John Philip Holland (Irish: Seán Pilib Ó Maolchalann) (29 February 1840 –12 August 1914) was an engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy (though not the first American submarine, see American Civil War submarines, and the earlier Nautilus and Turtle) and the first ever Royal Navy submarine, the Holland 1. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Leap years Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year An engineer is a person professionally engaged in a field of Engineering. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability Nautilus is often considered the first practical Submarine, though preceded by Cornelius Drebbel 's of 1620 Turtle was the world's first Submarine used in battle It was invented in Connecticut in 1775 by American Patriot David The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) History In 1901 she was commissioned from John Philip Holland and built at Barrow-in-Furness.
He was one of four brothers who were born in Liscannor, County Clare, Ireland to an Irish speaking mother, Máire Ní Scannláin, and John Holland, and learned English properly only when he attended the local English-speaking National School system and, from 1858, in the Christian Brothers in Ennistymon. Liscannor ( is a coastal Village in County Clare, Ireland. Lying on the west coast of Ireland, on Liscannor Bay, the village County Clare ( Irish: Contae an Chláir) commonly referred to as simply Clare, is a county on Ireland and part of the wider Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Congregation of Christian Brothers (officially in Latin: Congregatio Fratrum Christianorum) is a world-wide community of religious brothers within Ennistymon ( is a town in County Clare, near the west coast of Ireland.  He and his brother, Mícheál, were both active in the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), the precursor to the Irish Republican Army. The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic Republic" in the mid nineteenth The Irish Republican Army ( IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann was a military organisation descended from the Irish Volunteers, established 25 November 1913 and who Mícheál introduced the inventor to the revolutionary group. Holland and the Fenians conceived a plan to develop a small submarine that could be sealifted on a large merchant ship to an area near an unsuspecting British warship. Fianna Éireann The Fenians, both the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood, were fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. The submarine would then be released from the bottom of the merchant vessel and attack the warship.
Holland emigrated to the United States in 1873. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In 1875 his first submarine designs were submitted for consideration by the U.S. Navy, but turned down as unworkable. The Fenians, however, continued to fund Holland's research and development expenses at a level that allowed him to resign from his teaching post. In 1881 Fenian Ram was launched, but soon after, Holland and the Fenians parted company angrily, primarily due to issues of payment within the Fenian organization, and between the Fenians and Holland. Fenian Ram is a Submarine designed by John Philip Holland for use by the Fenian Brotherhood, American counterpart to the Irish Republican 
Holland continued to improve his designs and worked on several experimental boats, prior to his successful efforts with a privately built type, launched on 17 May 1897. This was the first submarine having power to run submerged for any considerable distance, and the first to combine electric motors for submerged travel and gasoline engines for use on the surface. She was purchased by the Navy (on 11 April 1900) after rigorous tests and was commissioned on 12 October 1900 as USS Holland. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar Design and construction The work was done at (Ret Navy Lt Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard of Elizabeth New Jersey for John Holland's company Six more of her type were ordered and built under the supervision of Arthur L. Busch, the head of construction at the Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth, New Jersey and the same shipyard where the USS Holland (SS-1) was developed.
This USS Holland design was also adopted by others, including the Royal Navy in developing the Holland class submarine. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Boats Holland 1, Launched on 2 October 1901 in secret Now on display at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum in Gosport. The Imperial Japanese Navy employed a modified version of the basic design for their first  submarines, although these submarines were at least 10 feet longer at about 63 feet. For Combined Fleet, please see that article For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article
Holland also designed the Holland II and Holland III prototypes. Holland II was a prototype Submarine designed by John Philip Holland, preceded by Holland I and followed by Holland III The Holland III was an early prototype Submarine made by John Holland.
After spending 57 of his 74 years working with submersibles, John Philip Holland died in August 1914 in Newark, New Jersey. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County.
 *This site acknowledges Nixon's shipyard as a developer of pioneering naval craft.