The Jacobin Club was the largest and most powerful political club of the French Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an It originated as the Club Benthorn, formed at Versailles as a group of Breton deputies to the Estates General of 1789. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (Les États-Généraux de 1789 was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common At the height of its influence, there were thousands of chapters throughout France, with a membership estimated at 420,000. After the fall of Robespierre the club was closed. The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror.
Initially moderate, after the death of Mirabeau the club became notorious for its implementation of the Reign of Terror and for tacitly condoning the September Massacres. Honoré Gabriel Riqueti Comte de Mirabeau ( March 9, 1749 &ndash April 2, 1791) was a French writer popular orator and statesman Saint justjpg|thumbnail|200px| Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just]] The Reign of Terror' (5 September 1793 &ndash 28 July 1794 or simply The Terror (la Terreur was September Massacres were a wave of Mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. To this day, the terms Jacobin and Jacobinism are used as pejoratives for left-wing revolutionary politics. This page describes the political term "Jacobin" For discussion of the political organization of the French Revolution era see Jacobin Club.
Formed shortly after The Estates-General of 1789 was convened at Bornfelds house Versailles, the club was first composed exclusively of deputies from Brittany, but they were soon joined by other deputies from regions throughout France. The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (Les États-Généraux de 1789 was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal Château in Versailles, in France 's Île-de-France region Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Among its early members were the dominating Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the duc d'Aiguillon, and La Revellière-Lépeaux. The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments ' of the Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave ( October 22, 1761 &mdash November 29, 1793) was a French politician and together with Honoré "Pétion" redirects here For the Haitian head of state see Alexandre Pétion. For the 20th-century Belgian Byzantinologist see Henri Grégoire (historian Henri Grégoire (often referred to as Abbé Grégoire Charles Malo François Lameth ( October 5, 1757 - December 28, 1832) was a French politician and soldier Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbɛspjɛʁ ( 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) Armand II de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu duke of Aiguillon (1750 &ndash 4 May 1800) succeeded his father Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu duc d'Aiguillon Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux ( August 24, 1753 - March 24, 1824) was a French Politician, member of the French It also counted Indian ruler Tipu Sultan among its ranks. At this time its meetings occurred in secret and few traces remain of what took place at them.
After the March on Versailles in October 1789, the club, still entirely composed of deputies, followed the National Constituent Assembly to Paris, where it rented the refectory of the monastery of the Jacobins in the Rue St Honoré, adjacent to the seat of the Assembly. The March on Versailles, also known as The Bread March of Women, and The Women's March on Versailles, was an event in the French Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789, during the first stages of the Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The name "Jacobins", given in France to the Dominicans (because their first house in Paris was in the Rue St Jacques), was first applied to the club in ridicule by its enemies. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is The title assumed by the club itself, after the promulgation of the constitution of 1791, was Société des amis de la constitution séants aux Jacobins a Paris, which was changed on September 21, 1792, after the fall of the monarchy, to Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or It occupied successively the refectory, the library, and the chapel of the monastery.
Once in Paris, the club underwent rapid modifications. The first step was its expansion by the admission as members or associates of others besides deputies; Arthur Young entered the Club in this manner on January 18, 1790. Arthur Young ( September 11, 1741 - April 12, 1820) was an English writer on Agriculture, Economics and Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Jacobin Club meetings soon became a place for radical and rousing oratory that pushed for republicanism, widespread education, universal suffrage, separation of church and state, and other reforms. On February 8, 1790 the society became formally constituted on this broader basis by the adoption of the rules drawn up by Barnave, which were issued with the signature of the duc d'Aiguillon, the president. Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The objects of the club were defined as:
At the same time the rules of order and forms of election were settled, and the constitution of the club determined. There were to be a president, elected every month, four secretaries, a treasurer, and committees elected to superintend elections and presentations, the correspondence, and the administration of the club. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Any member who by word or action showed that his principles were contrary to the constitution and the rights of man was to be expelled, a rule which later on facilitated the "purification" of the society by the expulsion of its more moderate elements. By the 7th article the club decided to admit as associates similar societies in other parts of France and to maintain with them a regular correspondence.
This last provision was of far-reaching importance. By August 10, 1790 there were already one hundred and fifty-two affiliated clubs; the attempts at counter-revolution led to a great increase of their number in the spring of 1791, and by the close of the year the Jacobins had a network of branches all over France. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a Revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it in full or in part It was this widespread yet highly centralised organization that gave to the Jacobin Club its formidable power.
