Jesse Chisholm (1805? - March 4, 1868) was an Indian trader, guide, and interpreter, born in the Hiwassee region of Tennessee, probably in 1805 or 1806. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Hiwassee is a small village in Cherokee County, North Carolina, which sits next to the Hiwassee Dam and the artificially created Hiwassee Reservoir on Hiwassee Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. He is chiefly famous for being the namesake to the Chisholm Trail, which ranchers used to drive their cattle to eastern markets. The Chisholm Trail was a dirt Trail used in the later 19th century to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas Railheads The trail stretched A ranch is an area of landscape including various structures given primarily to the practice of ranching the practice of raising grazing livestock such as Cattle Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Chisholm had built a number of trading posts in what is now western Oklahoma before the American Civil War. A trading post is a place where the trading of goods takes place Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Ironically, he never drove cattle on the trail named for him.
His father, Ignatius Chisholm, was of Scottish ancestry and had worked as a merchant and slave trader in the Knoxville area in the 1790s. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Around 1800 he married a Cherokee woman in the Hiwassee area, with whom he had three sons; Jesse was the eldest. The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact Sometime thereafter Ignatius Chisholm separated from Jesse's mother and moved to Arkansas Territory. The Arkansas Territory (initially organized as the Territory of Arkansaw) was a historic Organized territory of the United States from July 4 Jesse Chisholm was evidently taken to Arkansas by his mother with Tahlonteskee's group in 1810. During the late 1820s he moved to the Cherokee Nation and settled near Fort Gibson in what is now eastern Oklahoma. Fort Gibson, now located in Oklahoma in what is called Fort Gibson Historical Site, was established 1824 in Indian Territory by Col Chisholm became a trader and in 1836 married Eliza Edwards, daughter of James Edwards, who ran a trading post in what is now Hughes County, Oklahoma. Hughes County is a County located in the US state of Oklahoma. Chisholm took trade goods west and south into Plains Indian country, was fluent in fourteen dialects, established small trading posts, and was soon in demand as a guide and interpreter. The Plains Indians are the Indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. He was universally trusted for his fairness and neutrality, critical assets as diverse and often hostile cultures interacted for the first time. Eventually he interpreted at treaty councils in Texas, Indian Territory, and Kansas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The Indian Territory, also known as The Indian Country, The Indian territory or the Indian territories, was land set aside within the United States Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American "
He was active in Texas for nearly twenty years. While president of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston, who probably met Chisholm at Fort Gibson between 1829 and 1833 (and married Chisholm's aunt), called on him to contact the prairie Indian tribes of West Texas. The Republic of Texas was a sovereign Nation in North America between the United States and Mexico that existed from 1836 to Samuel Houston ( March 2, 1793 July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman politician and soldier Chisholm played a major role as guide and interpreter for several Indian groups at the Tehuacana Creek councils beginning in Spring 1843, when he coaxed several tribes to the first council on Tehuacana Creek near the Torrey Brothers trading post eight miles south of the site of present Waco. Waco (ˈweɪkoʊ is a city in and the County seat of McLennan County, Texas. Over the next year and a half he continued to offer his services to Houston, and on October 7, 1844, Chisholm got Comanches and others to attend a meeting at Tehuacana, where Houston spoke. The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose range (the Comancheria) consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado In February 1846, while visiting the Torreys' post from a trip south of San Antonio, Chisholm was hired to bring Comanches to a council at Comanche Peak (Glen Rose today). The meeting was held on May 12. Finally, on December 10, 1850, Chisholm assembled representatives from seven tribes at a council on the San Saba River. The San Saba River ( San Sabá) is a river in the US state of Texas. At some of these meetings and on trading trips he was able to rescue captives held by Indians.
By 1858 Chisholm ended his trips into Texas and confined his activities to western Oklahoma. He left the Cherokee Nation and settled in the Creek Nation, near the mouth of the Little River, in what is now Hughes County, where he made his home. Little River may refer to In Australia Little River Victoria, a township Little River Earth Sanctuary At various times he had trading posts out on the edge of the Great Plains, including one near the site of Lexington (in what is now Cleveland County) and one at Council Grove (near what is now Oklahoma City). Much of his trading was done by taking wagons and going to the villages of the Comanche and other tribes of the Great Plains. At various times he rescued captive children and youths from the Comanches and Kiowas by them. The Kiowa (ˈkaɪoʊwə are a nation of American Indians who migrated from what is now Canada to their present location in Southwestern Oklahoma. Most of these were Mexicans. He adopted them and reared them with his own family, treating them just as he did his own children. He went to Kansas with the Creek exiles, in the latter part of 1861, but soon drifted west to the site of what is now Wichita, Kansas, where the Wichita, Waco and other refugee tribes from Southwestern Oklahoma were encamped.
During the Civil War he served the Confederacy as a trader with the Indians, but by 1864 he was an interpreter for Union officers. During the war Chisholm resided at the site of Wichita, Kansas; Chisholm Creek in the present city is named for him. Wichita (ˈwɪtʃɪtaː is the most populous City in the US state of Kansas, and the county seat of Sedgwick County. In 1865, Chisholm and James R. Mead loaded a train of wagons at Fort Leavenworth and established a trading post at Council Grove on the North Canadian River near the site of the Overholser Lake dam in present Oklahoma City. North Canadian River is a river that flows through New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma in the United States. Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the US state of Oklahoma. Many of his Wichita friends followed, and their route later became the Chisholm Trail, which connected Texas ranches with markets on the railroad in Kansas. Chisholm attempted to arrange an Indian council at the Little Arkansas in 1865, but some tribes held out. In 1867, with the aid of Black Beaver, famous Delaware leader and guide, he induced the plains tribes to meet government representatives in a council that resulted in the Medicine Lodge Treaty. The Medicine Lodge Treaty was a set of three treaties signed between the United States of America and the Kiowa, Comanche, Plains Apache Chisholm died of food poisoning after eating rancid bear meat at Left Hand Spring, near the site of present Geary, Oklahoma, on April 4, 1868. Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any Illness resulting from the consumption of food Left Hand Spring was a well-known watering stop on the old Chisholm Trail in present day Blaine County Oklahoma. Geary is a city in Blaine and Canadian counties in the US state of Oklahoma. His grave is marked . As the only survivng site conected with his life, his grave is on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Stan Hoig, Jesse Chisholm: Ambassador of the Plains (Niwot, Colorado: University of Colorado Press, 1991). Thomas Ulvan Taylor, Jesse Chisholm (Bandera, Texas: Frontier Times, 1939). Vertical Files, Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas at Austin.