Joseph Raz (born 1939) is an influential legal, moral and political philosopher. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language He is one of the most prominent living advocates of legal positivism. Legal positivism is a school of thought in Jurisprudence and the Philosophy of law.
He has spent most of his career as Professor of Philosophy of Law and a Fellow of Balliol College at Oxford University, and simultaneously as Professor of Law at Columbia University Law School. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature A fellow in the broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade Balliol College (ˈbeɪlɪəl founded in 1263 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Columbia Law School, located in New York City, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. Several of Raz's students have become important legal and moral philosophers. They include Julie Dickson (Oxford), Dori Kimel (Oxford), Timothy Endicott (Oxford), John Gardner, the current Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford (and successor to Ronald Dworkin), Leslie Green (York & Texas, and soon to take up the Professorship in the Philosophy of Law at Oxford), Timothy Macklem (King's College London), Robert P. George (Princeton), Stephen Smith (McGill), Alon Harel (Hebrew University), and Scott Shapiro (Michigan). John Gardner (born 1965 is Professor of Jurisprudence, University of Oxford and Fellow of University College Oxford. Ronald Dworkin, QC, FBA (born December 11, 1931) is an American Legal philosopher, currently professor of Jurisprudence Leslie Green is a leading scholar in the analytic Philosophy of law, or jurisprudence as it is often called by academic lawyers Robert P George (born 1955 is McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University, where he lectures on Constitutional interpretation, Civil liberties Alon Harel (born 1957 is a prominent law professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he holds the Phillip P
Born in Israel, Joseph Raz graduated in 1963 from the Hebrew University, Jerusalem with a Magister Juris (Master of Jurisprudence), summa cum laude (highest academic distinction). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Later, with funds provided by the Hebrew University, Raz pursued a Doctorate in Philosophy (D. Phil) at Oxford University under the supervision of H. L. A Hart. This was by no means coincidental; Raz had met Hart earlier at a conference in Israel. Hart says that at this meeting, Raz pointed out a flaw in his reasoning that had previously eluded him. Hart encouraged him to go to Oxford for further study.
Raz studied at Balliol College, Oxford and was awarded the DPhil in 1967. Raz then returned to Israel to teach at the Hebrew University as a Lecturer in the Faculty of Law and Department of Philosophy. In 1971, he was tenured and promoted to Senior lecturer. In 1972, he was appointed as a Fellow and Tutor in Law at Balliol College (Oxford University). Raz's presence there has made it a magnet for legal scholars. In 1993, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the Katholieke Universiteit, Brussels.
Raz is acknowledged by his contemporaries as being one of the most important living legal philosophers. His work has also been cited by the Supreme Court of Canada in such cases as British Columbia v. Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd. , R. v. Demers, and Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer).
At present, Joseph Raz is a Professor of Philosophy of Law and a Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford University as well as a visiting Professor at Columbia Law School. He has held various visiting appointments at different universities, and has also served on a number of editorial boards for the publication of journals and books. He has authored and edited nine books to date, namely The Concept of a Legal System (1970), Practical Reason and Norms (1975), The Authority of Law (1979), The Morality of Freedom (1986) , Authority (1990), Ethics in the Public Domain (1994), Engaging Reason (1999), Value, Respect and Attachment (2001), and The Practice of Value (2003).
His first book, The Concept of a Legal System, from which our reading on “Legal Systems as Systems of Laws” is derived, was based on his doctoral thesis. A later book, The Morality of Freedom won the W. J. M Mackenzie Book Prize from the Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom. This prize is awarded to the best book in political science each calendar year. The Morality of Freedom also won the Elaine and David Spitz Book Prize from the conference for the Study of Political Thought, New York. The prize is awarded annually for the best book in liberal and/or democratic theory that was published two years earlier, meaning that a book published in 2004 will be awarded a prized in 2006.
The key ideas engaged in his books are norms, authority, and the theory of legal positivism. His theory of norms refers roughly to rules that serve as a guide for human behaviour. It also includes the system(s) that those norms exist in, such as a legal system. The second aspect refers to questions on the authority that law has over people under a particular legal system, and the authority that society in general should acknowledge as due to the law. Such questions are important for the law is in every corner of society, affecting the daily lives of individuals whether they like it or not. As Raz uses the term, 'legal positivism' refers to the view that there is no necessary conceptual relationship between law and morality; a law does not cease to be a law by being unjust or immoral. The term is sometimes used to describe the view that laws either can or even should not be grounded in morality; Raz does not defend that view.
A pupil of H.L.A. Hart, Raz has been important in continuing Hart's arguments of legal positivism since Hart's death. Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (1907-1992 was an influential English-speaking legal philosopher of the twentieth century. This included editing a second edition of Hart's 'The Concept of Law', with an additional section including Hart's responses to other philosophers' criticisms of his work. His most recent work deals less with legal theory and more with political philosophy and practical reasoning. In political philosophy Raz is a proponent of a Perfectionist Liberalism. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal In moral theory Raz defends value pluralism and the idea that various values are incommensurable. In philosophical Ethics, value pluralism (also known as ethical pluralism or moral pluralism) is the idea that there are several values which In Ethics, two values (or norms, reasons, or goods) are incommensurable when they do not share a common standard of measurement
He is most quoted for his eight principles for the rule of law:
The Morality of Freedom won the W. J. M. Mackenzie Book Prize from the Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom and The Elaine and David Spitz Book Prize from the conference for the Study of Political Thought, NY.
On Raz's Work: