right or wrong The growing tide of public support soon turns Brutus against Caesar (This public support was actually faked. Cassius wrote letters to Brutus in different handwritings over the next month in order to get Brutus to join the conspiracy). A soothsayer warns Caesar to "beware the Ides of March," which he ignores, culminating in his assassination at the Capitol by the conspirators that day. The Ides of March ( Latin: Idus Martiae is the name of the date 15 March in the Roman calendar. The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome.
Caesar's assassination is perhaps the most famous part of the play, about halfway through. After ignoring the soothsayer as well as his wife's own premonitions, Caesar comes to the Senate. The conspirators create a superficial motive for the assassination by means of a petition brought by Metellus Cimber, pleading on behalf of his banished brother. As Caesar, predictably, rejects the petition, Casca grazes Caesar in the back of his neck, and the others follow in stabbing him; Brutus is last. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", i. " Et tu Brute? " ("You too Brutus?" or "And you Brutus?" or "Even you Brutus?" is a Latin phrase often used poetically to represent e. "You too, Brutus?"). Shakespeare has him add, "Then fall, Caesar," suggesting that Caesar did not want to survive such treachery. The conspirators make clear that they did this act for Rome, not for their own purposes and do not attempt to flee the scene but act victorious.
After Caesar's death, however, Mark Antony, with a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse—the much-quoted Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Friends Romans countrymen lend me your ears is the first line of a famous and often-quoted speech by Mark Antony in the play ''Julius Caesar'', by William . . —deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the rational tone of Brutus's speech. That the manufacture of consent is capable of great refinements no one I think denies Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome. Antony rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Amid the violence, the innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Cinna and is murdered by the mob. Gaius Helvius Cinna was a Poet of the late Roman Republic. Practically nothing is known of his life except that he was the friend of Catullus, whom Lucius Cornelius Cinna (flourished 1st century BC was the son of an elder Lucius Cornelius Cinna, who was a supporter of politician Gaius Marius.
The beginning of Act Four is marked by the quarrel scene, where Brutus attacks Cassius for soiling the noble act of regicide by accepting bribes ("Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake? / What villain touch'd his body, that did stab, / And not for justice?", IV. The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it iii,19-21). The two are reconciled; they prepare for war with Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son, Octavian (Shakespeare's spelling: Octavius). Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was That night, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat ("thou shalt see me at Philippi", IV. iii,283). During the battle, Cassius commits suicide after seeing the death of his best friend,Titinius. After Titinius, who wasn't really killed, sees Cassius' corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins the battle. Brutus, with a heavy heart, battles again the next day. He loses and commits suicide. The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who has remained "the noblest Roman of them all" (V. v,68) because he was the only conspirator who acted for the good of Rome. Then it is hinted that the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which will characterise another of Shakespeare's Roman plays, Antony and Cleopatra. Antony and Cleopatra is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare. It was first printed in the First Folio of 1623
Critics of Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar differ greatly on their views of Caesar and Brutus. Many have debated whether Caesar or Brutus is the protagonist of the play. Intertwined in this debate is a smattering of philosophical and psychological ideologies on republicanism and monarchism. One author, Robert C. Reynolds, devotes attention to the names or epithets given to both Brutus and Caesar in his essay “Ironic Epithet in Julius Caesar”. This author points out that Casca praises Brutus at face value, but then inadvertently compares him to a disreputable joke of a man by calling him an alchemist, “Oh, he sits high in all the people’s hearts,/And that which would appear offense in us/ His countenance, like richest alchemy,/ Will change to virtue and to worthiness” (I. iii. 158-60). Reynolds also talks about Caesar and his “Colossus” epithet, which he points out has its obvious connotations of power and manliness, but also lesser known connotations of an outward glorious front and inward chaos . In that essay, the conclusion as to who is the hero or protagonist is ambiguous because of the conceit-like poetic quality of the epithets for Caesar and Brutus.
Myron Taylor, in his essay “Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and the Irony of History”, compares the logic and philosophies of Caesar and Brutus. Caesar is deemed an intuitive philosopher who is always right when he goes with his gut, for instance when he says he fears Cassius as a threat to him before he is killed, his intuition is correct. Brutus is portrayed as a man similar to Caesar, but whose passions lead him to the wrong reasoning, which he realizes in the end when he says in V. v. 50-51, “Caesar, now be still:/ I kill’d not thee with half so good a will” .
Joseph W. Houppert acknowledges that some critics have tried to cast Caesar as the protagonist, but that ultimately Brutus is the driving force in the play and is therefore the tragic hero. Brutus attempts to put the republic over his personal relationship with Caesar and kills him. Brutus makes the political mistakes that bring down the republic that his ancestors created. He acts on his passions, does not gather enough evidence to make reasonable decisions and is manipulated by Cassius and the other conspirators .
The general conclusion among critics is that Brutus is in fact the protagonist of the play Julius Caesar, although some have tried to prove otherwise.
Gender critics argue that the bonds between the men in Julius Ceasar appears to exceed mere friendship, or homosociality, and cross the line into homosexuality. Some critics, such as Barbara Parker even argue that homosexual love among Roman men is an implicit theme in the play. According to this argument, Brutus and the conspirators kill Caesar for the same reasons that Brutus and Cassius argue at the end of the play: admiration has turned to desire for sexual domination.  This is based on the idea that, in Shakespeare's day, in an England ruled by Protestantism, Catholic Rome was often viewed as the "Whore of Babylon". The Whore of Babylon is one of several Christian allegorical figures of supreme Evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible Many church leaders in Rome were rumored to have practiced sodomy, and the area was frequently alluded to in England as being full of homosexuals.  Thus, where Brutus says: "But, woe the while! our fathers' minds are dead / And we a govern'd by our mothers' spirits", Gender critics see Brutus expressing a homosexual femininity. Caesar, also said to be feminine, wishes only for the company of men, and the women around him are sidelined. Men engage in more loving conversations with the men in their lives than with their own wives.  Parker thus portrays the relationship between Brutus and the rest of the conspirators as more like a group marriage than simply a friendship. 
