Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He is best known for writing the famous war memorial poem In Flanders Fields. " In Flanders Fields " is one of the most famous Poems written during the First World War, and has been called "the most popular poem" produced during
McCrae was born in McCrae House in Guelph, Ontario, the grandson of Scottish immigrants. McCrae House, built in 1858 is the birthplace of John McCrae and is a National Historic Site in Canada Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. He attended the Guelph Collegiate Vocational Institute, and later studied medicine on a scholarship at the University of Toronto. The Guelph Collegiate Vocational Institute ( GCVI, Guelph CVI Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the This article is about the University of Toronto's St George Campus While attending the university he joined the Zeta Psi Fraternity (Theta Xi chapter; class of 1894) and published his first poems. The Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America was founded June 1, 1847 as a social college fraternity. He was a member of The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada while studying at the University of Toronto, during which time he was promoted to Captain. The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada are a Militia Regiment within the Canadian Forces, based in Toronto Ontario.
In 1902, he was appointed resident pathologist at Montréal General Hospital and later also became assistant pathologist to the Royal Victoria Hospital Montreal. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec In 1904, he was appointed an associate in medicine at the Royal Victoria Hospital. Later that year, he went to England where he studied for several months and became a member of the Royal College of Physicians.
In 1905, he set up his own practice although he continued to work and lecture at several hospitals. He was appointed pathologist to the Montréal Foundling and Baby Hospital in 1905. In 1908, he was appointed physician to the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Infectious Diseases.
In 1910, he accompanied Lord Grey, the Governor General of Canada, on a canoe trip to Hudson Bay to serve as expedition physician . Albert Henry George Grey 4th Earl Grey, GCMG, GCVO, PC (28 November 1851 &ndash 29 August 1917 was a British nobleman who was Governor The Governor General of Canada ( French: Gouverneure générale du Canada, or: Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative A canoe is a small narrow Boat, typically human-powered though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors
McCrae served in the artillery during the Second Boer War, and upon his return was appointed professor of pathology at the University of Vermont, where he taught until 1911 (although he also taught at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec)
When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of World War I, Canada, as a Dominion within the British Empire, declared war also. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Pathology (from Greek grc πάθος pathos, "fate harm" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study and The University of Vermont is a national public research university and the state of Vermont's land-grant university Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities under sovereign authority within the British Empire and The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. McCrae was appointed as a field surgeon in the Canadian artillery and was in charge of a field hospital during the Second Battle of Ypres in 1915. The Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front in World War I and the first time McCrae's friend and former student, Lt. Alexis Helmer, was killed in the battle, and his burial inspired the poem, In Flanders Fields, which was written on May 3, 1915. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
From June 1, 1915 McCrae was ordered away from the artillery to set up No. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year 3 Canadian General Hospital at Dannes-Camiers near Boulogne-sur-Mer, northern France. Boulogne-sur-Mer ( Bonen in Dutch is a City in Northern France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. C. L. C. Allinson reported that McCrae "most unmilitarily told [me] what he thought of being transferred to the medicals and being pulled away from his beloved guns. His last words to me were: 'Allinson, all the goddam doctors in the world will not win this bloody war: what we need is more and more fighting men. '"
'In Flanders Fields' appeared anonymously in Punch on December 8, 1915, but in the index to that year McCrae was named as the author. Punch was a British weekly Magazine of Humour and Satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002 Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The verses swiftly became one of the most popular poems of the war, used in countless fund-raising campaigns and frequently translated (a Latin version begins In agro belgico. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. . . ). 'In Flanders Fields' was also extensively printed in the United States, which was contemplating joining the war, alongside a 'reply' by R. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the W. Lillard, (". . . Fear not that you have died for naught, / The torch ye threw to us we caught. . . ").
For eight months the hospital operated in Durbar tents (donated by the Begum of Bhopal and shipped from India), but after suffering storms, floods and frosts it was moved up to Boulogne-sur-Mer into the old Jesuit College in February 1916. Boulogne-sur-Mer ( Bonen in Dutch is a City in Northern France.
McCrae, now "a household name, albeit a frequently misspelt one", regarded his sudden fame with some amusement, wishing that "they would get to printing 'In F. F. ' correctly: it never is nowadays"; but (writes his biographer) "he was satisfied if the poem enabled men to see where their duty lay. "
On January 28, 1918, while still commanding No 3 Canadian General Hospital (McGill) at Boulogne, McCrae died of pneumonia. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He was buried with full honours in the Commonwealth War Graves Commission section of Wimereux Cemetery, just a couple of kilometres up the coast from Boulogne. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission ( CWGC) is a joint governmental organisation responsible for marking and maintaining the graves of members of the Commonwealth Wimereux is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais département in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. McCrae's horse, "Bonfire", led the procession, his master's riding boots reversed in the stirrups. McCrae's gravestone is placed flat, as are all the others, because of the sandy soil.
A collection of his poetry, In Flanders Fields and Other Poems (1918), was published after his death.
The poem was written upon a scrap of paper upon the back of Colonel Cosgrave, in the trenches, during a lull in the bombings on May 3, 1915, after he witnessed the death of his friend, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer, the day before (as recited to his grandson). Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The poem was first published on December 8, that year in Punch magazine, London. Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Punch was a British weekly Magazine of Humour and Satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002 London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
McCrae was the co-author, with J. G. Adami, of a medical textbook, A Text-Book of Pathology for Students of Medicine (1912; 2nd ed. , 1914). He was the brother of Dr. Thomas McCrae, professor of medicine at John Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore and close associate of Sir William Osler. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore Maryland, U Sir William Osler 1st Baronet ( July 12, 1849 &ndash December 29, 1919 Age 70 was a Canadian Physician.
McCrae was the great uncle of former Alberta MP David Kilgour and of Kilgour's sister Geills Turner, who married former Canadian Prime Minister John Napier Turner. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The Honourable David Kilgour, PC, BA, JD, DD (born February 18, 1941 in Winnipeg Manitoba) is a former Geills McCrae Kilgour Turner (first name pronounced " Jill " (born December 23, 1937 in Winnipeg Manitoba) is the wife of John The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) is a retired Canadian Lawyer and Politician
Several institutions have been named in McCrae's honour, including John McCrae Public School (part of the York Region District School Board in the Toronto suburb of Markham, Ontario), John McCrae Public School (in Guelph, Ontario), John McCrae Senior Public School (in Scarborough, Ontario) and John McCrae Secondary School (part of the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board in the Ottawa suburb of Barrhaven). The York Region District School Board is a school board in the public school system of Ontario, Canada, in York Regional Municipality. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Markham ( pronounced /ˈmɑrkəm/ 2006 population 261573 is a town located in the Regional Municipality of Scarborough (ˈskɑrˌbəroʊ ( 2001 Census 593297 is the area that forms the eastern part of the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada John McCrae Secondary School is a public secondary school in Nepean Ontario Canada The Ottawa-Carleton District School Board refers to both the institution responsible for the operation of all English public schools in the city of Ottawa Ontario and its governing Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Barrhaven is a rapidly growing Suburban neighbourhood located in the southwest corner of the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, about 20 km (12 The current Canadian War Museum has a gallery for special exhibits, called the The Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae Gallery. The Canadian War Museum (CWM is Canada ’s national museum of military history Guelph is home to McCrae House, a museum created in his birthplace. McCrae House, built in 1858 is the birthplace of John McCrae and is a National Historic Site in Canada A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the
The Cloth Hall of the city of Ieper (Ypres in English} in Belgium has a permanent war remembrance called the In Flanders Fields Museum, named after the poem. Ypres ( French, generally used in English French ipʁ English ˈiːprə Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced /ˈiːpər/ or Ypern
There are also a photograph and short biographical memorial to McCrae in the St George Memorial Church in Ypres.