Islamic calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.  This art has most often employed the Arabic script, throughout many languages. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa such as Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an. Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran
Throughout Islamic history, the work of calligraphers was collected and appreciated. Consideration of figurative art as idolatrous led to calligraphy and abstract figures becoming the main methods of artistic expression in Islamic cultures. 
Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (the Arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The arabesque is an elaborative application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings
Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The holy book of Islam, the Qur'an, has played an important role in the development and evolution of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy. A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) also called a byword or nayword, is a simple and concrete Saying popularly known and repeated The Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters and 18 different forms of writing. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa such as Arabic, Persian, and Urdu.
The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. It would be the main script used to copy the Qur'an for three centuries and was made in 537c. e. Its static aspect made it suitable for monumental inscriptions, too. A monument is a structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of past It would develop many serifs, small decorations added to each character. Origins & etymology Serifs are thought to have originated in the Roman alphabet with inscriptional lettering —words carved into stone in Roman antiquity
More often used for casual writing was the cursive Naskh script, with rounder letters and thin lines. For the indie rock band see Cursive (band. Cursive is any style of handwriting that is designed for writing down notes and Naskh (نسخ also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih, from Arabic نسخ nasakha, naskh meaning "to copy" As techniques for writing in this style were refined, it would come to be preferred to Kufic for copying the Qur'an. Most children are taught Naskh first, and at a later stage they are introduced to the Ruq'ah (also known as Riq'a) script. Ruq'ah or Riq'a ( Arabic: الرقعة) is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script. Ruq'ah or Riq'a ( Arabic: الرقعة) is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script. Almost all printed material in Arabic is in Naskh so, to avoid confusion, children are taught to write in the same script. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press It is also clearer and easier to decipher.
In the 13th century, the Thuluth would take on the ornamental role formerly associated with the Kufic script. Thuluth ( Arabic: ثلث "one-third" Turkish: Sülüs) is a script variety of Islamic calligraphy, which made its first appearance Thuluth meaning "one third", it is based on the principle that one third of each letter slides downward. Thus it has a strong cursive aspect and is usually written in ample curves.
As the Persians converted to Islam, they took to using Arabic script for their own language, Farsi. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox They contributed to Arabic calligraphy the Ta'liq and Nasta'liq styles. (also anglicized as Nastaleeq;) is one of the main genres of Islamic calligraphy. The latter is extremely cursive, with exaggeratedly long horizontal strokes. One of its peculiarities is that vertical strokes lean to the right rather than (as more commonly) to the left, making Nasta'liq writing flow particularly well. The Persians also developed a style called shekasteh ('broken' in Persian). Shekasteh has seldom been used for scripting Arabic texts, though it is an Arabic calligraphy style. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottoman Turks (16th and early 17th centuries). Diwani is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script a Cursive style developed during the reign of the early Ottoman Turks (16th century - early The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Süleyman I the Magnificent (1520–66). Suleiman I (سليمان Sulaymān, Süleyman almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) ( 6 November 1494 5/ 6 September 1566 As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.
A variation of the Diwani, the Diwani Al Jali, is characterized by its abundance of diacritical and ornamental marks. A diacritic ( also called a diacritic or diacritical mark, point, or sign, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation
Finally, the most commonly used script for everyday use is Ruq'ah (also known as Riq'a). Ruq'ah or Riq'a ( Arabic: الرقعة) is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script. Ruq'ah or Riq'a ( Arabic: الرقعة) is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script. Simple and easy to write, its movements are small, without much amplitude. It is the one most commonly seen. It's also considered a step up from the Naskh script, and as children get older they are taught this script in school.
In China, a calligraphic form called Sini has been developed. Sini is a Chinese Islamic calligraphic form for the Arabic script. This form has evident influences from Chinese calligraphy, using a horsehair brush as opposed to the standard reed pen. The art of Calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian Civilizations that use or used Chinese characters. A famous modern calligrapher in this tradition is Hajji Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang . Hajji (الحجّي al-ḥağğī Hadžija Pilgrim) or El-Hajj, is an honorific title given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed Hajji Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang (米廣江 born 1963 is an expert in Islamic calligraphy, specializing in the Sini style which originated from
Calligraphy, the most Islamic of arts in the Muslim world, has also its figurative sides. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 By interweaving written words, made from an "Allah", a "Muhammad", a "Bismillah", etc. Basmala (Arabic بسملة is an Arabic language noun which is used as the collective name of the whole of the recurring Islamic phrase bismi-llāhi ar-raḥmāni , or using micrography, calligraphers produced anthropomorphic figures ('Ali, the Ideal Human of mystics, a praying man, a face), zoomorphisms (symbolical creatures, most from the Shi'a iconography, like the lion (Duldul, horse of 'Ali, horse ('Ali's Duldul), fish, stork or other bird (the qur'anic Hudhud)) and unanimated representations (a sword (Dhu al-Fiqar), a mosque, a ship (made from the letter and Arabic grammatical conjunction waw, symbol of mystical union)). Micrography (a Greek word that literally stands for micro-writing - "Μικρογραφία" also called microcalligraphy, is a Jewish art form developed ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Zulfiqar "Spinecleaver" (ذو الفقار Dhū l-Fiqār) is the legendary sword of the Islamic leader ‘Alī. Waw ( also spelled vav or vau) (In Hebrew Vav) is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic Calligrams are related to Muslim mysticism and popular with many leading calligraphers in Turkey, Persia and India from the 17th century onward. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace (such as "initial ha' looks in nasta'liq similar to two eyes like his Persian name implies: "ha' two eyes" he' do tcheshm). In literature and poetry seeing in letters a reflection of the natural world goes back to the Abbasid times.
One of the contemporary masters of the calligram genre is Hassan Massoudy. Hassan Massoudy (حسن المسعود الخطاط is an Iraqi calligrapher who has published many collections of his work
A good example is the logo of Al Jazeera, a local/international news station based at Qatar. For the English-language channel see Al Jazeera English Al Jazeera (الجزيرة al-jazīrah,, meaning "The Island" Qatar ( قطر; ˈqɑtˁɑr local pronunciation giṭar officially the State of Qatar (Arabic دولة قطر transliterated
The traditional instrument of the Arabic calligrapher is the qalam, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. A qalam ( قلم) is a type of pen made from a dried reed, used for Arabic calligraphy. A pen (Latin pinna, feather is a Writing instrument used to apply Ink to a surface usually Paper. Phragmites australis, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in Wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily An ink is a Liquid containing various Pigments and/or Dyes used for coloring a surface to produce an Image, text, or
A variety of media were employed for presenting calligraphy. Before the advent of paper, papyrus and parchment were used for writing. The advent of paper revolutionized calligraphy. While monasteries in Europe treasured a few dozen volumes, libraries in the Muslim world regularly contained hundreds and even thousands of volumes of books. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings 
Another medium for calligraphy were coins. Beginning in 692, the Islamic caliphate reformed the coinage of the Near East by replacing visual depiction by words. This was especially true for dinars, or gold coins of high value. Generally the coins were inscribed with quotes from the Qur'an.
By the tenth century, the Persians, who had converted to Islam, began weaving inscriptions on to elaborately patterned silks. So precious were calligraphic inscribed textile, that Crusaders brought them to Europe as prized possessions. A notable example is the Shroud of St. Josse, used to wrap the bones of St. Josse in the abbey of St. Josse-sur-Mer near Caen in northwestern France. 
Some contemporary calligraphers: