|Johann Friedrich Blumenbach|
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
|Born||May 11, 1752|
|Died||January 22, 1840|
|Known for||comparative anatomy|
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 – January 22, 1840) was a German doctor and physiologist, one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history, whose teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to classification of human races, of which he determined five. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the Anatomy of Organisms It is closely related to Evolutionary biology and Phylogeny Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the Anatomy of Organisms It is closely related to Evolutionary biology and Phylogeny
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach was born at Gotha, studied medicine at Jena, and graduated in 1775 with his MD thesis De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, University of Göttingen, first published in 1776), which is considered one of the most influential works in the development of subsequent concepts of "human races. Gotha is a town in Thuringia, within the central core of Germany. Jena (pronunciation ˈjeːna is a university City in central Germany on the river Saale. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the The University of Göttingen ( German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen) is a University in the city of Göttingen, Germany. The historical definition of race was an immutable and distinct type or Species, sharing distinct racial characteristics such as constitution temperament "
He was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine in Göttingen in 1776 and ordinary professor in 1778. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Göttingen ( ˈgœtɪŋən, Low German: Chöttingen is a College town in Lower Saxony, Germany. His later works included Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and Handbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie (1804). Blumenbach died in Göttingen in 1840. Göttingen ( ˈgœtɪŋən, Low German: Chöttingen is a College town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
His classification of Mongolian race included all East Asians and some Central Asians. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Blumenbach excluded peoples of Southeast Asian islands and Pacific Islanders from his definition, as he considered them to be part of the Malay race. He considered American Indians to be part of the American (Indigenous peoples) race. He did not think they were inferior to the Caucasian race, and were potentially good members of society. He included the peoples of most of Africa in the Negro or black race.
Blumenbach argued that physical characteristics like skin color, cranial profile, etc. , were correlated with group character and aptitude. He interpreted craniometry and phrenology to make physical appearance correspond with racial categories. Craniometry is the technique of measuring the Bones of the Skull. Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν phrēn, "mind" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge" is a defunct field of study once The fairness and relatively high brows of Caucasians were held to be apt physical expressions of a loftier mentality and a more generous spirit. The epicanthic folds around the eyes of Mongolians and their slightly sallow outer epidermal layer bespoke their supposedly crafty, literal-minded nature.
The dark skin and relatively sloping craniums were taken as wholesale proof of a closer genetic proximity to the monkeys, despite the fact that the skin of chimpanzees and gorillas beneath the hair is whiter than the average Caucasian skin, and that orangutans and some monkey species have foreheads fully as vertical as the typical Englishman or German. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as
Blumenbach's work included his description of sixty human crania (skulls) published originally in fascicules as Collectionis suae craniorum diversarum gentium illustratae decades (Göttingen, 1790-1828). This was a founding work of craniometry. Craniometry is the technique of measuring the Bones of the Skull.
Later in life, Blumenbach encountered in Switzerland "eine zum Verlieben schönen Négresse" ('a negro woman so beautiful to fall in love with'). Further "anatomical study" led him to the conclusion that 'individual Africans differ as much, or even more, from other individual Africans as Europeans differ from Europeans'. Furthermore he concluded that Africans were not inferior to the rest of mankind 'concerning healthy faculties of understanding, excellent natural talents and mental capacities'. 
These later ideas were far less influential than his earlier assertions with regard to the perceived relative qualities of the different races. His early ideas were adopted by other researchers and encouraged scientific racism. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that  Blumenbach's work was used by many biologists and comparative anatomists in the nineteenth century who were interested in the origin of races: Wells, Lawrence, Prichard, Huxley and William Flower are good examples of his influence on human biology. William Charles Wells MD FRS FRSEd (1757&ndash1817 was a Scottish-American physician and printer James Cowles Prichard MD FRS ( February 11, 1786 – December 23, 1848) English Physician and Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895 was an English Biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy Sir William Henry Flower KCB FRCS FRS (November 30 1831 – July 1 1899 was an English Comparative anatomist and Surgeon.
Blumenbach was also one of the first scientists to study the anatomy of the platypus. The Platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a semi- aquatic Mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. He gave the scientific name Ornithorhynchus anatinus to the animal not knowing that George Shaw had given it the name Platypus anantinus. George Shaw ( December 10, 1751 - July 22, 1813) was an English Botanist and Zoologist. However Platypus had already been shown to be used for the scientific name for a genus of Ambrosia beetles so Blumenbach's scientific name for the genus was used. Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the Weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) which live in