The Iron Cross (German: ), sometimes mistakenly called the Maltese cross, is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia, and later of Germany, which was established by King Frederick William III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 in Breslau (now Wrocław). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The Maltese cross or Amalfi cross is identified as the symbol of an order of Christian warriors known as the Knights Hospitaller or Knights of Malta A military decoration is a decoration given to Military personnel or units for Heroism in battle or distinguished service The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Early life The son of King Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick William was born in Potsdam and became Crown Prince in 1786 when his father ascended Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia In addition to the Napoleonic Wars, the Iron Cross was awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, the First World War, and the Second World War. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The Iron Cross has not been awarded since May 1945 and is awarded only in wartime. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units It is normally a military decoration only — though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. As an example, the civilian pilot Hanna Reitsch was awarded the Iron Cross First Class by Adolf Hitler for her bravery as a test pilot and was one of only two women awarded the Iron Cross First Class during World War II. Hanna Reitsch ( 29 March 1912 &ndash 24 August 1979) was a German Aviatrix who was once Adolf Hitler 's Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
The Iron Cross originally was the symbol of the Teutonic Knights (a heraldic cross pattée), and the cross design (but not the specific decoration) has been the symbol of Germany's armed forces (now the Bundeswehr) since ca. The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. A cross pattée (also known as a "cross pattee" "cross patty" or "cross formy" or in German "Tatzenkreuz" is a type of The Bundeswehr ( German for "Federal Defence Force") is the name of the unified Armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany 1870.
The Iron Cross was originally made of a black-white ribbon sewn together as a cross. Later it was made as a metal cross. The Iron Cross (a black four-pointed cross with white trim, with the arms widening towards the ends, similar to a cross pattée), was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century, which was also the emblem of Frederick the Great. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half A cross pattée (also known as a "cross pattee" "cross patty" or "cross formy" or in German "Tatzenkreuz" is a type of Karl Friedrich Schinkel ( March 13, 1781 – October 9, 1841) was a German Architect The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. Frederick II (Friedrich II January 24 1712 August 17 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740&ndash1786 from the When the Quadriga of the Goddess of Peace was retrieved from Paris at Napoleon's fall, the Goddess was re-established atop Berlin's Brandenburg Gate. SpecialContributions/ --> A quadriga ( Latin quadri-, four and jungere, to yoke is a car Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor is a former City gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin and Germany. An Iron Cross was inserted into her laurel wreath, making her into a Goddess of Victory. The Bay Laurel ( Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae) also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, or A wreath is a ring made of Flowers leaves and sometimes Fruits that can be used as an ornament hanging on a wall or door or resting In Roman mythology, Victoria was the personification/Goddess of victory
In contrast to many other medals, the Iron Cross has a very simple design and is made from relatively cheap and common materials. It was traditionally cast in iron, although in later years, the decoration was cast in zinc and aluminium. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 WikipediaNaming
The ribbon for the 1813, 1870, and 1914 Iron Cross (2nd Class) was black with two thin white bands. A ribbon or riband is a thin band of flexible material typically Cloth but also Plastic or sometimes Metal, used primarily for binding and tying The noncombatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black and white colors on the ribbon were reversed. Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing Civilians not engaged in combat
Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it is annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued. For example, an Iron Cross from the First World War bears the year "1914", while the same decoration from the Second World War is annotated "1939". The reverse of the 1870, 1914, and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year "1813" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the first year the award was created.
It was also possible for a holder of the 1914 Iron Cross to be awarded a higher grade of the 1939 Iron Cross. An award of the first or second class was also possible. In such cases a "1939 Clasp" (Spange) would be worn on the original 1914 Iron Cross. (A similar award was made in 1914 but was quite rare, since there were few in service who held the 1870 Iron Cross. )
The Iron Cross was founded on 10 March 1813 in Breslau and awarded to soldiers during the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Wrocław (Breslau Vratislav Vratislavia or Wratislavia Yiddish: ברעסלוי) is the chief City of the historical region of Lower Silesia In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814 a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number King William I of Prussia authorized further awards on 19 July 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Recipients of the 1870 Iron Cross who were still in service in 1895 were authorized to purchase a 25-year clasp consisting of the numerals "25" on three oak leaves. The Iron Cross was reauthorized by Emperor William II on 5 August 1914, at the start of the First World War. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year During these three periods, the Iron Cross was an award of the Kingdom of Prussia, although given Prussia's preeminent place in the German Empire formed in 1871, it tended to be treated as a generic German decoration. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification
The 1813, 1870, and 1914 Iron Crosses had three grades:
Although the medals of each class were identical, the manner in which each was worn differed. The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was a decoration intended for victorious generals of the Prussian Army and its Allies. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Employing a pin or screw posts on the back of the medal, the Iron Cross First Class was worn on the left side of the recipient's uniform. The Grand Cross and the Iron Cross Second Class were suspended from different ribbons.
The Grand Cross was intended for senior generals of the German Army. An even higher decoration, the Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, was awarded only twice, to Field Marshal Gebhard von Blücher in 1813 and to Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg in 1918. The Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was the highest Military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Fürst (Prince von Wahlstatt (gɛphaɐt lebəʁɛçt fɔn blyçɐ December 16 1742 - September 12 1819 Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 A third award was planned for the most successful German general during the Second World War, but was not made after the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Iron Cross 1st Class and the Iron Cross 2nd Class were awarded without regard to rank. One had to already possess the 2nd Class in order to receive the 1st Class (though in some cases both could be awarded simultaneously). The egalitarian nature of this award contrasted with most other German states (and indeed many other European monarchies), where military decorations were awarded based on the rank of the recipient. For example, Bavarian officers received various grades of that Kingdom's Military Merit Order (Militär-Verdienstorden), while enlisted men received various grades of the Military Merit Cross (Militär-Verdienstkreuz). Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Prussia did have other orders and medals, however, which were awarded on the basis of rank, and even though the Iron Cross was intended to be awarded without regard to rank, officers and NCOs were more likely to receive it than junior enlisted soldiers.
In the First World War, approximately 4,000,000 Iron Crosses of the lower grade (2nd Class) were issued, as well as around 145,000 of the higher grade (1st Class).  Exact numbers of awards are not known, since the Prussian archives were destroyed during the Second World War. The multitude of awards reduced the status and reputation of the decoration. One of the most famous holders of the 1914 Iron Cross 1st Class was Adolf Hitler, which was unusual as very few holders of the 1914 Iron Cross 1st Class were enlisted soldiers; Hitler held the rank of Gefreiter, or Corporal. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Gefreiter is the German, Swiss and Austrian equivalent for Private (OR-2 (US Army E-2) in the armed services Hitler can be seen wearing the award on his left breast, as was standard, in many photographs.
Adolf Hitler restored the Iron Cross in 1939 as a German decoration (rather than Prussian as in earlier versions), continuing the tradition of issuing it in various grades. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Legally it is based on the enactment (Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573) of 1 September 1939 Verordnung über die Erneuerung des Eisernen Kreuzes (Regulation of the renewing of the Iron Cross). Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Iron Cross of the Second World War was divided into three main series of decorations with an intermediate category, the Knight's Cross, instituted between the lowest, the Iron Cross, and the highest, the Grand Cross. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross ( German language: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, often simply Ritterkreuz) was a grade of the Iron Cross The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was a decoration intended for victorious generals of the Prussian Army and its Allies. The Knight's Cross replaced the Prussian Pour le Mérite or "Blue Max". The Pour le Mérite, known informally during World War I as the Blue Max (Blauer Max was the Kingdom of Prussia 's highest military order until Hitler did not care for the Pour le Mérite, as it was a Prussian order that could be awarded only to officers. The ribbon of the medal (2nd class and Knight's Cross) was different from the earlier Iron Crosses in that the color red was used in addition to the traditional black and white (black and white were the colors of Prussia, while black, white, and red were the colors of Germany). Hitler also created the War Merit Cross as a replacement for the noncombatant version of the Iron Cross. The War Merit Cross (Kriegsverdienstkreuz was a decoration of Nazi Germany during the Second World War, which could be awarded to civilians as well as military personnel
The standard 1939 Iron Cross was issued in the following two grades:
The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other military contributions in a battlefield environment.
The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of three different methods:
The Iron Cross First Class was a pin-on medal with no ribbon and was worn centered on a uniform breast pocket, either on dress uniforms or everyday outfit. It was a progressive award, with second class having to be earned before the first class and so on for the higher degrees.
It is estimated that some five million Second Class Iron Crosses were awarded in the Second World War, and 730,000 in the First Class . Two Iron Cross First Class recipients were women, one of whom was test pilot Hanna Reitsch. Hanna Reitsch ( 29 March 1912 &ndash 24 August 1979) was a German Aviatrix who was once Adolf Hitler 's Two Jewish officers of the Finnish army and one female Lotta Svärd member were awarded Iron Crosses, but they would not accept them. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Finnish Army ( Finnish: Maavoimat, Swedish: Armén) is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces Lotta Svärd was a Finnish voluntary auxiliary Paramilitary organisation for women 
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, often simply Ritterkreuz) recognized extreme battlefield bravery or successful leadership. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross ( German language: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, often simply Ritterkreuz) was a grade of the Iron Cross The Knight's Cross was divided into five degrees:
In total, 7,313 awards of the Knight's Cross were made. Only 883 received the Oak Leaves; 160 both the Oak Leaves and Swords (including Japanese admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (posthumously)); 27 with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds; and one with the Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Fleet Admiral ( 4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was the Commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II a Hans-Ulrich Rudel ( July 2, 1916 – December 18, 1982) was a Stuka dive-bomber pilot during World War II.
Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring never held the Diamonds. Werner Mölders ( March 18, 1913 – November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Adolf "Dolfo" Joseph Ferdinand Galland ( 19 March 1912 9 February 1996) was a World War II German fighter Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gordon M Gollob ( 16 June 1912 &ndash 8 September 1987) was an Austrian fighter pilot and Flying ace Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hans-Joachim Marseille (13 December 1919&ndash30 September 1942 German /hants joːaxɪm maʀsɛj/ was a Luftwaffe fighter pilot and Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Helmut Lent (13 June 1918 - 7 October 1944 was an "Ace" German fighter pilot of World War II, and one of only 27 people awarded the Knight's Cross with Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer ( February 16, 1922 - July 15, 1950) is considered on of the top Night fighter aces of all time Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Major Walter "Nowi" Nowotny ( December 7, 1920 &ndash November 8, 1944) was an Austrian -born German Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hans-Ulrich Rudel ( July 2, 1916 – December 18, 1982) was a Stuka dive-bomber pilot during World War II. Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Erich Alfred "Bubi" Hartmann (19 April 1922 &ndash 20 September 1993 also nicknamed " The Blond Knight of Germany " by friends and " The Black Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Colonel Hermann Graf ( 24 October, 1912 - 11 April, 1988) was a German Luftwaffe World War II Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member He, being one of the first soldiers presented with the Knight's Cross in 1939, was presented with the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross in 1940.
Submarine captains of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine):
Field Marshals (Generalfeldmarschälle):
Like the Knight's Cross, the Grand Cross (Großkreuz) was also worn suspended from the collar. Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz ( July 30, 1893 - April 25, 1968) was a German Army officer Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Josef "Sepp" Dietrich ( May 28, 1892 –April 21/22 1966 was a German Waffen-SS general an SS-Oberstgruppenführer Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hans-Valentin Hube ( 29 October 1890 &ndash 21 April 1944) was a German General who served in the German Army Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was a decoration intended for victorious generals of the Prussian Army and its Allies. The only recipient of the Grand Cross during the Second World War was Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who was awarded the decoration on July 19, 1940. Reichsmarschall (Marshal of the Empire or Imperial Marshal in English) was the highest rank in the Armed forces of Nazi Germany during Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The medal is in effect an oversized Knight's Cross. It had the same overall characteristics as the Knights Cross but was much larger, measuring 63 mm in width as opposed to about 44 mm for the Iron Cross and 48. 5 mm for the Knight's Cross. It was originally intended to have outer edges lined in gold, but this was changed to silver before the award was presented.
The Grand Cross was worn with a 57 mm-wide ribbon bearing the same colors as the Knights Cross and 2nd Class ribbons. The award case was in red leather with the eagle and the swastika outlined in gold. Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is
The Grand Cross was not a bravery award. It was reserved solely for General Staff officers for "the most outstanding strategic decisions affecting the course of the war". Göring received the Grand Cross for his command of the Luftwaffe during the successful 1940 campaigns against France, Belgium, and the Netherlands (at the same time as he was promoted to Reichsmarschall of the Greater German Reich). ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. In World War II, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb the German invasion of the Low Countries ( Belgium Reichsmarschall (Marshal of the Empire or Imperial Marshal in English) was the highest rank in the Armed forces of Nazi Germany during Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers
The original Grand Cross that was presented to Göring (personally by Hitler) was destroyed during an air raid on his Berlin home. Göring had extra copies made, one of them with a platinum frame that he was wearing at the time of his surrender to the allies in 1945. Platinum (ˈplætɪnəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic symbol Pt and an Atomic number of 78
Several times in official photographs, Göring can be seen wearing his Pour le Mérite, Knights Cross, and Grand Cross around his neck at the same time. The Pour le Mérite, known informally during World War I as the Blue Max (Blauer Max was the Kingdom of Prussia 's highest military order until
The Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (also called Iron Cross with Golden Rays) was meant to be worn like the Iron Cross First class (pinned to the breast. The Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was the highest Military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ) Like the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, this award was not intended to be bestowed for bravery. Rather, it is bestowed upon the most successful General officer at the conclusion of a war.
The first Star of the Grand Cross was presented to Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher for defeating Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo, 1815. Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Fürst (Prince von Wahlstatt (gɛphaɐt lebəʁɛçt fɔn blyçɐ December 16 1742 - September 12 1819 Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In the Battle of Waterloo (Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo Belgium That medal is called the Blücherstern (Blücher's Star). The second version of the Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was presented to Paul von Hindenburg for the German victories over the British in the German offensives in March and April 1918. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 See Spring Offensive. The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the A Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was manufactured for the Second World War, but it was never awarded. The only known example was found by Allied occupation forces at the end of the war, and was eventually added to the West Point military collection. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, It is generally believed that Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring was the intended eventual recipient. Reichsmarschall (Marshal of the Empire or Imperial Marshal in English) was the highest rank in the Armed forces of Nazi Germany during Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member The design was based on the 1914 version of the Star of the Grand Cross, but with the 1939 Iron Cross as the centerpiece.
Officers awarded the Iron Cross were given entitlements and often wore signifying articles, such as an Iron Cross signet ring or cloth Iron Cross which could be affixed to clothing. Also, during the Nazi period, those attaining more than one award, for example, an officer who had attained an Iron Cross 1st class, an Iron Cross 2nd class and the Knight's Cross of the Order of the Iron Cross with the Oak Leaves, were entitled to wear a pin which exhibited three Iron Crosses with an exaggerated swastika, thereby consolidating the awards.
The Iron Cross is solely a wartime decoration and has not been awarded since the end of the Second World War. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout German law prohibits the wearing of a swastika, so in 1957 the West German government authorized replacement Iron Crosses with an Oak Leaf Cluster in place of the swastika, similar to the Iron Crosses of 1813, 1870, and 1914, which could be worn by World War II Iron Cross recipients. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( The 1957 law also authorized de-Nazified versions of most other World War II-era decorations (except those specifically associated with Nazi Party organizations, such as SS Long Service medals, or with the expansion of the German Reich, such as the medals for the annexation of Austria, the Sudetenland, and the Memel region). Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Sudetenland ( Czech and Polish: Sudety) is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the western regions of The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet Territoire de Memel was defined by the Treaty of Versailles In 2007, a petition to the German parliament to revive the Iron Cross decoration received over 5,000 signatures and support.
The Iron Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army until 1915, when it was replaced by a simpler Greek cross. The German Army (Deutsches Heer heɐ) is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half However, on 1 October 1956 the President of Germany, Theodor Heuss, gave directions to use the Iron Cross as the official emblem of West Germany's Bundeswehr. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The President of Germany (deutscher Bundespräsident is Germany 's Head of state. Theodor Heuss ( 31 January 1884 &ndash 12 December 1963) was a German politician Today, after German reunification, it appears in the colours blue and silver as the symbol of the "new" Bundeswehr. German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung took place twice after 1945 first in 1957 the Saarland was permitted to join the Federal Republic of Germany This design does not replace the traditional black Iron Cross, however, which can be found on all armoured vehicles, tanks, naval vessels, planes, and even UAVs of today's German forces. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is an unpiloted Aircraft. UAVs can be remote controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic
The Iron Cross is often worn by certain members of the biker community as a sign of rebellion but today is perceived as a symbol of honour, valour, strength and standing up for one's beliefs.
The Simpsons character Abraham Simpson claims to have won the Iron Cross medal during World War II, for directing US trucks into German minefields. Abraham "Abe" "Grampa" J Simpson (voiced by Dan Castellaneta) is a Fictional character featured in the Animated cartoon Television
German band Rammstein replace the letter "t" in their name with an iron cross symbol as part of their logo. Rammstein (ˈʀamʃtaɪ̯n is a German Industrial metal band founded in Berlin, and consisting of Till Lindemann ( lead vocals
The members of English hard rock band Sweet used to wear iron cross necklaces. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Hard rock (also referred to as heavy rock) is a variation of Rock music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage and Psychedelic rock Sweet (referred to as The Sweet on albums before 1974 and singles before 1975 were a popular 1970s British band.
Ruki, singer of Japanese hard rock band The Gazette, commonly wears an iron cross necklace. Hard rock (also referred to as heavy rock) is a variation of Rock music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage and Psychedelic rock is a Japanese rock band and part of the Visual kei movement The band formed in early 2002 and is currently signed to PS Company and King Records
Lemmy of Motörhead fame also regularly wears an iron cross necklace and has one on his bass. Lemmy (born Ian Fraser Kilmister, December 24 1945) also known as Lemmy Kilmister, Ian Willis or Lemmy von Motörhead Similar habit was since adopted by numerous heavy metal musicians, for example by Peter of Vader. Piotr Wiwczarek (born 22 October 1965 in Poland) also known as Peter, is a Polish Guitarist and Vocalist, member Vader is a Polish Death metal band from Olsztyn, Poland founded in 1986
Mark Cross of Greek heavy metal band Firewind has been known to use cymbals in the shape of Iron Crosses. Firewind is a Greek Power metal band that was originally created as a way for Guitarist Gus G Cymbals are a modern percussion instrument Cymbals consist of thin normally round plates of various Cymbal alloys; see Cymbal making for a discussion of their
In the Sam Peckinpah movie Cross of Iron, the medal was the background of the conflict between the characters Steiner and Stransky. David Samuel "Sam" Peckinpah (February 21 1925 &ndash December 28 1984 was an American Film director who achieved iconic status following the release Cross of Iron is a 1977 War film directed by Sam Peckinpah, featuring James Coburn, James Mason, Maximilian Schell
Triple H of World Wrestling Entertainment is known for wearing the Iron Cross on his trunks or on his shirts. Paul Michael Levesque better known by his Ring name Triple H, an abbreviation of his former ring name Hunter Hearst Helmsley World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet,
In the popular tabletop Warhammer: 40000 wargames and its subsequent adaptations, the Crux Terminatus worn by the various Space Marine Terminator Units are basically an Iron Cross with a stylized skull, and is meant to denote veterans of the highest caliber. James Alan Hetfield (born August 3, 1963, in Downey California) is the main Songwriter, co-founder vocalist and Rhythm guitarist Metallica is an American heavy metal band that formed in 1981 in. For the Warhammer 40000 army see Adeptus Astartes Space marines are Fictional Soldiers that operate in Outer space.
Skateboard brand "Independent" uses an iron cross as their logo.
In Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, Justice Fortas states that "some even wore the Iron Cross, traditionally a symbol of Nazism. " 319 U. S. 624 (1969). This was said in passing, while discussing the school's ban on black arm bands, but not other symbols.
The US Army uses the iron cross for it weapons qualification badges of Marksmen, Sharpshooter, and Expert.
In the film "Hellboy", Karl Rupert Kroenen was seen in the beginning wearing a black trench coat and Nazi uniform, including a first-rank iron cross necklace.
In the cartoon series "Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog", several episodes depicted Dr. Robotnik wearing a military uniform which included the Iron Cross. A cartoon series is a set of regularly presented animated Television programs created or adapted for television broadcast with a common series title usually related Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog is an American animated series that was first broadcast in September 1993, and has been running in Cartoon also known by his alias, is a video game character and main Antagonist of the Sonic the Hedgehog series Military uniforms comprises standardised Dress worn by members of the Armed forces of various nations
Nikki Sixx of Motley Crue uses the iron cross as the inlays of his signature bass, The BlackBird