James Joyce, ca. 1918
|Born||James Augustine Aloysius Joyce|
2 February 1882
Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland
|Died||13 January 1941 (aged 58)|
|Occupation||Novelist, poet, teacher|
|Literary movement||Modernism, imagism|
|Notable work(s)||Dubliners (1914), A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), Ulysses (1922), Finnegans Wake (1939)|
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Rathgar ( Ráth Garbh in Irish, meaning "Rough Ringfort" is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland, lying about 3 kilometres south of the city Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" This is a list of modern literary movements: that is movements after the Renaissance. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of Imagery, and clear sharp language Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Finnegans Wake is a fictional work by James Joyce, published in 1939 Nora Barnacle (March 1884 &ndash April 10 1951) was the lover companion inspiration and &mdash eventually &mdash wife of author James Joyce. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. William Shakespeare ( baptised John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Édouard Dujardin (1861–1949 was a French writer one of the early pioneers of the literary technique stream of consciousness, exemplified in his 1888 novel "Ibsen" redirects here For other people named Ibsen see Ibsen (disambiguation. Giordano Bruno (1548 – February 17, 1600) was an Italian Philosopher best-known as an early proponent of Heliocentrism and Giambattista Vico, Giambattista Vigo or Giovanni Battista Vico ( June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian Anton Pavlovich Chekhov ( –) (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов) was a Russian short-story writer and Playwright, considered to be one Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin (5 October 1911 – 1 April 1966 was an Irish novelist and satirist best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist Umberto Eco (born 5 January 1932 is an Italian Medievalist, semiotician, Philosopher, literary critic and Novelist, best (Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941 was an English Novelist and Essayist, regarded as one of the foremost Don DeLillo (born November 20 1936 is an American author best known for his Novels which paint detailed portraits of American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries Anthony Burgess (February 25 1917 — November 22 1993 was an English Novelist, Critic, Composer, Librettist, Poet Joseph John Campbell ( March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American Mythology Professor, Writer William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author Edna O'Brien (born 15 December 1930 is an Irish novelist and Short story writer whose works often revolve around the inner feelings of women and their problems in relating Martin Louis Amis (born 25 August 1949 is an English Novelist, Essayist and Short story Writer, the son of writer Kingsley Jamie O'Neill (born 1962 in Dun Laoghaire, Ireland) is an Irish Author who lived and worked in England for two decades he now Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer Bret Easton Ellis (born March 7, 1964 in Los Angeles California) is an American author. Brendan Francis Behan (ˈbiːən) (Breandán Ó Beacháin ( February 9, 1923 – March 20, 1964) was an Irish poet short story Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (born Robert Edward Wilson, January 18, 1932 &ndash January 11, 2007) was an American Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1906 &ndash 1970 ˈmɑːrtʲiːnʲ oː ˈkainʲ was one of the most prominent Irish language writers of the twentieth century John Hoyer Updike (born March 18 1932 in Reading, Pennsylvania) is an American Novelist, Poet, Short story Sylvia Plath (October 27 1932 &ndash February 11 1963 was an American Poet, Novelist and Short story Writer. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world He is best known for his landmark novel Ulysses (1922) and its highly controversial successor Finnegans Wake (1939), as well as the short story collection Dubliners (1914) and the semi-autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916). Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Finnegans Wake is a fictional work by James Joyce, published in 1939 The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist
Although he spent most of his adult life outside Ireland, Joyce's psychological and fictional universe is firmly rooted in his native Dublin, the city which provides the settings and much of the subject matter for all his fiction. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. In particular, his tempestuous early relationship with the Irish Roman Catholic Church is reflected through a similar inner conflict in his recurrent alter ego Stephen Dedalus. Stephen Dedalus is James Joyce 's literary Alter ego, as well as the Protagonist of his first semi-autobiographical novel of artistic existence As the result of his minute attentiveness to a personal locale and his self-imposed exile and influence throughout Europe, (notably in Paris, Joyce became paradoxically one of the most cosmopolitan yet one of the most regionally-focused of all the English language writers of his time. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single Moral community. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States 
In 1882, James Augustine Joyce was born into a Roman Catholic family in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. Rathgar ( Ráth Garbh in Irish, meaning "Rough Ringfort" is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland, lying about 3 kilometres south of the city He was the oldest of 10 surviving children; two of his siblings died of typhoid. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium His father's family, originally from Fermoy in Cork, had once owned a small salt and lime works. Fermoy ( in County Cork, Ireland is a Town of some 5800 inhabitants environs included (2006 census situated on the River Blackwater in County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. Joyce's father and paternal grandfather both married into wealthy families. In 1887, his father, John Stanislaus Joyce, was appointed rate (i. John Stanislaus Joyce ( July 4, 1849 - December 29, 1931) was the father of writer James Joyce, and a well known Dublin man e. , a local property tax) collector by Dublin Corporation; the family subsequently moved to the fashionable adjacent small town of Bray 12 miles (19 km) from Dublin. Dublin Corporation (Bardas Bhaile Átha Cliath known by generations of Dubliners simply as The Corpo, is the former name given to the city government and its administrative Bray (Bré formerly Brí Chulainn) is a town in north County Wicklow, Ireland. Around this time Joyce was attacked by a dog; this resulted in a lifelong canine phobia. Phobias Phobias (in the clinical meaning of the term are the most common form of Anxiety disorders An American study by the National Institute of Mental Health He also suffered from a fear of thunderstorms, which his deeply religious aunt had described to him as being a sign of God's wrath. 
