John Niemeyer Findlay, known as J. N. Findlay, (Pretoria, 25 November 1903–1987) was a South African philosopher. Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language He was professor of philosophy at the University of Otago in New Zealand, King's College in London, Yale, the University of Texas at Austin, and Boston University. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The University of Otago ( Te Whare Wānanga o Otāgo) in Dunedin is New Zealand 's oldest university with over 20000 students enrolled during King's College London is a British Higher education institution and co-founding constituent college of the federal University of London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1955 to 1956. The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy (more generally known as the Aristotelian Society) was founded at a meeting on 19 April A chair for visiting professors at Boston University carries his name, as well as an award for the best book in metaphysics, by The Metaphysical Society of America.
Findlay was educated in Oxford and Graz, were he studied under Ernst Mally. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Graz ( German, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz) a University located in Graz, Austria, is the second-largest Ernst Mally ( 11 October 1879 - 8 March 1944) was an Austrian Philosopher affiliated with the so-called Graz School At a time when scientific materialism, positivism, linguistic analysis, and ordinary language philosophy were the core academic ideas, Findlay championed phenomenology, revived Hegelianism, and wrote works that were inspired by Buddhism, Plotinus, and Idealism. Philosophical naturalism has been described in various ways In its broadest and strongest sense naturalism is the metaphysical position that "nature is all there is Positivism is the Philosophy that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience Descriptive linguistics is the work of analyzing and describing how Language is spoken (or how it was spoken in the past by a group of people in a speech community Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical school that approached traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by forgetting what words actually Hegelianism is a Philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by Hegel's "the Rational alone is real" which means Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his In Western civilization, Idealism is the philosophy which maintains that the Ultimate nature of reality is ideal or based upon ideas values essences The so-called In his books published in the 1960s, including two series of Gifford Lectures, Findlay developed Rational Mysticism. The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887) According to this mystical system, "the philosophical perplexities, e. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity g. , concerning universals and particulars, mind and body, knowledge and its objects, the knowledge of other minds," as well as those of free will and determinism, causality and teleology, morality and justice, and the existence of temporal objects, are human experiences of deep antinomies and absurdities about the world. Antinomia redirects here For the Brachiopod Genus, see Antinomia (brachiopod. Findlay's conclusion is that these necessitate the postulation of higher spheres, or "latitudes", where objects' individuality, categorical distinctiveness and material constraints are diminishing, lesser in each latitude than in the one below it. On the highest spheres, existence is evaluative and meaningful more than anything else, and Findlay identifies it with the idea of The Absolute. The Absolute is the concept of an absolute unconditional reality which transcends limited conditional everyday existence 
Findlay translated into English Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen (Logical Investigations), which he regarded as the author's best work, as it represents a stage in his development when the idea of phenomenological bracketing was not yet taken as the basis of a philosophical system, covering in fact for loose subjectivism. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (ˈhʊsɛrl April 8 1859 – April 26 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of Bracketing (also called epoche or the phenomenological reduction is a term derived from Edmund Husserl (1859-1938 for the act of suspending judgment about the natural world Subjectivism is a philosophical tenet that accords primacy to subjective experience as fundamental of all measure and law The work is also, in his view, one of the peaks of philosophy in general, and it suggests superior alternatives both for overly minimalistic or naturalistic efforts in ontology and for Ordinary Language treatments of consciousness and thought. Philosophical naturalism has been described in various ways In its broadest and strongest sense naturalism is the metaphysical position that "nature is all there is In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the  Findlay has also written addenda to the translations of Hegel's Logic and Phenomenology of Spirit. Phänomenologie des Geistes ( 1807) is one of GWF Hegel 's most important philosophical works
Findlay was first a follower, and then an outspoken critic, of Ludwig Wittgenstein. He denounced his three theories of meaning, arguing against the idea of Use, prominent in Wittgenstein's later period and in his followers, that it is insufficient for an analysis of meaning without the notions of connotation and denotation, implication, syntax and pre-existent meanings, in the mind or the external world, that determine linguistic ones, such as Husserl has evoked. Findlay credits Wittgenstein with great formal, aesthetic and literary appeal, and diverting a well deserved attention to Semantics and its difficulties. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from