Using phallic and yonic symbol theory, gender critics suggest that the funeral scene is both the climax of the action of the play as well as the sexual climax. The word phallus can refer to an erect Penis, or to an object shaped like a penis The word yoni (Sanskrit योिन yoni) is the Sanskrit word for "divine passage" "place of birth" "womb" in the sense of 'source Behind the rhetoric of Mark Antony, Parker sees a sexual rhetoric of seduction. Antony uses his funeral oration to seduce the crowd from Brutus back to Caesar. The wounds in Caesar's naked body, for Parker, represent vaginal orifices.  Antony also mentions Caesar's will several times. It signifies both his actual will as well as his sexual will (chastity) that kept him from coming at the conspirators' request.  In this view, the funeral represents all the stages of sex, ending with the burning of Rome representing orgasm. Antony thus re-energizes the Romans and Brutus and Cassius have to leave the city. 
The play was likely one of Shakespeare's first to be performed at the Globe Theatre. The Globe Theatre was a Theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare.  Thomas Patter, a Swiss traveller, saw a tragedy about Julius Caesar at a Bankside theatre on September 21, 1599 and this was most likely Shakespeare's play, as there is no obvious alternative candidate. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Bankside is an area in Southwark, London, on the southern bank of the River Thames, situated between Blackfriars Bridge to the west and Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. (While the story of Julius Caesar was dramatized repeatedly in the Elizabethan/Jacobean period, none of the other plays known are as good a match with Patter's description as Shakespeare's play. )
After the theatres re-opened at the start of the Restoration era, the play was revived by Thomas Killigrew's King's Company in 1672. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Thomas Killigrew (7 February 1612 &ndash 19 March 1683 was an English Dramatist and theatre manager The King's Company was one of two enterprises granted the rights to mount theatrical productions in London at the start of the English Restoration. Charles Hart initially played Brutus, as did Thomas Betterton in later productions. Charles Hart (c 1625 &ndash 18 August 1683 was a prominent British Restoration actor Thomas Patrick Betterton (ca 1635 &ndash 28 April 1710) English Actor, son of an under-cook to King Charles I, was born in Julius Caesar was one of the very few Shakespearean plays that was not adapted during the Restoration period or the eighteenth century. 
The Canadian comedy duo Wayne and Shuster parodied Julius Caesar in their 1958 sketch Rinse the Blood off My Toga. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Wayne and Shuster were a Canadian comedy duo formed by Johnny Wayne and Frank Shuster which was active professionally from the early 1940s until Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Flavius Maximus, Private Roman I, is hired by Brutus to investigate the death of Caesar. The police procedural combines Shakespeare, Dragnet, and vaudeville jokes and was first broadcast on the Ed Sullivan Show. Dragnet, aka LA Dragnet (new title in USA is a long-running radio and television Police procedural drama about the cases of a dedicated The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television Variety show that ran from June 20, 1948 to June 6, 
In 1973 the BBC made a television play Heil Caesar, written by John Griffith Bowen, an adaptation of the play put into a modern setting. John Griffith Bowen (born November 5, 1924) is a British playwright and novelist 
In 1984 the Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City produced a modern dress Julius Caesar set in contemporary Washington, called simply CAESAR!, starring Harold Scott as Brutus, Herman Petras as Caesar, Marya Lowry as Portia, Robert Walsh as Antony, and Michael Cook as Cassius, directed by W. The Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City was founded in 1977 as a professional (AEA theatre company on the Upper West Side of New York City by W Harold Russell Scott Jr ( 6 September 1935 &ndash 16 July 2006) was an American stage director, Actor and pedagogue Stuart McDowell at The Shakespeare Center. The Shakespeare Center was the home of the Riverside Shakespeare Company, an Equity professional theatre company in New York City beginning in 1982 when the then six-year-old 
In 2006, Chris Taylor from the Australian comedy team "The Chaser" wrote a comedy musical called "Dead Caesar" which was shown in at the Sydney Theatre Company in Sydney. Christopher Thornton Taylor (born 15 July, 1974) is a television and former radio comedian from Sydney, New South Wales, Australia The Chaser is an Australian satirical comedian group most famous for their television programmes on ABC TV.
In the season 2 premiere of The Venture Bros., Powerless in the Face of Death, the Monarch is betrayed by his prison inmates in an attempted escape out of prison. The Venture Bros (alternatively The Venture Brothers) is an American Animated television series airing as part of Adult Swim " Powerless in the Face of Death " is the first episode in the second season of The Venture Bros The Monarch is one of the main characters and the primary Antagonist on the Adult Swim show The Venture Bros When his most trusted inmate, King Gorilla, betrays him as well, he says, "Et tu King?," being an obvious parody to, "Et tu, Brute?".
Wells, Stanley and Michael Dobson, eds. Stanley William Wells, CBE (born 21 May 1930) is a Shakespeare scholar who was Professor of Shakespeare Studies and Director of the Shakespeare Institute 2001. The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare Oxford University Press