In 1891, Joyce wrote a poem, "Et Tu Healy," on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell. Charles Stewart Parnell ( 27 June 1846 &ndash 6 October 1891) was an Irish Protestant landowner nationalist His father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic church and at the resulting failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and even sent a copy to the Vatican Library. The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. In November of that same year, John Joyce was entered in Stubbs Gazette (an official register of bankruptcies) and suspended from work. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against In 1893 John Joyce was dismissed with a pension. A pension is a steady income given to a person upon Retirement, typically in the form of a guaranteed annuity. This was the beginning of a slide into poverty for the family, mainly due to John's drinking and general financial mismanagement. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and 
James Joyce was initially educated by the Jesuit order at Clongowes Wood College, a boarding school near Sallins in County Kildare, which he entered in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Clongowes Wood College is a private secondary Boarding school for boys located near Clane in County Kildare, Ireland. A boarding school is a School where some or all pupils not only study but also live during term time with their fellow students and possibly teachers Sallins ( Na Solláin in Gaeilge) is a Village in County Kildare, Ireland, situated 3 County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara is an Irish County located to the southwest of Dublin in the province of Leinster. Joyce then studied at home and briefly at the Christian Brothers school on North Richmond Street, Dublin, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893. The Congregation of Christian Brothers (officially in Latin: Congregatio Fratrum Christianorum) is a world-wide community of religious brothers within The O’Connell School is a secondary school for boys located on North Richmond Street in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Belvedere College SJ is a private Secondary school for boys located on Great Denmark Street Dublin, Ireland. The offer was made at least partly in the hope that he would prove to have a vocation and join the Order. Joyce, however, was to reject Catholicism by the age of 16, although the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas would remain a strong influence on him throughout his life. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language 
He enrolled at the recently established University College Dublin in 1898. University College Dublin (UCD (An Coláiste Ollscoile Baile Átha Cliath - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland Dublin (An He studied modern languages, specifically English, French and Italian. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. He also became active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. His review of Ibsen's New Drama, his first published work, was published in 1900 and resulted in a letter of thanks from the Norwegian dramatist himself. "Ibsen" redirects here For other people named Ibsen see Ibsen (disambiguation. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Joyce wrote a number of other articles and at least two plays (since lost) during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin would appear as characters in Joyce's written works. He was an active member of the Literary and Historical Society, University College Dublin, and presented his paper "Drama and Life" to the L&H in 1900. The Literary and Historical Society (L&H is University College Dublin ' s oldest debating society and the official College Debating Union The Literary and Historical Society (L&H is University College Dublin ' s oldest debating society and the official College Debating Union
After graduating from UCD in 1903, Joyce left for Paris to "study medicine", but in reality he squandered money his family could ill afford. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city He returned to Ireland after a few months, when his mother was diagnosed with cancer. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled  Fearing for her son's "impiety", his mother tried unsuccessfully to get Joyce to make his confession and to take communion. She finally passed into a coma and died on August 13, Joyce having refused to kneel with other members of the family praying at her bedside.  After her death he continued to drink heavily, and conditions at home grew quite appalling. He scraped a living reviewing books, teaching and singing — he was an accomplished tenor, and won the bronze medal in the 1904 Feis Ceoil. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice Feis Ceoil ( English: Festival of Music) is an annual Irish cultural festival of music and dance 
On 7 January 1904, he attempted to publish A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, an essay-story dealing with aesthetics, only to have it rejected by the free-thinking magazine Dana. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called He decided, on his twenty-second birthday, to revise the story and turn it into a novel he planned to call Stephen Hero. This was the same year he met Nora Barnacle, a young woman from Galway city who was working as a chambermaid at Finn's Hotel in Dublin. Nora Barnacle (March 1884 &ndash April 10 1951) was the lover companion inspiration and &mdash eventually &mdash wife of author James Joyce. Galway (Gaillimh is the only city in the province of Connacht in Ireland. Maid is also a shortened form of " Maiden " an archaic word for an unmarried woman or a Virgin. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. On 16 June 1904, they went on their first date, an event which would be commemorated by providing the date for the action of Ulysses. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on
Joyce remained in Dublin for some time longer, drinking heavily. After one of his alcoholic binges, he got into a fight over a misunderstanding with a man in St. Stephen's Green; he was picked up and dusted off by a minor acquaintance of his father, Alfred H. St Stephen's Green ( is an inner-city Public park in Dublin, Ireland. Hunter, who brought him into his home to tend to his injuries.  Hunter was rumored to be Jewish and to have an unfaithful wife, and would serve as one of the models for Leopold Bloom, the main protagonist of Ulysses. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Leopold Bloom is the fictional Protagonist of James Joyce 's novel Ulysses, assuming the role of the ' Odysseus ' character The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story.  He took up with medical student Oliver St John Gogarty, who formed the basis for the character Buck Mulligan in Ulysses. Oliver Joseph St John Gogarty ( August 17, 1878 - September 22, 1957) was an Irish Physician and ear surgeon Malachi "Buck" Mulligan is a Fictional character in James Joyce 's novel Ulysses. After staying in Gogarty's Martello Tower for 6 nights he left in the middle of the night following an altercation which involved Gogarty shooting a pistol at some pans hanging directly over Joyce's bed. Martello towers (or simply Martellos) are small defensive forts built in several countries of the British Empire during the 19th century from the time  He walked all the way back to Dublin to stay with relatives for the night, and sent a friend to the tower the next day to pack his possessions into his trunk. Shortly thereafter he eloped to the continent with Nora.
Joyce and Nora went into self-imposed exile, moving first to Zürich, where he had supposedly acquired a post teaching English at the Berlitz Language School through an agent in England. Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the It turned out that the English agent had been swindled, but the director of the school sent him on to Trieste, which was part of Austria-Hungary until World War I (today part of Italy). Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Once again, he found there was no position for him, but with the help of Almidano Artifoni, director of the Trieste Berlitz school, he finally secured a teaching position in Pula, then also part of Austria-Hungary (today part of Croatia). Pula (Pietas Iulia Pulj Istriot Pula; Pola is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between He stayed there, teaching English mainly to Austro-Hungarian naval officers stationed at the Pula base, from October 1904 until March 1905, when the Austrians — having discovered an espionage ring in the city — expelled all aliens. In US law, an alien is a legal term for a person, either a corporation or a human who is not a United States national. With Artifoni's help, he moved back to the city of Trieste and began teaching English there. He would remain in Trieste for most of the next 10 years. 
Later that year Nora gave birth to their first child, Giorgio. Joyce then managed to talk his brother, Stanislaus, into joining him in Trieste, and secured him a position teaching at the school. Stanislaus Joyce ( December 17, 1884 - June 16, 1955) was an Irish teacher scholar and writer who lived for many years in Italy Ostensibly his reasons were for his company and offering his brother a much more interesting life than the simple clerking job he had back in Dublin, but in truth, he hoped to augment his family's meagre income with his brother's earnings.  Stanislaus and James had strained relations the entire time they lived together in Trieste, with most arguments centering on James' frivolity with money and drinking habits. 
With chronic wanderlust much of his early life, Joyce became frustrated with life in Trieste and moved to Rome in late 1906, having secured a position working in a bank in the city. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 He intensely disliked Rome, however, and ended up moving back to Trieste in early 1907. His daughter Lucia was born in the summer of the same year. Lucia Anna Joyce ( July 26, 1907 - December 12, 1982) daughter of Irish writer James Joyce and Nora Barnacle, was born
Joyce returned to Dublin in the summer of 1909 with Giorgio, in order to visit his father and work on getting Dubliners published. He visited Nora's family in Galway, meeting them for the first time (a successful visit, to his relief). Galway (Gaillimh is the only city in the province of Connacht in Ireland. When preparing to return to Trieste he decided to bring one of his sisters, Eva, back to Trieste with him in order to help Nora look after the home. He would spend only a month back in Trieste before again heading back to Dublin, this time as a representative of some cinema owners in order to set up a regular cinema in Dublin. The venture was successful (but would quickly fall apart in his absence), and he returned to Trieste in January 1910 with another sister in tow, Eileen. While Eva became very homesick for Dublin and returned a few years later, Eileen spent the rest of her life on the continent, eventually marrying Czech bank cashier František Schaurek. Czechs (Češi ˈt͡ʃɛʃɪ archaic Čechové) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic
Joyce returned to Dublin briefly in the summer of 1912 during his years-long fight with his Dublin publisher, George Roberts, over the publication of Dubliners. His trip was once again fruitless, and on his return he wrote the poem "Gas from a Burner" as a thinly veiled invective against Roberts. It was his last trip to Ireland, and he never again came closer to Dublin than London, despite the many pleas of his father and invitations from fellow Irish writer William Butler Yeats.
Joyce came up with many money-making schemes during this period of his life, such as his attempt to become a cinema magnate back in Dublin, as well as a frequently discussed but ultimately abandoned plan to import Irish tweeds into Trieste. A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a mogul, tycoon, baron, or industrialist, is a person who has reached a prominent place in His expert borrowing skills saved him from indigence. His income was made up partially from his position at the Berlitz school and from taking on private students. Many of his acquaintances through meeting these private students proved invaluable allies when he faced problems getting out of Austria-Hungary and into Switzerland in 1915. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
One of his students in Trieste was Ettore Schmitz, better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo; they met in 1907 and became lasting friends and mutual critics. Aron Ettore Schmitz ( December 19, 1861 – September 13 1928) better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) Aron Ettore Schmitz ( December 19, 1861 – September 13 1928) better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian Schmitz was Jewish, and became the primary model for Leopold Bloom; most of the details about the Jewish faith included in Ulysses came from Schmitz in response to Joyce's queries. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut  Joyce would spend most of the rest of his life on the Continent. It was in Trieste that he first began to be plagued by major eye problems, which would result in over a dozen surgeries before his death.
In 1915, when Joyce moved to Zürich in order to avoid the complexities (as a British subject) of living in Austria-Hungary during World War I, he met one of his most enduring and important friends, Frank Budgen, whose opinion Joyce constantly sought through the writing of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Frank Budgen (1882-1971 was a British painter acquainted with the author James Joyce. It was also here where Ezra Pound brought him to the attention of English feminist and publisher Harriet Shaw Weaver, who would become Joyce's patron, providing him thousands of pounds over the next 25 years and relieving him of the burden of teaching in order to focus on his writing. Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Harriet Shaw Weaver ( 1 September 1876 &mdash 14 October 1961) was a political activist and a Journal editor After the war he returned to Trieste briefly, but found the city had changed, and his relations with his brother (who had been interned in an Austrian prison camp for most of the war due to his pro-Italian politics) were more strained than ever. Joyce headed to Paris in 1920 at an invitation from Ezra Pound, supposedly for a week, but he ended up living there for the next twenty years.
During this era, Joyce traveled frequently to Switzerland for eye surgeries and treatments for Lucia, who, according to the Joyce estate, suffered from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn Lucia was even analyzed by Carl Jung at the time, who was of the opinion that her father had schizophrenia after reading Ulysses.  Jung noted that she and her father were two people heading to the bottom of a river, except that he was diving and she was falling.  In-depth knowledge of Joyce's relationship with his schizophrenic daughter is scant, due to the fact that the current heir of the Joyce estate, Stephen Joyce, burned thousands of letters between Lucia and her father that he received upon Lucia's death in 1982.  Stephen Joyce stated in a letter to the editor if the New York Times that "Regarding the destroyed correspondence, these were all personal letters from Lucia to us. They were written many years after both Nonno and Nonna [i. e. Joyce and Nora Barnacle. . ] died and did not refer to them. Also destroyed were some postcards and one telegram from Samuel Beckett to Lucia. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet This was done at Sam's written request. " 
In Paris, Maria and Eugene Jolas nursed Joyce during his long years of writing Finnegans Wake. Maria Jolas ( Louisville Kentucky, January 12, 1893, &ndash March 4, 1987 in Paris France) born Maria McDonald Eugene Jolas (1894-1952 was a Writer, Translator and Literary critic. Were it not for their unwavering support (along with Harriet Shaw Weaver's constant financial support), there is a good possibility that his books might never have been finished or published. In their now legendary literary magazine "transition," the Jolases published serially various sections of Joyce's novel under the title Work in Progress. He returned to Zürich in late 1940, fleeing the Nazi occupation of France. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 On 11 January 1941, he underwent surgery for a perforated ulcer. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. While at first improved, he relapsed the following day, and despite several transfusions, fell into a coma. He awoke at 2 a. m. on 13 January 1941, and asked for a nurse to call his wife and son before losing consciousness again. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They were still en route when he died 15 minutes later. He is buried in the Fluntern Cemetery within earshot of the lions in the Zürich zoo. Also known as Friedhof Fluntern, Fluntern Cemetery is located in the Zürichberg district of Zürich. Although two senior Irish diplomats were in Switzerland at the time, neither attended Joyce's funeral, and the Irish government subsequently declined Nora's offer to permit the repatriation of Joyce's remains. Nora, whom Joyce had finally married in London in 1931, survived him by 10 years. She is buried now by his side, as is their son Giorgio, who died in 1976. Ellmann reports that when the arrangements for Joyce's burial were being made, a Catholic priest tried to convince Nora that there should be a funeral Mass. Ever loyal, she replied, 'I couldn't do that to him'. Swiss tenor Max Meili sang Addio terra, addio cielo from Monteverdi's L'Orfeo at the funeral service. Max Meili, a Swiss Tenor, was born December 11, 1899 in Winterthur and died March 17, 1970 in Zürich L'Orfeo ( L'Orfeo favola in musica, SV 318 or La Favola d'Orfeo, or The Legend of Orpheus) is one of the earliest
Joyce's Irish experiences constitute an essential element of his writings, and provide all of the settings for his fiction and much of their subject matter. Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 His early volume of short stories, Dubliners, is a penetrating analysis of the stagnation and paralysis of Dublin society. The final and most famous story in the collection, "The Dead," was made into a feature film in 1987, directed by John Huston (it was Huston's last major work). "The Dead" is the final short story in the 1914 collection Dubliners by James Joyce. John Marcellus Huston ( August 5 1906 &ndash August 28 1987) was an American Film director and Actor.