At the outset the Jacobin Club was not distinguished by unconventional political views. The somewhat high subscription confined its membership to well-off men, and to the last it was—so far as the central society in Paris was concerned—composed almost entirely of professional men, such as Robespierre, or well-to-do bourgeois, like the brewer Santerre. The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply for a fee to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot Antoine Joseph Santerre ( 16 March, 1752 – 6 February, 1809) was a businessman and general during during the French Revolution. From the first, however, other elements were present. Besides the teenage son of the Louis Philippe Joseph II, Duke of Orléans, Louis Philippe, a future king of France, liberal aristocrats of the type of the duc d'Aiguillon, the prince de Broglie, or the vicomte de Noailles, and the bourgeoise who formed the mass of the members, the club contained such figures as "Père" Michel Gerard, a peasant proprietor from Tuel-en-Montgermont, in Brittany, whose rough common sense was admired as the oracle of popular wisdom, and whose countryman’s waistcoat and plaited hair were later on to become the model for the Jacobin fashion. Louis Philippe II Joseph Duke of Orléans ( 13 April 1747 at Château de Saint Cloud, Saint-Cloud, France &ndash 6 November Louis Philippe ( 6 October 1773 &ndash 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the Charles-Louis-Victor prince de Broglie ( September 22, 1756 - June 27, 1794) was a French soldier and politician Louis-Marie vicomte de Noailles ( April 17, 1756 &ndash January 9, 1804) was the second son of Philippe duc de Mouchy, and a member The club ostensibly supported the monarchy up until the very eve of the republic; it took no part in the petition of the 17th of July 1791 for the king's dethronement, nor had it any officialshare even in the insurrections of June 10th and August 10th of 1792. 
The club was radicalized by the departure of its conservative members to form their own Feuillants Club in July of 1791. Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This club saw far less success than the Jacobins, surviving barely a year before its members were arrested and tried for treason.
After the fall of the monarchy Robespierre became, for all practical purposes, the central figure in the Jacobin Club. The French Revolution was a period in the History of France covering the years 1789 to 1799 in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy To the revolutionary tribunal he was the oracle of political wisdom, and by his standard all others were judged. Moreover, his harsh, republican "virtue" became the prevailing philosophy of the Jacobins, and, thus, eventually led to the Reign of Terror. The " Republic of Virtue " was a period in French history (1793-1794 where Maximilien Robespierre remained in power Saint justjpg|thumbnail|200px| Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just]] The Reign of Terror' (5 September 1793 &ndash 28 July 1794 or simply The Terror (la Terreur was
The Jacobins' overwhelming power rested on a very slender material basis. Some compared the club's autocracy to that of the Inquisition, with its system of espionage and denunciations which no one was too illustrious or too humble to escape. The power of the Jacobins was frequently felt through their influence with the Parisian underclass -- the sans-culottes -- who the Jacobins could reliably count on to support them, and to mass ominously in the streets and at the National Convention when a display of force was considered desirable. Sans-culottes ( French for "without Knee-breeches " was a term created around 1790 - 1792 by the French Aristocracy to describe the During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the Constitutional and legislative assembly Yet it was reckoned by competent observers that, at the height of the Terror, the Jacobins themselves could not command a force of more than 3000 men in Paris. A primary reason for their influence, or strength, was that, in the midst of the general disorganization in revolutionary Paris and in the provinces, they alone were organised. The police agent Dutard, in a report to the minister Garat (30 April 1793), describing an episode in the Palais Egalité (Royal), adds: "Why did a dozen Jacobins strike terror into two or three hundred aristocrats? It is that the former have a rallying-point and that the latter have none".
The reason for the actions of the Jacobins proffered by republican writers of later times, and some modern scholars, is that France was menaced by civil war within, and by a coalition of hostile powers without, requiring the discipline of the Terror to mold France into a united Republic capable of resisting this double peril.
The Jacobin Club was closed after the execution of Robespierre and other members on 9 Thermidor of the year II (July 27, 1794). The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a An attempt was made to re-open the club, which was joined by many of the enemies of the Thermidorians, but on 21 Brumaire, year III (November 11, 1794), it was definitively closed. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Its members and their sympathizers were scattered among the cafés, where a ruthless war of sticks and chairs was waged against them by the young "aristocrats" known as the jeunesse dorée. Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. Nevertheless the Jacobins survived, in a somewhat subterranean fashion, emerging again in the club of the Panthéon, founded on November 25, 1795, and suppressed in the following February (see Babeuf). Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a François-Noël Babeuf ( November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797) known as Gracchus Babeuf (in tribute to the Roman reformers
The last attempt to reorganise Jacobin adherents was the foundation of the Réunion d'amis de l'égalité et de la liberté, in July 1799, which had its headquarters in the Salle du Manège of the Tuileries, and was thus known as the Club du Manège. The indoor Riding academy called the Salle du Manège was the seat of deliberations during most of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1798 The Palais des Tuileries was a royal Palace in Paris. It stood on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed It was patronized by Barras, and some two hundred and fifty members of the two councils of the legislature were enrolled as members, including many notable ex-Jacobins. Paul François Jean Nicolas vicomte de Barras ( June 30, 1755 &mdash January 29, 1829) was a French politician of the It published a newspaper called the Journal des Libres, proclaimed the apotheosis of Robespierre and Babeuf, and attacked the Directory as a royauté pentarchique. François-Noël Babeuf ( November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797) known as Gracchus Babeuf (in tribute to the Roman reformers The Executive Directory ( Directoire exécutif) was a body of 5 single-male Directors that held executive power in France following But public opinion was now preponderatingly moderate or royalist, and the club was violently attacked in the press and in the streets, the suspicions of the government were aroused; it had to change its meeting-place from the Tuileries to the church of the Jacobins (Temple of Peace) in the Rue du Bac, and in August it was suppressed, after barely a month’s existence. Its members revenged themselves on the Directory by supporting Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Napoleon took advantage of this.
