José María Arguedas Altamirano (18 January 1911 – 28 November 1969) was a Peruvian novelist, poet, and anthropologist who wrote mainly in Spanish, although some of his poetry is in Quechua. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America.
Generally considered one of the foremost figures of 20th century Peruvian letters, Arguedas was born in the province of Andahuaylas in the southern Peruvian Andes. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Andahuaylas is a Peruvian city capital of the Andahuaylas Province. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. He was brought up in poverty amongst Quechua Indians, and learned Quechua before Spanish. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. He studied anthropology at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and worked as an anthropologist for the rest of his life. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Major National University of Saint Mark (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos UNMSM is a public university in Lima, Peru.
Arguedas began by writing short stories about the indigenous environment in which he was brought up, in a Spanish highly influenced by Quechua syntax and vocabulary. In Linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek grc συν- syn-, "together" and grc τάξις táxis, "arrangement" is the The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all Words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing By the time of his first novel, Yawar Fiesta (the name means "Blood Fiesta"), he had begun to explore the theme that would obsess him for the rest of his career: the clash between white "civilization" and the indigenous, "traditional" way of life. In this he was part of the Indigenista movement in South American literature. Indianismo, sometimes Indigenismo, was a movement in Latin American literature that explored the beliefs and lifestyles of the Indigenous peoples during He continued to explore this theme in his next two books Los Ríos Profundos ("Deep Rivers") (1961) and Todas las Sangres (1964). His work showed the violence and exploitation of race relations in Peru's small rural towns and haciendas, while portraying Indian characters as gentle and childlike. 
Arguedas was moderately optimistic about the possibility of a rapprochement between the forces of "tradition" and the forces of "modernity" until the 1960s, when he became more pessimistic. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 In his last (unfinished) work, El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo ("The Fox From Up Above and the Fox From Down Below") (1969), he abandoned the realism of his earlier works for a more postmodern approach. Literary realism most often refers to the trend beginning with certain works of nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism This novel expressed his despair and conclusion that the 'primitive' ways of the Indians could not survive against the onslaught of modern technology and capitalism. At the same time that Arguedas was becoming more pessimistic about race relations in his country, younger indigenist intellectuals became increasingly militant, often criticizing his work in harsh terms for his poetic, romanticized treatment of indigenous and rural life. In a deep depression, Arguedas committed suicide in 1969.
Deep Rivers (2002) Waveland Press. ISBN 1-57766-244-X
Yawar Fiesta (2002) Waveland Press. ISBN 1-57766-245-8
The Fox from Up Above and the Fox from Down Below (2000) University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5718-3