The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish and Portuguese colonial strategy of building reductions (reducciones de indios) in order to "civilise" and catechise the native populations of South America. Reductions (known as Reducciones de Indios, or simply Reducciones in Spanish; also Congregacíones) were settlements São Miguel das Missões ( Portuguese for St Michael of the Missions) is a Unesco World Heritage site located in the small town of The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta Reductions (known as Reducciones de Indios, or simply Reducciones in Spanish; also Congregacíones) were settlements A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a  They were created by the Catholic order of the Jesuits in the Tupi-Guarani areas of Portuguese Brazil and Spanish America. Religious orders ('Religious Institutes' cf canons 573-746 are the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America, distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guaraní language |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Jesuits dedication to their own mission and refusal to acknowledge the supremacy of the civil power led to their ultimate expulsion from the Americas. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result 
In Brazilian reductions, the Tupi-Guarani languages were spoken, leading to the língua geral which was a single consolidated dialect of Tupi-Guarani with Latin and Portuguese influence that was once the sole language of the Portuguese settlements outside of the centers of Crown power, and is still spoken in isolated communities in Northern Brazil. San Ignacio Miní was one of the many missions founded in 1632 by the Jesuits in the Americas during the Spanish colonial period near present-day Tupi-Guarani ( is the name of the most important subfamily of the Tupi languages of South America. Língua Geral ( Portuguese: literally 'common' or 'general language' is the name of two distinct linguae francae spoken in Brazil Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal.
The indigenous people of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, the Tupi and the Guarani, would have been victims of the colonial conquest in South America, had the Jesuits not been able to persuade the King of Spain to grant that vast region to their care. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only The Tupi people is one of the main Ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people, together with the related Guaraní. Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America, distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guaraní language Having first landed in South America in 1550, the Jesuits promised the Spanish monarch generous rewards, in the form of tributes, in exchange for exempting the Indians from hard labour to which all the other tribes were subjected.
From 1641 at least the Jesuit order itself acted as the colonial power. The Indians were denied good title to their land, were unable to leave valid wills or to buy or sell portable property other than through the Jesuit orgainsation. The Jesuits in each of these 'reductions' held absolute power, they acted through subordinates but in reality the Jesuit was lord of all he surveyed. . The missions were in existence for a century and a half and the Jesuits were in absolute control for eleven decades but: '. . . in that period they never brought forward a single Indian candidate for the priesthood and developed no order of religious women or nuns. 'The Guaraní were very skilled in handicraft works such as sculpture and woodcarving. The Indians were ruthlessly exploited for their own ends by Europeans. 
The Jesuit missions reached their peak in the first half of the 18th century, with between 100,000 and 300,000 Catholic Indians in about thirty missions. They were granted almost full independence from the parts of South America ruled by Spain and Portugal.
In a Reduction, the main buildings, like the church, college and churchyard were concentrated around a wide square, with houses facing the other three sides. Each village also provided a house for widows, a hospital, and several warehouses. In the centre of the square, there was a cross and a statue of the mission's patron saint.
The missions ended with the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Portuguese empire in 1759, and from the Spanish Empire in 1767. Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year After a hopeless war, the Guarani returned to the forest. All that remains today from that period are ruins of some of the Reductions, and two modified indigenous languages, Guarani and Nheengatu. Guaraní /gwaraˈni/ (local name avañe'ẽ) is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily of the The Nheengatu language often spelled Nhengatu, is also known by the Portuguese names língua geral da Amazônia and língua geral amazônica