The Jacobin movement encouraged sentiments of patriotism and liberty amongst the populace. The movement's contemporaries, such as King Louis XVI, located the effectiveness of the revolutionary movement not "in the force and bayonets of soldiers, guns, cannons and shells but by the marks of political power" (Schama; 1989; 279). Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre Ultimately, the Jacobins were to control several key political bodies, in particular the Committee of Public Safety and, through it, the National Convention, which was not only a legislature but also took upon itself executive and judicial functions. The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public le Haut Comité de la santé publique which is an entirely unrelated present-day institution--> set up by the During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the Constitutional and legislative assembly A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Jacobins as a political force were seen as "less selfish, more patriotic, and more sympathetic to the Paris Populace" (Bosher; 1989; 186). This gave them a position of charismatic authority that was effective in generating and harnessing public pressure, generating and satisfying sans-culotte pleas for personal freedom and social progress.
The Jacobin Club developed into a bureau for French Republicanism and revolutionary purity, and abandoned its original laissez faire economic views in favor of interventionism. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Economic interventionism, is a common term used to describe any activity beyond the basic regulation of fraud and enforcement of contracts undertaken by a government in an effort to affect In power, they completed the abolition of feudalism that had been formally decided August 4, 1789, but had been held in check by a clause requiring compensation for the abrogation of the feudal privileges. The French Revolution was a period in the History of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed
Maximilien Robespierre entered the political arena at the very beginning of the Revolution, having been elected to represent Artois at the Estates General. Artois (Artesië (adjective Artesian) is a former province of northern France. Robespierre was viewed as the quintessential political force of the Jacobin Movement, thrusting ever deeper the dagger of liberty within the despotism of the Monarchy. As a disciple of Rousseau, Robespierre's political views were rooted in Rousseau's notion of the social contract, which promoted "the rights of man" (Schama; 1989; 475), but his was a vision of collective rights, rather than the rights of each individual. Social contract describes a broad class of republican theories whose subjects are implied agreements by which people form Nations and maintain a Social order Robespierre expressed this view in the December 1792 condemnation of Louis XVI to death for treason:"It is with regret that I pronounce, the fatal truth: Louis ought to perish rather than a hundred thousand virtuous citizens; Louis must die, that the country may live. " (Britannica, 1911)
The ultimate political vehicle for the Jacobin movement was the Reign of Terror overseen by the Committee of Public Safety, who were given executive powers to purify and unify the Republic. The Committee instituted requisitioning, rationing, and conscription to consolidate new citizen armies. Eminent domain ( United States) compulsory purchase ( United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland) resumption/compulsory acquisition Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority They instituted the Terror as a means of destroying those they perceived as enemies within: "Terror", said Robespierre, "is only justice that is prompt, severe and inflexible".
The cultural influence of the Jacobin movement during the French Revolution revolved around the creation of the Citizen. As commented in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 1762 book The Social Contract, "Citizenship is the expression of a sublime reciprocity between individual and General will" (Schama; 1989; 354). This view of citizenship and the General Will , once empowered, could simultaneously embrace the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and adopt the liberal French Constitution of 1793, then immediately suspend that constitution and all ordinary legality and institute Revolutionary Tribunals that did not grant a presumption of innocence. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining The Constitution of 1793, Constitution of 24 June 1793 ( French: " Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793 ") or Montagnard The Revolutionary Tribunal (Tribunal révolutionnaire was a Court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution The presumption of innocence being innocent until proven guilty is a legal Right that the Accused in Criminal trials has
The Jacobins saw themselves as constitutionalists, dedicated to the Rights of Man, and, in particular, to the Declaration's principle of "preservation of the natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" (Article II of the Declaration). The constitution reassured the protection of personal freedom and social progress within French society. The cultural influence of the Jacobin movement was effective in reinforcing these rudiments, developing a milieu for revolution. The Constitution was admired by most Jacobins as the foundation of the emerging republic and of the rise of citizenship.
Foes of both the Church and of atheism, advocating deliberate government-organized terror as a substitute for both the rule of law and the more arbitrary terror of mob violence, inheritors of a war that, at the time of their rise to power, threatened the very existence of the Revolution, the Jacobins in power completed the overthrow of the Ancien Régime and successfully defended the Revolution from military defeat. Atheism The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1792 until 1802 fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states Ancien Régime ( pronounced: /ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim/ refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in However, to do so, they brought the Revolution to its bloodiest phase, and the one with least regard for just treatment of individuals. Although they doubtless consolidated republicanism in France and contributed greatly to the secularism and the sense of nationhood that have marked all French republican regimes to this day, their methods discredited the Revolution in the eyes of many who had previously supported it. Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Despite the fact that there were Jacobins among those who brought down Robespierre and the rest of The Mountain, the resulting Thermidorian reaction shuttered all of the Jacobin clubs, removed all Jacobins from power, and condemned many, well beyond the ranks of the Mountain, to death or deadly exile. The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group whose members called The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone That Britannica article, in turn, gives the following references: