Sir John Hawkwood (1320 – 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiero in 14th century Italy. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Haccoude and Italians as Giovanni Acuto. Jean Froissart (c 1337 &ndash c 1405 was one of the most important of the Chroniclers of Medieval France. Hawkwood served first the Pope and then various factions in Italy for over 30 years. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
Hawkwood's youth is shrouded in tales and legends and it is unclear how he exactly became a soldier. According to the most accepted tales, he was a second son of a tanner in Sible Hedingham in Essex and was apprenticed in London. Sible Hedingham is a large village in the Colne Valley in North Essex. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Other tales also claim that he was a tailor before he became a soldier.
Hawkwood served in the English army in France in the first stages of the Hundred Years' War under Edward III. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. According to different traditions Hawkwood fought in the battles of Crécy and/or Poitiers but there is no direct evidence of either. This article covers the battle during the Hundred Years' War. Different traditions claim that the King or Edward, the Black Prince knighted him but there is no record of that - he might have just taken the title himself with the support of his soldiers. Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376 popularly known as The Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward His service ended after the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360. The Treaty of Brétigny was a Treaty signed on May 8, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good
Hawkwood moved to Burgundy and joined the small mercenary companies that fought for money in France. Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Later he was part of the self-named Great Company that fought against Papal troops near Avignon. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune
In the beginning of the 1360s Hawkwood had risen to be commander of the White Company. The White Company was a famous 14th Century Italian Mercenary company led first by the German Albert Sterz and later by Englishman John Hawkwood In 1363 Hawkwood's men were part of the companies that the marquis of Montferrato hired and led over the Alps to fight a war against Milan. Montferrat (in Piemontèis, Monfrà; in Italian, Monferrato) is part of the region of Piedmont in Northern Italy. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Afterwards, Hawkwood and his troops remained in Italy.
In the following years, the White Company fought under many banners and switched sides many times. In 1364, it fought for Pisa against Florence. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. In 1369, Hawkwood fought for Perugia against the Papal forces. Perugia is the capital City of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river and the capital of the Province of Perugia In 1370, he joined Bernabò Visconti in his war against an alliance of cities including Pisa and Florence. Bernabò Visconti, also called Barnabò (1319 &ndash 19 December 1385) was an Italian soldier and statesman Lord of Milan in the 14th century Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany In 1372, he fought for Visconti against his former master, the Marquis of Monferrato. After that, he resigned his command and the White Company moved to the service of the Pope for a time.
Under Hawkwood's command, the company gained a good reputation and he became a popular mercenary commander. He gained a nickname l'acuto, "the keen one", possibly a mispronunciation of his name by Italian speakers which became his Italian name, Giovanni Acuto. His success was varied, but he exploited the shifting allegiances and power politics of Italian factions for his own benefit.
Italian cities concentrated on trade and hired mercenaries instead of forming standing armies. A standing army is an Army composed of full time career Soldiers who 'stand over' in other words who do not disband during times of peace Hawkwood often played his employers and their enemies against each other. He might get a contract to fight on one side and then demand a payment from the other in order not to attack them. He also could just change sides, keeping his original payment. Sometimes one party hired him so that he would not work for their enemies.
When Hawkwood needed money, he could threaten his employers with desertion or pillage if he was not paid. In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior Looting ( Hindi lūṭ akin to Sanskrit luṭhati steals also Latin latro, latronis He bought estates in the Romagna and in Tuscany, a castle at Montecchio Vesponi. Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Despite all this, Hawkwood remained illiterate and had his contracts read to and signed for him.
In 1375, when Hawkwood's company was fighting for the Pope against Florence in the War of the Eight Saints, Florence made an agreement with him and paid him not to attack for three months. The War of the Eight Saints (1375-1378 was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the
In 1377, Hawkwood led the destruction of Cesena by mercenary armies, acting in the name of Pope Gregory XI. The War of the Eight Saints (1375-1378 was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the See also Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI. One tale claims that he had promised the people that they would be spared, but cardinal Robert of Geneva ordered them all killed. Shortly after, he switched allegiance to the anti-papal league and married Donnina Visconti, the illegitimate daughter of Bernabò Visconti, the Duke of Milan. Bernabò Visconti, also called Barnabò (1319 &ndash 19 December 1385) was an Italian soldier and statesman Lord of Milan in the 14th century Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. A quarrel with Bernardo soon ended the alliance, and Hawkwood instead signed an agreement with Florence.
John and Donnina had a son and three daughters.
In 1381, Richard II of England appointed him as ambassador to the Roman Court. Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country
In 1387, Hawkwood, fighting for Padova, fought Giovanni Ordelaffi from Forlì, fighting for Verona in the Battle of Castagnaro, and won. Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Giovanni Ordelaffi (1355-1399 was a member of the noble family of Ordelaffi, the Lords of Forlì, in Italy, in the 14th and in the 15th centuries Forlì ( Latin: Forum Livii) is a Comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. The Battle of Castagnaro was fought on March 11, 1387 at Castagnaro (today's Veneto, northern Italy) between Verona
In the 1390s Hawkwood became a commander-in-chief of the army of Florence in the war against the expansion of Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan. Gian Galeazzo Visconti (November 1351 – September 3, 1402) son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca di Savoia, was the first Duke of Milan Hawkwood's army invaded Lombardy and was within ten miles of Milan before he had to retreat over Adige river. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the The Adige (Adige Venetian: Àdexe; Trentin Ades; Friulian: Adis; Etsch Ladin: Adesc, or Adiç Later in the year, forces under his command defended Florence and later defeated the Milanese force of Jacopo dal Verme. Eventually Visconti sued for peace. Contemporary opinion in Florence regards Hawkwood as a savior of Florence's independence against Milanese expansion.
At that stage Florence had given him citizenship and a pension. He spent his latter years in a villa in the vicinity of Florence.
John Hawkwood died in Florence on March 16-17 1394. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger He was buried with state honors in the Duomo. The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. Shortly afterwards, Richard II asked for his body to be returned to his native England. Hawkwood's son also moved to Essex, England. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common
In 1436 the Florentines commissioned of Paolo Uccello a funerary monument, a fresco transferred on canvas, which still stands in the Duomo. Paolo Uccello (born Paolo di Dono, 1397 &ndash December 10 1475) was an Italian painter who was notable for his pioneering work on visual The Funerary Monument (or Equestrian Monument) to Sir John Hawkwood is a Fresco by Paolo Uccello Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or Originally, the Florentines intended to erect a bronze statue, but the costs proved too high. Finally they settled for a monochrome fresco in terra verde, a color closest to the patina of bronze.
Posthumously Hawkwood gained a reputation of both brutality and chivalry. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. In Sible Hedingham there is a Hawkwood memorial chapel and a Hawkwood Road. In Romagna there is a Strada Aguta. Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
He is one of the Nine Worthies of London mentioned by Richard Johnson in his book of 1592. Nine Worthies of London is a book by Richard Johnson, the English romance novelist written in 1592 Richard Johnson (1573 &ndash 1659? English romance writer was baptized in London on May 4, 1573.