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a nearly complete rewrite of the abandoned novel Stephen Hero, the original manuscript of which Joyce partially destroyed in a fit of rage during an argument with Nora, who asserted that it would never be published. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist Stephen Hero is a posthumously-published autobiographical novel by Irish author James Joyce. A Künstlerroman, or story of the personal development of an artist, it is a biographical coming-of-age novel in which Joyce depicts a gifted young man's gradual attainment of maturity and self-consciousness; the main character, Stephen Dedalus, is in many ways based upon Joyce himself. A Künstlerroman (/ˈkʏnstlɐroˌmaːn/ German: "artist's novel" is a specific sub-genre of Bildungsroman; it is a novel about an Artist 's A bildungsroman (ˈbɪldʊŋsroˌmaːn "novel of formation" is a Novelistic genre that arose during the German Enlightenment (and is regarded by some as Stephen Dedalus is James Joyce 's literary Alter ego, as well as the Protagonist of his first semi-autobiographical novel of artistic existence  Some hints of the techniques Joyce was to employ frequently in later works — such as the use of interior monologue and references to a character's psychic reality rather than his external surroundings — are evident in this novel.  Joseph Strick directed a film of the book in 1977 starring Luke Johnston, Bosco Hogan, T.P. McKenna and John Gielgud. Joseph Strick (b July 6, 1923 in Braddock Pennsylvania) is an American director, producer and screenwriter Bosco Hogan is an Irish actor of stage screen and television He is best-known as Dr T P McKenna (born Thomas Patrick McKenna) ( 7 September 1929, Mullagh, County Cavan, Ireland) is an Irish Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH ( 14 April, 1904 – 21 May 2000) known as Sir John Gielgud, was an
Despite early interest in the theatre, Joyce published only one play, Exiles, begun shortly after the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and published in 1918. Pomes Penyeach is a collection of thirteen short poems written over a twenty-year period from 1904 to 1924 by the novelist James Joyce and originally published Chamber Music is a collection of poems by James Joyce, published by Elkin Matthews in May 1907 Exiles is a play by James Joyce, who is principally remembered for his novels World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A study of a husband and wife relationship, the play looks back to The Dead (the final story in Dubliners) and forward to Ulysses, which was begun around the time of the play's composition.
Joyce also published a number of books of poetry. His first mature published work was the satirical broadside "The Holy Office" (1904), in which he proclaimed himself to be the superior of many prominent members of the Celtic revival. Celtic Revival covers a variety of movements and trends mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries which drew on Celtic art and traditions His first full-length poetry collection Chamber Music (referring, Joyce explained, to the sound of urine hitting the side of a chamber pot) consisted of 36 short lyrics. This publication led to his inclusion in the Imagist Anthology, edited by Ezra Pound, who was a champion of Joyce's work. Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of Imagery, and clear sharp language Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Other poetry Joyce published in his lifetime includes "Gas From A Burner" (1912), Pomes Penyeach (1927) and "Ecce Puer" (written in 1932 to mark the birth of his grandson and the recent death of his father). It was published in Collected Poems (1936).
As he was completing work on Dubliners in 1906, Joyce considered adding another story featuring a Jewish advertising canvasser called Leopold Bloom under the title Ulysses. Leopold Bloom is the fictional Protagonist of James Joyce 's novel Ulysses, assuming the role of the ' Odysseus ' character Although he did not pursue the idea further at the time, he eventually commenced work on a novel using both the title and basic premise in 1914. The writing was completed in October, 1921. Three more months were devoted to working on the proofs of the book before Joyce halted work shortly before his self-imposed deadline, his 40th birthday (2 February 1922). Proofreading traditionally means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
Thanks to Ezra Pound, serial publication of the novel in the magazine The Little Review began in 1918. Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate The Little Review was an American Literary magazine founded by Margaret Caroline Anderson which published modernist American and English writers This magazine was edited by Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap, with the backing of John Quinn, a New York attorney at law with an interest in contemporary experimental art and literature. Margaret Caroline Anderson ( November 24, 1886 - October 18, 1973) was founder and editor of the celebrated literary magazine The Jane Heap (1883 - 1964 was an American Publisher and a significant figure in the development and promotion of literary Modernism. John Quinn (1870-1924 was an Irish-American corporate lawyer in New York who for a time was an important patron of major figures of Post-impressionism and literary New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute Unfortunately, this publication encountered censorship problems in the United States; serialization was halted in 1920 when the editors were convicted of publishing obscenity. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The novel remained proscribed in the United States until Judge John M. Woolsey lifted the ban in 1933.
At least partly because of this controversy, Joyce found it difficult to get a publisher to accept the book, but it was published in 1922 by Sylvia Beach from her well-known Rive Gauche bookshop, Shakespeare and Company at 12 Rue l'Odéon, Paris. Sylvia Beach ( March 14 1887 – October 5 1962) born Nancy Woodbridge Beach in her father's Parsonage in Baltimore For other uses see Left Bank. La Rive Gauche (The Left Bank is the left bank of the Seine River in Paris, as one Shakespeare and Company is an Independent bookstore located in the 5th arrondissement, in Paris 's Left Bank. A commemorative plaque placed in 1989 by JJSSF (James Joyce Society of Sweden and Finland) is to be found on the wall. An English edition published the same year by Joyce's patron, Harriet Shaw Weaver, ran into further difficulties with the United States authorities, and 500 copies that were shipped to the States were seized and possibly destroyed. Harriet Shaw Weaver ( 1 September 1876 &mdash 14 October 1961) was a political activist and a Journal editor The following year, John Rodker produced a print run of 500 more intended to replace the missing copies, but these were burned by English customs at Folkestone. John Rodker ( 18 December 1894 – 6 October 1955) was a British writer Modernist poet, and publisher of some of the major modernist Folkestone (ˈfoʊkstən is a resort town on the south coast of Kent, England, traditionally known as "The Garden Coast" A further consequence of the novel's ambiguous legal status as a banned book was that a number of 'bootleg' versions appeared, most notably a number of pirate versions from the publisher Samuel Roth. Samuel Roth (1893 - 1974 was an American Jewish publisher and writer In 1928, a court injunction against Roth was obtained and he ceased publication.
The year 1922 was a key year in the history of English-language literary modernism, with the appearance of both Ulysses and T. S. Eliot's poem, The Waste Land. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. The Waste Land ( 1922) is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T In Ulysses, Joyce employs stream of consciousness, parody, jokes, and virtually every other literary technique to present his characters.  The action of the novel, which takes place in a single day, 16 June 1904, sets the characters and incidents of the Odyssey of Homer in modern Dublin and represents Odysseus (Ulysses), Penelope and Telemachus in the characters of Leopold Bloom, his wife Molly Bloom and Stephen Dedalus, contrasted with their lofty models. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the grc-Latn Odysseus or la Ulysses ( Greek grc-Latn Odysseus; Latin: la Ulixes or more commonly Ulysses) oʊˈdɪsiəs In Homer 's Odyssey, Penelópē ( Πηνελόπεια/Πηνελόπη) is the faithful wife of Odysseus, who keeps her suitors This article is about the figure in greek mythology For the Christian saint see Saint Telemachus, and for the South African cricketer, see Roger Molly Bloom is a Fictional character in the novel Ulysses by James Joyce. Stephen Dedalus is James Joyce 's literary Alter ego, as well as the Protagonist of his first semi-autobiographical novel of artistic existence The book explores various areas of Dublin life, dwelling on its squalor and monotony. Nevertheless, the book is also an affectionately detailed study of the city, and Joyce said that "I want to give a picture of Dublin so complete that if the city one day suddenly disappeared from the earth it could be reconstructed out of my book".  In order to achieve this level of accuracy, Joyce used the 1904 edition of Thom's Directory — a work that listed the owners and/or tenants of every residential and commercial property in the city. He also bombarded friends still living there with requests for information and clarification.
The book consists of 18 chapters, each covering roughly one hour of the day, beginning around about 8 a. m. and ending sometime after 2 a. m. the following morning. Each of the 18 chapters of the novel employs its own literary style. Each chapter also refers to a specific episode in Homer's Odyssey and has a specific colour, art or science and bodily organ associated with it. This combination of kaleidoscopic writing with an extreme formal, schematic structure represents one of the book's major contributions to the development of 20th century modernist literature.  Others include the use of classical mythology as a framework for his book and the near-obsessive focus on external detail in a book in which much of the significant action is happening inside the minds of the characters. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Nevertheless, Joyce complained that, "I may have oversystematised Ulysses," and played down the mythic correspondences by eliminating the chapter titles that had been taken from Homer. 
Joseph Strick directed a film of the book in 1967 starring Milo O'Shea, Barbara Jefford and Maurice Roëves. Ulysses is a Film shot in 1967 and based on James Joyce 's novel Ulysses. Milo O'Shea (born 2 June, 1926, in Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish Character actor, recognisable for his bushy eyebrows resounding Barbara Jefford OBE (born 26 July 1930, Plymstock, Devon, England) is a British Maurice Roëves (born 19 March 1937 in Sunderland) is an English born actor raised in Glasgow, Scotland. Sean Walsh directed another version released in 2004 starring Stephen Rea, Angeline Ball and Hugh O'Conor. Sean Patrick Walsh was a producer on A Current Affair from August 2002 until December 2007 Stephen Rea (born Graham Rea on October 31, 1946) is an Irish Actor, who was nominated for an Academy Award for his Angeline Ball (born 1969 is an award-winning Irish actress who currently resides in London. Hugh Charles O'Conor (born April 19, 1975 in Dublin, Ireland) is a film and Television actor
Having completed work on Ulysses, Joyce was so exhausted that he did not write a line of prose for a year.  On 10 March 1923 he informed a patron, Harriet Weaver: "Yesterday I wrote two pages — the first I have since the final Yes of Ulysses. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Having found a pen, with some difficulty I copied them out in a large handwriting on a double sheet of foolscap so that I could read them. Il lupo perde il pelo ma non il vizio, the Italians say. The wolf may lose his skin but not his vice or the leopard cannot change his spots".  Thus was born a text that became known, first, as Work in Progress and later Finnegans Wake.
By 1926 Joyce had completed the first two parts of the book. In that year, he met Eugene and Maria Jolas who offered to serialise the book in their magazine transition. The journal transition was founded in 1927 by Poet Eugene Jolas and his wife Maria McDonald, along with editors Elliot For the next few years, Joyce worked rapidly on the new book, but in the 1930s, progress slowed considerably. This was due to a number of factors, including the death of his father in 1931, concern over the mental health of his daughter Lucia and his own health problems, including failing eyesight. Lucia Anna Joyce ( July 26, 1907 - December 12, 1982) daughter of Irish writer James Joyce and Nora Barnacle, was born Much of the work was done with the assistance of younger admirers, including Samuel Beckett. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet For some years, Joyce nursed the eccentric plan of turning over the book to his friend James Stephens to complete, on the grounds that Stephens was born in the same hospital as Joyce exactly one week later, and shared the first name of both Joyce and of Joyce's fictional alter-ego (this is one example of Joyce's numerous superstitions). James Stephens ( February 9, 1882 &ndash December 26, 1950) was an Irish Novelist and poet 
Reaction to the work was mixed, including negative comment from early supporters of Joyce's work, such as Pound and the author's brother Stanislaus Joyce. Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Stanislaus Joyce ( December 17, 1884 - June 16, 1955) was an Irish teacher scholar and writer who lived for many years in Italy  In order to counteract this hostile reception, a book of essays by supporters of the new work, including Beckett, William Carlos Williams and others was organised and published in 1929 under the title Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress. William Carlos Williams ( 17 September 1883 &ndash 4 March 1963) was an American poet closely associated with modernism Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress is a 1929 collection of critical essays on the subject of James Joyce 's book At his 47th birthday party at the Jolases' home, Joyce revealed the final title of the work and Finnegans Wake was published in book form on 4 May 1939. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Joyce's method of stream of consciousness, literary allusions and free dream associations was pushed to the limit in Finnegans Wake, which abandoned all conventions of plot and character construction and is written in a peculiar and obscure language, based mainly on complex multi-level puns. Finnegans Wake is a fictional work by James Joyce, published in 1939 This approach is similar to, but far more extensive than that used by Lewis Carroll in Jabberwocky. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English " Jabberwocky " is a Poem of Nonsense verse written by Lewis Carroll, originally featured as a part of his novel Through the Looking-Glass If Ulysses is a day in the life of a city, then Wake is a night and partakes of the logic of dreams. This has led many readers and critics to apply Joyce's oft-quoted description in the Wake of Ulysses as his "usylessly unreadable Blue Book of Eccles" to the Wake itself. However, readers have been able to reach a consensus about the central cast of characters and general plot.
Much of the wordplay in the book stems from the use of multilingual puns which draw on a wide range of languages. The role played by Beckett and other assistants included collating words from these languages on cards for Joyce to use and, as Joyce's eyesight worsened, of writing the text from the author's dictation. 
The view of history propounded in this text is very strongly influenced by Giambattista Vico, and the metaphysics of Giordano Bruno of Nola are important to the interplay of the "characters". Giambattista Vico, Giambattista Vigo or Giovanni Battista Vico ( June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian Giordano Bruno (1548 – February 17, 1600) was an Italian Philosopher best-known as an early proponent of Heliocentrism and Nola is a city of Campania, Italy, in the Province of Naples, situated in the plain between Mount Vesuvius and the Apennines. Vico propounded a cyclical view of history, in which civilisation rose from chaos, passed through theocratic, aristocratic, and democratic phases, and then lapsed back into chaos. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Chaos (derived from the Ancient Greek, Chaos) typically refers to Unpredictability, and is the antithesis of Cosmos. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system The most obvious example of the influence of Vico's cyclical theory of history is to be found in the opening and closing words of the book. Finnegans Wake opens with the words 'riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs. ' ('vicus' is a pun on Vico) and ends 'A way a lone a last a loved a long the'. In other words, the book ends with the beginning of a sentence and begins with the end of the same sentence, turning the book into one great cycle. Indeed, Joyce said that the ideal reader of the Wake would suffer from "ideal insomnia" and, on completing the book, would turn to page one and start again, and so on in an endless cycle of reading.
Joyce's work has been subject to intense scrutiny by scholars of all types. He has also been an important influence on writers and scholars as diverse as Hugh MacDiarmid, Samuel Beckett, Jorge Luis Borges, Flann O'Brien, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Salman Rushdie, Robert Anton Wilson, and Joseph Campbell. Hugh MacDiarmid is the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (Crìsdean Mac a' Ghreidhir (11 August 1892 Langholm - 9 September 1978 Edinburgh Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin (5 October 1911 – 1 April 1966 was an Irish novelist and satirist best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1906 &ndash 1970 ˈmɑːrtʲiːnʲ oː ˈkainʲ was one of the most prominent Irish language writers of the twentieth century Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (born Robert Edward Wilson, January 18, 1932 &ndash January 11, 2007) was an American Joseph John Campbell ( March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American Mythology Professor, Writer 
Some scholars, most notably Vladimir Nabokov, have mixed feelings on his work, often championing some of his fiction while condemning other works. This page is about the novelist For his father the politician see Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov. In Nabokov's opinion, Ulysses was brilliant; Finnegans Wake, horrible (see Strong Opinions, The Annotated Lolita or Pale Fire), an attitude Jorge Luis Borges shared. Lolita (1955 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, later translated by the author Pale Fire (1962 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov. The novel is presented as a poem titled "Pale Fire" by John Shade, a fictional author  In recent years, literary theory has embraced Joyce's innovation and ambition. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature Jacques Derrida, who wrote a book on the use of language in Ulysses, tells an anecdote about the two novels' importance for his own thought; in a bookstore in Tokyo,
|“||. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. . . an American tourist of the most typical variety leaned over my shoulder and sighed: "So many books! What is the definitive one? Is there any?" It was an extremely small book shop, a news agency. I almost replied, "Yes, there are two of them, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. ||”|
Joyce's influence is also evident in fields other than literature. The phrase "Three Quarks for Muster Mark" in Joyce's Finnegans Wake is often called the source of the physicists' word "quark", the name of one of the main kinds of elementary particles, proposed by the physicist Murray Gell-Mann. In Physics, a quark (kwɔrk kwɑːk or kwɑːrk is a type of Subatomic particle. In Particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure that is it is not known to be made Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American Physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work  American philosopher Donald Davidson has written on Finnegans Wake in comparison with Lewis Carroll. Donald Herbert Davidson ( March 6, 1917  &ndash August 30, 2003) was an American Philosopher, who served as Slusser Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English Psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan used Joyce's writings to explain his concept of the sinthome. Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French ʒak lakɑ̃ ( April 13, 1901 &ndash September 9, 1981) was a French Psychoanalyst The sinthome is a concept introduced by Jacques Lacan in his seminar Le sinthome (1975-76 According to Lacan, Joyce's writing is the supplementary cord which kept him from psychosis. Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή "psyche" for mind or soul and -οσις "-osis" for abnormal condition with adjective psychotic 
The life of Joyce is celebrated annually on June 16, Bloomsday, in Dublin and in an increasing number of cities worldwide. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Bloomsday is a commemoration observed annually on 16 June in Dublin and elsewhere to celebrate the life of Irish Writer James Joyce Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland.
Each year in Dedham, Massachusetts, USA literary-minded runners hold the James Joyce Ramble, a 10K Road Race with each mile dedicated to a different work by Joyce.  With professional actors in period garb lining the streets and reading from his books as the athletes run by, it is billed as the only theatrical performance where the performers stand still and the audience does the moving.
Much of Joyce's legacy is protected by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, which houses thousands of manuscripts, pieces of correspondence, drafts, proofs, notes, novel fragments, poems, song lyrics, musical scores, limericks, and translations by Joyce. The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center is a Library and Archive at the University of Texas at Austin, specializing in the collection of literary and
Not everyone is eager to expand upon academic study of Joyce, however; Stephen Joyce, James' grandson and sole beneficiary owner of the estate, has been alleged to have destroyed some of the writer's correspondence, threatened to sue if public readings were held during Bloomsday, and blocked adaptations he felt were 'inappropriate'. Stephen James Joyce (born 16th February 1932 is the grandson of James Joyce and the controversial Executor of Joyce's estate Bloomsday is a commemoration observed annually on 16 June in Dublin and elsewhere to celebrate the life of Irish Writer James Joyce  On June 12, 2006, Carol Shloss, a Stanford University professor, sued the estate for refusing to give permission to use material about Joyce and his daughter on the professor's website. Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in 
The main library at University College Dublin today bears his name. University College Dublin (UCD (An Coláiste Ollscoile Baile Átha Cliath - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland Dublin (An
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Finnegans Wake (web)
Poems and Exiles
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Joyce, James Augustine Aloysius; Seoighe, Seamus|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Irish writer and poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||2 February 1882|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland|
|DATE OF DEATH||13 January 1941|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Zürich, Switzerland|