Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (c. 1410, Saint-Ghislain, Belgium – February 6,  1497, Tours, France) was the most famous composer of the Franco-Flemish School in the last half of the 15th century, and is often considered the most influential composer between Dufay and Josquin des Prez. Saint-Ghislain is a Walloon Municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In Music, the Franco-Flemish School refers somewhat imprecisely to the style of polyphonic Vocal music composition in Europe in the 15th Guillaume Dufay ( Du Fay, Du Fayt) ( August 5, 1397 ? &ndash November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer Josquin des Prez (c 1450 to 1455 &ndash August 27 1521 often referred to simply as Josquin, was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. In addition to being a renowned composer, he was also an honored singer, choirmaster, and teacher.
The spelling of Ockeghem's name comes from a supposed autograph of his which survived as late as 1885, and as reported by E. Giraudet, a historian in Tours; the document has since been lost. In 15th century sources, the spelling "Okeghem" predominates.
The birthdate of Ockeghem is controversial, and dates as early as 1410, and as late as 1430 have been proposed.  The earlier date is based on the possibility that he knew Binchois in Hainaut before the older composer moved from Mons to Lille in 1423. Gilles Binchois, also known as Gilles de Binche or Gilles de Bins (c This article deals with the historical county of Hainaut for other meanings see Hainaut. Mons ( Dutch: Bergen, Picard: Mont) is a Walloon City and municipality located in the Belgian Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country Ockeghem would have to have been younger than 15 at the time. This particular speculation derives from Ockeghem's reference, in the lament he wrote on the death of Binchois in 1460, to a chanson by Binchois dated to that time.  In this lament Ockeghem not only honored the older composer by imitating his style, but also revealed some useful biographical information about him.  The comment by the poet Guillaume Crétin, in the lament he wrote on Ockeghem's death in 1497, "it was a great shame that a composer of his talents should die before 100 years old", is also often taken as evidence for the earlier birthdate for Ockeghem.
Recent research has shown that Ockeghem was born in the town of Saint-Ghislain; many older biographies state that he was either born in the town of his name or in the neighboring town of Dendermonde in East Flanders (now part of modern Belgium), part of the Duchy of Burgundy. Saint-Ghislain is a Walloon Municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. Dendermonde ( French: Termonde, German: Dendermünde) is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish East Flanders ( Oost-Vlaanderen in Dutch, Flandre orientale in French) is a province of Flanders, one of the three The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Duchy of Burgundy was a feudal territory once existing within the Kingdom of France. Details of his early life are lacking. Most likely he was a native speaker of French. 
Like many composers in this period, he started his musical career as a chorister, although the exact location of his education is unknown: Mons, a nearby town that had at least two churches with competent music schools, has been suggested.  The first actual documented record of Ockeghem's musical activity is from the cathedral of Notre Dame in Antwerp, where he was employed in 1443 and 1444, likely singing under the direction of Johannes Pullois, whose employment also dates from that year. ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the Johannes Pullois (numerous variant spellings of his name include Pillays, Pilloys, Pylois, Pyloys, Pyllois Puilloys  This church was another distinguished establishment, and it was likely here that Ockeghem became familiar with the English compositional style, which was decisive in formation of late 15th-century musical practice on the continent. .
Between 1446 and 1448 Ockeghem served Charles, Duke of Bourbon, in Moulins (France). Charles I of Bourbon (1401&ndash 4 December, 1456, Château de Moulins) was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis from 1424 and Duke During this service he became the first among the singing chaplains to appear in the court records , Around 1452 he moved to Paris where he served as maestro di cappella to the French court, as well as treasurer to the St. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Martin cathedral in Tours. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river In addition to serving at the French court – both for Charles VII and Louis XI – he held posts at Notre Dame Cathedral and St. Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461 called the Victorious (le Victorieux or the Well-Served (le Bien-Servi was King of France from 1422 Louis XI ( July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483) called the Prudent (le Prudent and the Universal Spider ( Middle NotreDameFlyingButtressjpg|right|thumb|250px|Notre Dame de Paris Flying Buttress]] Notre Dame de Paris is a Gothic Cathedral on the eastern half of the Benoît. He is known to have traveled to Spain in 1470, as part of a diplomatic mission for the King, which was a complex affair attempting both to dissuade Spain from joining an alliance with England and Burgundy against France, and to arrange a marriage between Isabella of Castile and Charles, Duke of Guyenne (the brother of king Louis XI). Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  After the death of Louis XI (1483), not much is known for certain about Ockeghem's whereabouts, though it is known that he went to Bruges and Tours, and he probably died in the latter town since he left a will there. Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river An indication of the renown in which Ockeghem was held is the number of laments written on his death in 1497; among the most famous of the musical settings of these many poems is Nymphes des bois by Josquin des Prez. Nymphes des bois, also known as La Deploration de Johannes Ockeghem is a lament composed by Josquin des Prez on the occasion of the death of his predecessor Johannes Ockeghem 
Ockeghem probably studied with Gilles Binchois, and at the very least was closely associated with him at the Burgundian court. Gilles Binchois, also known as Gilles de Binche or Gilles de Bins (c Since Antoine Busnois wrote a motet in honor of Ockeghem sometime before 1467, it is probable that those two were acquainted as well; and writers of the time often link Dufay, Busnois and Ockeghem. Antoine Busnois (also Busnoys) (c 1430 &ndash November 6, 1492) was a French Composer and Poet of the early Although Ockeghem's musical style differs considerably from that of the older generation, it is probable that he acquired his basic technique from them, and as such can be seen as a direct link from the Burgundian style to the next generation of Netherlanders, such as Obrecht and Josquin. Jacob Obrecht (1457/1458 &ndash late July 1505 was a Dutch composer of the Renaissance.
Ockeghem was not a prolific composer, given the length of his career and extent of his reputation, and some of his work is lost. Surviving works include some 14 masses (including a Requiem mass), an isolated Credo (Credo sine nomine), 5 motets, a motet-chanson (a deploration on the death of Binchois), and 21 chansons. For other uses see Mass (disambiguation The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that The Requiem, by Johannes Ockeghem (c 1410 – 1497) is a polyphonic setting of the Roman Catholic Requiem Mass, the In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions The motet-chanson was a specialized musical form of the Renaissance, developed in Milan during the 1470s and 1480s which combined aspects of the contemporary A chanson ( French for " Song " from Latin cantio) is in general any lyric -driven French songs usually Polyphonic  Thirteen of Ockeghem's masses are preserved in the Chigi codex, a Flemish manuscript of around 1500. For other uses see Mass (disambiguation The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that The Chigi codex is a music Manuscript originating in Flanders.  His Missa pro Defunctis is the earliest surviving polyphonic Requiem mass (a setting by Dufay, possibly earlier, has been lost). The Requiem, by Johannes Ockeghem (c 1410 – 1497) is a polyphonic setting of the Roman Catholic Requiem Mass, the Some of his works, alongside compositions by his contemporaries, are included in Petrucci's Harmonice musices odhecaton (1501), the first collection of music to be published using moveable type. The Harmonice Musices Odhecaton (also known simply as the Odhecaton) was an anthology of secular Songs published by Ottaviano Petrucci .
Dating Ockeghem's works is controversial, as there are almost no external references allowing precise dating, excepting of course the death of Binchois (1460) for which Ockeghem composed a motet-chanson. The Missa Caput is almost certainly an early work, since it follows on an anonymous English mass of the same title dated to the 1440s, and his late masses may include the Missa Ma maistresse and Missa Fors seulement, based on both his innovative treatment of the cantus firmus, and his tendency to write more and more homogenous textures later in his life. The Missa Caput was a musical setting of the Roman Catholic mass, dating from the 1440s, by an anonymous English composer 
Ockeghem used the cantus firmus technique in about half of his masses; the earliest of these masses use head-motifs at the start of the individual movements, a practice which was common around 1440 but which was archaic after around mid-century. In Music, a cantus firmus ("fixed song" is a pre-existing Melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition.  Two of his masses, Missa Ma maistresse and Missa Fors seulement, are based on chansons he wrote himself, and use more than one voice of the chanson, foreshadowing the parody mass techniques of the 16th century. A parody mass is a musical setting of the mass, typically from the 16th century that uses multiple voices of another pre-existing piece of music such as a fragment of a In his remaining masses, including the Missa Mi-mi, Missa cuiusvis toni, and Missa prolationum, no borrowed material has been found, and the works seem to have been freely composed. The Missa prolationum is a musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, by Johannes Ockeghem, dating from the second half of the 15th century 
Ockeghem would sometimes place borrowed material in the lowest voice, such as in the Missa Caput, one of three masses written in the mid-15th century based on that fragment of chant from the English Sarum Rite. The Sarum Rite was a variant of the Roman Rite widely used for the ordering of Christian public worship including the Mass or Eucharist  Other characteristics of Ockeghem's compositional technique include his liking for varying the rhythmic shape of voices, so as to maintain their independence. .
A strong influence on Josquin Des Prez and the subsequent generation of Netherlanders, Ockeghem was famous throughout Europe for his expressive music, although he was equally renowned for his technical prowess. Josquin des Prez (c 1450 to 1455 &ndash August 27 1521 often referred to simply as Josquin, was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance.  Two of the most famous contrapuntal achievements of the 15th century include the astonishing Missa prolationum, which consists entirely of mensuration canons, and the 'Missa cuiusvis toni', designed to be performed in any of the different modes, but even these technique-oriented masterpieces demonstrate his insightful use of vocal ranges and uniquely expressive tonal language. The Missa prolationum is a musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, by Johannes Ockeghem, dating from the second half of the 15th century In Music, a prolation canon or mensuration canon is a type of canon, a musical composition which employs a Melody with one or more imitations In Music, a scale is an ordered series of Musical intervals which along with the key or tonic, define the pitches However mode Being a renowned bass singer himself, his use of wide-ranging and rhythmically active bass lines sets him apart from many of the other composers in the Netherlandish Schools.
To commemorate his death, Josquin Des Prez composed the motet La déploration de la mort de Johannes Ockeghem, a setting of the poem Nymphes des bois by Jean Molinet. Josquin des Prez (c 1450 to 1455 &ndash August 27 1521 often referred to simply as Josquin, was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. Nymphes des bois, also known as La Deploration de Johannes Ockeghem is a lament composed by Josquin des Prez on the occasion of the death of his predecessor Johannes Ockeghem Jean Molinet (1435 &ndash August 23, 1507) was a French Poet, Chronicler, and Composer. An unusally large number of laments appeared after the death of this great composer. Some of the authors of these poems included Jean Molinet and Desiderus Erasmus; Johannes Lupi provided another musical setting. Jean Molinet (1435 &ndash August 23, 1507) was a French Poet, Chronicler, and Composer. Johannes Lupi (c 1506 &ndash December 20, 1539) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance.