The history of Irish poetry includes the poetries of two languages, one in Irish and the other in English. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The complex interplay between these two traditions, and between both of them and other poetries in English, has produced a body of work that is both rich in variety and difficult to categorise.
The earliest surviving poems in Irish date back to the 6th century, while the first known poems in English from Ireland date to the 14th century. Although some cross-fertilization between the two language traditions has always happened, the final emergence of an English-language poetry that had absorbed themes and models from Irish did not appear until the 19th century. This culminated in the work of the poets of the Celtic Revival at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Celtic Revival covers a variety of movements and trends mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries which drew on Celtic art and traditions
Towards the last quarter of the century, modern Irish poetry has tended to a wide range of diversity, from the poets of the Northern school to writers influenced by the modernist tradition and those facing the new questions posed by an increasingly urban and cosmopolitan society. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century
Poetry in Irish represents the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe. Vernacular literature is Literature written in the Vernacular - the speech of the "common people" The earliest examples date from the 6th century, and are generally short lyrics on themes from religion or the world of nature. Lyrics (in singular form Lyric) are a set of words that accompany music either by speaking or singing A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos They were frequently written by their scribe authors in the margins of the illuminated manuscripts that they were copying. A scribe (or scrivener) is a person who writes books or documents by hand as a profession An illuminated manuscript is a Manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration such as decorated Initials borders and Another source of early Irish poetry is the poems in the tales and sagas, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge. Unlike many other European epic cycles, the Irish sagas were written in prose, with verse interpolations at moments of heightened tension or emotion. For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. Although usually surviving in recensions dating from the later medieval period, these sagas and especially the poetic sections, are linguistically archaic, and afford the reader a glimpse of pre-Christian Ireland.
Irish bards formed a professional hereditary caste of highly trained, learned poets. Bardic Poetry refers to the writings of poets trained in the Bardic Schools of Ireland and the Gaelic parts of Scotland, as they existed down Briton Rivière ( August 14, 1840 &ndash 1920 English Artist, was born in London. Edmund Spenser (c 1552 &ndash 13 January, 1599) was an important English Poet and Poet Laureate best known for The The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590 and later in six books in 1596 Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. The bards were steeped in the history and traditions of clan and country, as well as in the technical requirements of a verse technique that was syllabic and used assonance, half rhyme and alliteration. A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor Syllabic verse is a Poetic form having a fixed number of Syllables per Line Assonance is repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within Phrases or Sentences, and together with Alliteration Half rhyme, sometimes called slant, sprung, near rhyme, oblique rhyme, off rhyme or imperfect rhyme is Consonance Alliteration is the repetition of the first Consonant sound in a phrase As officials of the court of king or chieftain, they performed a number of official roles. They were chroniclers and satirists whose job it was to praise their employers and damn those who crossed them. Generally a chronicle (chronica from Greek (from) is a historical account of facts and events in chronological order Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human It was believed that a well-aimed bardic satire, glam dicin, could raise boils on the face of its target. However, much of their work would not strike the modern reader as being poetry at all, consisting as it does of extended genealogies and almost journalistic accounts of the deeds of their lords and ancestors.
The Metrical Dindshenchas, or Lore of Places, is probably the major surviving monument of Irish bardic verse. Dindsenchas (also dindshenchas, dinnsheanchas, other spellings Old / Middle Irish "tradition or lore of places" the It is a great onomastic anthology of naming legends of significant places in the Irish landscape and comprises about 176 poems in total. Onomastics or onomatology is the study of proper Names of all kinds and the origins of names The earliest of these date from the 11th century, and were probably originally compiled on a provincial basis. As a national compilation, the Metrical Dindshenchas has come down to us in two different recensions. Knowledge of the real or putative history of local places formed an important part of the education of the elite in ancient Ireland, so the Dindshenchas was probably a kind of textbook in origin.
Verse tales of Fionn and the Fianna, sometimes known as Ossianic poetry, were extremely common in Ireland and Scotland throughout this period. Ossian is the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems which the Scottish poet James Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in the They represent a move from earlier prose tales with verse interludes to stories told completely in verse. There is also a notable shift in tone, with the Fionn poems being much closer to the Romance tradition as opposed to the epic nature of the sagas. As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative The Fionn poems form one of the key Celtic sources for the Arthurian legends. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders
British Library Manuscript, Harley 913, is a group of poems written in Ireland in the early 14th century. They are usually called the Kildare poems because of their association with that county. County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara is an Irish County located to the southwest of Dublin in the province of Leinster. Both poems and manuscript have strong Franciscan associations and are full of ideas from the wider Western European Christian tradition. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth They also represent the early stages of the second tradition of Irish poetry, that of poetry in the English language, as they were written in Middle English. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
During the Elizabethan reconquest, two of the most significant English poets of the time saw service in the Irish colonies. Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era Sir Walter Raleigh had little impact on the course of Irish literature, but the time spent in Munster by Edmund Spenser was to have serious consequences both for his own writings and for the future course of cultural development in Ireland. Sir Walter Raleigh or Ralegh (c 1552 – 29 October 1618 was a famed English writer Poet, Soldier, Courtier and Explorer Munster ( Irish: An Mhumhain, ənˈvuːnʲ Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four Provinces of Ireland. Edmund Spenser (c 1552 &ndash 13 January, 1599) was an important English Poet and Poet Laureate best known for The Spenser's relationship with Ireland was somewhat ambiguous. On the one hand, an idealised Munster landscape forms the backdrop for much of the action for his masterpiece, The Faerie Queen. The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590 and later in six books in 1596 On the other, he condemned Ireland and everything Irish as barbaric in his prose polemic A View of the Present State of Ireland.
In A View, he describes the Irish bards as being,
|“||soe far from instructinge younge men in Morrall discipline, that they themselves doe more deserve to be sharplie decyplined; for they seldome use to chuse unto themselves the doinges of good men, for the ornamentes of theire poems, but whomesoever they finde to bee most lycentious of lief, most bolde and lawles in his doinges, most daungerous and desperate in all partes of disobedience and rebellious disposicon, him they sett up and glorifie in their rymes, him they prayse to the people, and to younge men make an example to followe.||”|
Given that the bards depended on aristocratic support to survive, and that this power and patronage was shifting towards the new English rulers, this thorough condemnation of their moral values may well have contributed to their demise as a caste.
For historical context see Early Modern Ireland 1536-1691
The Battle of Kinsale in 1601 saw the defeat of Hugh O'Neill, despite his alliance with the Spanish, and the ultimate victory in the Elizabethan conquest of Ireland came with his surrender to crown authority in 1603. Early Modern Ireland saw the first full conquest of Ireland by England and its colonization with Protestant settlers from England and Scotland The Siege of Kinsale was the ultimate battle in England 's conquest of Gaelic Ireland. Hugh O'Neill can refer to one of several persons Hugh O'Neill 2nd Earl of Tyrone (c In consequence, the system of education and patronage that underpinned the professional bardic schools came under pressure, and the hereditary poets eventually engaged in a spat - the Contention of the bards - that marked the end of their ancient influence. The Contention of the Bards (in Irish, Iomarbhágh na bhFileadh) was a literary controversy of early 17th century Gaelic Ireland, lasting from During the early 17th century a new Gaelic poetry took root, one that sought inspiration in the margins of a dispossessed Irish-speaking society. The language of this poetry is today called Early Modern Irish. The history of Irish begins with the arrival of speakers of Celtic languages in Ireland. Although some 17th century poets continued to enjoy a degree of patronage, many, if not most, of them were part-time writers who also worked on the land, as teachers, and anywhere that they could earn their keep. Their poetry also changed, with a move away from the syllabic verse of the schools to accentual metres, reflecting the oral poetry of the bardic period. Syllabic verse is a Poetic form having a fixed number of Syllables per Line Accentual verse has a fixed number of stresses per Line or Stanza regardless of the number of syllables that are present A good deal of the poetry of this period deals with political and historical themes that reflect the poets' sense of a world lost.
The poets adapted to the new English dominated order in several ways. Some of them continued to find patronage among the Gaelic Irish and Old English aristocracy. The Old English (Seanghaill were the descendants of the settlers who came to Ireland from Wales, Normandy and England after the Norman Some of the English landowners settled in Ireland after the Plantations of Ireland also patronised Irish poets, for instance George Carew and Roger Boyle. Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties Other members of hereditary bardic families sent their sons to the new Irish Colleges that had been set up in Catholic Europe for the education of Irish Catholics, who were not permitted to found schools or Universities at home. Irish Colleges is the collective name used for approximately 34 centres of education for Irish Catholic clergy and lay people opened on continental Europe in the 16th Much of the Irish poetry of the seventeenth century was therefore composed by Catholic clerics and Irish society fell increasingly under Counter reformation influences. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the By mid century, the subordination of the native Catholic upper classes in Ireland boiled over in the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted Coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry but developed into inter communal violence between native Many Irish language poets wrote highly politicised poetry in support of the Irish Catholics organised in Confederate Ireland. Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 For instance, the cleric poet Pádraigín Haicéad wrote, Eirigh mo Duiche le Dia ("Arise my Country with God") in support of the rebellion, which advised that
("All Irishmen from one person to all people must unite or fall")
Another of Haicéad's poems Moscail do mhisneach a Banbha ("Gather your courage oh Ireland") in 1647 encouraged the Irish Catholic war effort in the Irish Confederate Wars. This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641-53 It expressed the opinion that Catholics should not tolerate Protestantism in Ireland,,
(The religion of Christ with the religion of Luther is like ashes in the snow")
Following the defeat of the Irish Catholics in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland 1649–53, and the destruction of the old Irish landed classes, many poets wrote mourning the fallen order or lamenting the destruction and repression of the Cromwellian conquest. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-53 refers to the re-conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell The anonymous poem an Siogai Romanach went,
("This was the war that finished Ireland and put thousands begging, plague and famine ran together")
Another poem by Eamonn an Duna is a strange mixture of Irish and English,
(The first thing a man expects is execution, the last that costs be awarded against him [in court]")
After this period, the poets lost most of their patrons and protectors. Rapparees (from the Irish ropairí, plural of ropaire, actually meaning half pike or a pike-wielding person were Irish guerrilla In the subsequent Williamite war in Ireland Catholic Jacobites tried to recover their position by supporting James II. The Williamite War in Ireland, also known as the Jacobite War in Ireland and in Ireland as Cogadh an Dá Rí or The War of the Two Kings Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland Daibhi O Bruadair wrote many poems in praise of the Jacobite war effort and in particular of his hero, Patrick Sarsfield. Patrick Sarsfield (c 1660 &ndash 21 August 1693) created the first Earl of Lucan, Irish Jacobite and soldier belonged to The poets viewed the war as revenge against the Protestant settlers who had come to dominate Ireland, as the following poem extract makes clear,
("You Popish rogue" is not spoken, but "Cromwellian dog" is our watchword, "Who goes there" does not provoke fear, "I am Tadhg" [an Irishman] is the answer given") From Diarmuid Mac Cairthaigh, Cead buidhe re Dia ("A hundred victories with God").
("James the shit has lost Ireland, with his one shoe English and one shoe Irish")
The main poets of this period include Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (David O Bruadair) (1625?–1698), Piaras Feiritéar (1600?–1653) and Aogán Ó Rathaille (1675–1729). James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne was a turning point in the Williamite claim on the English throne Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (1625 – January 1698 was one of the most significant Irish language poets of the 17th century Piaras Feiritéar (1600? – 1653 was an Irish poet. Feiritéar was a Norman-Irish lord of Baile an Fheirtéaraigh in Corca Dhuibhne Ó Rathaille belongs as much to the 18th as the 17th century and his work, including the introduction of the aisling genre, marks something of a transition to a post Battle of the Boyne Ireland. The aisling ( Irish for 'dream' aɕlʲənʲ or vision poem is a Poetic genre that developed during the late 17th and 18th centuries in Irish language The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne was a turning point in the Williamite claim on the English throne
The 18th Century perhaps marks the point at which the two language traditions reach equal weight of importance. In Swift, the English tradition has its first writer of genius. Poetry in Irish now reflects the passing of the old Gaelic order and the patronage on which the poets depended for their livelihoods. This, then, is a period of transition writ large.
As the old native aristocracy suffered military and political defeat and, in many cases, exile, the world order that had supported the bardic poets disappeared. In these circumstances, it is hardly surprising that much Irish language poetry and song of this period laments these changes and the poet's plight. However, being practical professionals, the poets were not above writing poems in praise of the new English lords in the hope of finding a continuity of court patronage. This was not generally a successful tactic, and Gaelic poets tended to be folk poets until the Gaelic revival that began towards the end of the 19th century. However, many of the poems and songs written during this period of apparent decline live on and are still recited and sung today.
Cúirt An Mheán Oíche (The Midnight Court) by Brian Merriman (1747–1805) is something of an oddity in 18th century Irish poetry in Irish. Brian Merriman (circa 1749 – July 27 1805) was an Irish language Poet and teacher Merriman was a teacher of mathematics who lived and worked in the Munster counties of Clare and Limerick. County Clare ( Irish: Contae an Chláir) commonly referred to as simply Clare, is a county on Ireland and part of the wider County Limerick ( Contae Luimnigh in Irish) is a County in the Province of Munster, located in the mid-west of Ireland with County Cúirt An Mheán Oíche, effectively his only poetic work, was written around 1780. The poem begins by using the conventions of the Aisling, or vision poem, in which the poet is out walking when he has a vision of a woman from the other world. The aisling ( Irish for 'dream' aɕlʲənʲ or vision poem is a Poetic genre that developed during the late 17th and 18th centuries in Irish language Typically, this woman is Ireland and the poem will lament her lot and/or call on her 'sons' to rebel against foreign tyranny.
In Merriman's hands, the convention is made to take an unusual twist. The woman drags the poet to the court of the fairy queen Aoibheal. There follows a court case in which a young woman calls on Aoibheal to take action against the young men of Ireland for their refusal to marry. She is answered by an old man who first laments the infidelity of his own young wife and the dissolute lifestyles of young women in general. See also Adultery Infidelity can be defined as any violation of the mutually agreed-upon rules or boundaries of a relationship and is a breach of faith in an inter-personal He then calls on the queen to end the institution of marriage completely and to replace it with a system of free love. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a Social movement that rejects Marriage, which is seen as a form The young woman returns to mock the old man's inability to satisfy his young wife's needs and to call for an end to the celibacy among the clergy so as to widen the pool of prospective mates. Finally, Aoibheal rules that all men must mate by the age of 21, that older men who fail to satisfy women must be punished, that sex must be applauded, not condemned, and that priests will soon be free to marry. To his dismay, the poet discovers that he is to be the first to suffer the consequences of this new law, but then awakens to find it was just a nightmare. In its frank treatment of sexuality and of clerical celibacy, Cúirt An Mheán Oíche is a unique document in the history of Irish poetry in either language. Clerical celibacy is the practice in various religious traditions, in which Clergy, Monastics and those (of either sex in religious orders adopt a
In Jonathan Swift (1667–1745), Irish literature in English found its first writer of real genius. Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Although best known for prose works like Gulliver's Travels and A Tale of a Tub, Swift was a poet of considerable talent. Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts A Tale of a Tub was the first major work written by Jonathan Swift, composed between 1694 and 1697 and published in 1704 Technically close to his English contemporaries Pope and Dryden, Swift's poetry evinces the same tone savage satire and horror of the human body and its functions that characterises much of his prose. Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744 is generally regarded as the greatest English Poet of the eighteenth century best known for his Satirical John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England Interestingly, Swift also published translations of poems from the Irish.
Oliver Goldsmith (1730?–1774) started his literary career as a hack writer in London, writing on any subject that would pay enough to keep his creditors at bay. Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1730 or 1728 &ndash 4 April 1774 was an Anglo-Irish writer poet and Physician known for his Novel The Vicar Hack writer is a Colloquial, usually Pejorative, term used to refer to a Writer who is paid to write low-quality quickly put-together articles or books He came to belong to the circle of Samuel Johnson, Edmund Burke and Sir Joshua Reynolds. Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA (16 July 1723 &ndash 23 February 1792 was the most important and influential of 18th century English painters His reputation depends mainly on a novel, The Vicar of Wakefield, a play, She Stoops to Conquer, and two long poems, The Traveller and The Deserted Village. The Vicar of Wakefield is a novel by the Irish author Oliver Goldsmith. She Stoops to Conquer is a Comedy by the Irish author Oliver Goldsmith, son of an Anglo-Irish vicar first performed in London in 1773 The last of these may be the first and best poem by an Irish poet in the English pastoral tradition. Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability It has been variously interpreted as a lament for the death of Irish village life under British rule and a protest at the effects of agricultural reform on the English rural landscape.
During the course of the 19th century, political and economic factors resulted in the decline of the Irish language and the concurrent rise of English as the main language of Ireland. This fact is reflected in the poetry of the period. The end of old ways, a feature of the bardic laments of the eighteenth century, is also to be found in the early nineteenth century poem Caoine Cill Chais (The Lament for Kilcash). In this verse the anonymous poet laments that the castle of Cill Chais stands empty, its woods are cut down and the Catholic religion is gone underground (Flood and Flood 1999:85-93):
Cad a dhéanfaimid feasta gan adhmad,
What shall we do from now on without timber?
Paradoxically, as soon as English became the dominant language of Irish poetry, the poets began to mine the Irish-language heritage as a source of themes and techniques. J. J. Callanan (1795–1829) was born in Cork and died at a young age in Lisbon. Unlike many other more visibly nationalist poets who would follow later, he knew Irish well, and several of his poems are loose versions of Irish originals. Although extremely close to Irish materials, he was also profoundly influenced by Byron and his peers; possibly his finest poem, the title work of The Recluse of Inchidony and Other Poems (1829), was written in Spenserian stanzas that were clearly inspired by Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Probably the most renowned Irish poet to write in English in a recognisably Irish fashion in the first half of the nineteenth century was Thomas Moore (1779–1852), although he had no knowledge of, and little respect for, the Irish language. Thomas Moore (28 May 1779 &ndash 25 February 1852 was an Irish poet singer songwriter and Entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of The Minstrel He attended Trinity College Dublin at the same time as the revolutionary Robert Emmet, who was executed in 1803. Moore's most enduring work, Irish Melodies, was popular with English audiences. The poems are, perhaps, somewhat overloaded with harps, bards and minstrels of Erin to suit modern tastes, but they did open up the possibility of a distinctive Irish English-language poetic tradition and served as an exemplar for Irish poets to come. In 1842, Charles Gavan Duffy (1816–1903), Thomas Davis, (1814–1845), and John Blake Dillon (1816–1866) founded The Nation to agitate for reform of British rule. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, KCMG ( 12 April 1816 &ndash 9 February 1903) Irish nationalist and Australian Thomas Osborne Davis ( October 14, 1814 - September 16, 1845) was a revolutionary Irish writer who was the chief organizer John Blake Dillon ( 5 May 1814 &ndash 15 September 1866) was an Irish writer and Politician who was one of the founding members The Nation was an Irish nationalist weekly Newspaper, published in the 19th century The group of politicians and writers associated with The Nation came to be known as the Young Irelanders. Young Ireland ( Irish: Éire Óg) was a political cultural and social movement which was to revolutionise the way that Irish nationalism was perceived The magazine published verse, including work by Duffy and Davis, whose A Nation Once Again is still popular among Irish Nationalists. However, the most significant poet associated with The Nation was undoubtedly James Clarence Mangan (1803–1849). James Clarence Mangan, born James Mangan ( 1 May 1803, Dublin - 20 June 1849) was an Irish poet. Mangan was a true poète maudit, who threw himself into the role of bard, and even included translations of bardic poems in his publications. A poète maudit (accursed poet is a Poet living a life outside or against society
Another poet who supported the Young Irelanders, although not directly connected with them, was Samuel Ferguson (1810–1886). Sir Samuel Ferguson ( 10 March 1810 – 9 August 1886) was an Irish poet, Barrister, Antiquarian, Artist Ferguson once wrote: 'my ambition (is) to raise the native elements of Irish history to a dignified level. ' To this end, he wrote many verse retellings of the Old Irish sagas. He also wrote a moving elegy to Thomas Davis. Ferguson, who believed that Ireland's political fate ultimately lay within the Union, brought a new scholarly exactitude to the study and translation of Irish texts. The combination of such a political belief with his dedicated cultural work can be difficult for us to comprehend now, but it illustrates some of the important currents of the period. William Allingham (1824–1889) was another important Unionist figure in Irish poetry. William Allingham (March 19 1824 or 1828 - November 18 1889 was an Irish man of letters and poet Born and bred in Ballyshannon, Donegal, he spent most of his working life in England and was associated with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, and a close friend of Tennyson. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters Poets, and critics founded in 1848 by His Day and Night Songs was illustrated by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Millais. Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882 was an English poet Illustrator, painter and Translator. Sir John Everett Millais 1st Baronet, PRA ( June 8, 1829 &ndash August 13, 1896) was an English painter His most important work is the long poem, Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland (1864), a realist narrative which wittily and movingly deals with the land agitation in Ireland during the period. He was also known for his work as a collector of folk ballads in both Ireland and England.
Ferguson's research opened the way for many of the achievements of the Celtic Revival, especially those of Yeats and Douglas Hyde, but this narrative of Irish poetry which leads to the Revival as culmination can also be deceptive and occlude important poetry, such as the work of James Henry (1798–1876), medical doctor, Virgil scholar and poet. Douglas Hyde (Dubhghlas de hÍde Pseudonym An Craoibhín Aoibhinn) (17 January 1860 &ndash 12 July 1949 was an Anglo-Irish scholar of the Irish language James Henry is the name of James Henry (delegate (1731-1804 US lawyer Continental Congressman for Virginia James Henry (poet (1798-1876 His large body of work was completely overlooked until Christopher Ricks included him in two anthologies, and eventually edited a selection of his poetry. Various in his means, cosmopolitan in his range and possessed of an acute wit, Henry shows the negative force of nationalism in Irish criticism: his omission from standard accounts and anthologies for over 100 years can only be due to his blithe disregard of the matter of Ireland. 'Irish poetry', James's example suggests, does not always have to be about Ireland.
During the 19th century, poetry in Irish became essentially a folk art. One of the few well-known figures from this period was Antoine Ó Raifteiri (Anthony Raftery) (1784–1835), who is known as the last of the wandering bards. Antoine Ó Raifteiri (also Antoine Ó Reachtabhra, Anthony Raftery (1784 &ndash 1835 was an Irish language poet who is often called the last His Mise Raifteiri an file is still learned by heart in some Irish schools. In addition, this was one of the great periods for the composition of folk songs in both languages, and the majority of the traditional singer's repertoire is typically made up of 19th century songs.
Probably the most significant poetic movement of the second half of the 19th century was French Symbolism. "Symbolic" redirects here For other uses see Symbolism (disambiguation and Symbolic (disambiguation. This movement inevitably influenced Irish writers, not least Oscar Wilde (1845–1900). Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Although Wilde is best known for his plays, fiction, and The Ballad of Reading Gaol, he also wrote poetry in a symbolist vein and was the first Irish writer to experiment with prose poetry. The Ballad of Reading Gaol is a famous poem by Oscar Wilde, written after his release from Reading prison on 19 May 1897. This article refers to a poetic form For the competitive speech event see Prose & Poetry. However, the overtly cosmopolitan Wilde was not to have much influence on the future course of Irish writing. W. B. Yeats (1865–1939) was much more influential in the long run. Yeats, too, was influenced by his French contemporaries but consciously focused on an identifiably Irish content. As such, he was responsible for the establishment of the literary movement known as the Celtic Revival. Celtic Revival covers a variety of movements and trends mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries which drew on Celtic art and traditions He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1923. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Apart from Yeats, much of the impetus for the Celtic Revival came from the work of scholarly translators who were aiding in the discovery of both the ancient sagas and Ossianic poetry and the more recent folk song tradition in Irish. One of the most significant of these was Douglas Hyde (1860–1949), later the first President of Ireland, whose Love Songs of Connacht was widely admired. Douglas Hyde (Dubhghlas de hÍde Pseudonym An Craoibhín Aoibhinn) (17 January 1860 &ndash 12 July 1949 was an Anglo-Irish scholar of the Irish language The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland.
In the 1910s, Yeats became acquainted with the work of James Joyce, and worked closely with Ezra Pound, who served as his personal secretary for a time. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Through Pound, Yeats also became familiar with the work of a range of prominent modernist poets. Modernist poetry refers to poetry written between 1890 and 1930 in the tradition of Modernist literature; the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors including the He undoubtedly learned from these contacts, and from his 1916 book Responsibilities and Other Poems onwards his work, while not entirely meriting the label modernist, became much more hard-edged than it had been. Events July 14 &mdash At the first public Soiree at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich Switzerland Hugo Ball recited the first
A second group of early 20th century Irish poets worth noting are those associated with the Easter Rising of 1916. The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca was a rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916 Three of the Republican leadership, Padraig Pearse (1879–1916), Joseph Mary Plunkett (1879–1916) and Thomas MacDonagh (1878–1916), were noted poets. Patrick Henry Pearse (also known as Pádraig Pearse; Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais An Piarsach; 10 November 1879 &ndash 3 May 1916 was a teacher barrister Joseph Mary Plunkett ( 21 November 1887 &ndash 4 May 1916) was an Irish nationalist poet journalist and leader of the 1916 Thomas MacDonagh ( Tomás Mac Donnchadha) ( 1 February, 1878 &ndash 3 May, 1916) was an Irish nationalist, Poet, Although much of the verse written by them is predictably Catholic and Nationalist in outlook, they were competent writers and their work is of considerable historical interest. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Pearse, in particular, shows the influence of his contact with the work of Walt Whitman. Walter Whitman (May 31 1819 &ndash March 26 1892 was an American poet, Essayist journalist, and humanist. Individual from these groups the Boyne Valley "peasant poet" Francis Ledwidge, killed 1917 in the Great War. Francis Ledwidge (19 August 1887 - 31 July 1917 was an Irish Poet from County Meath, sometimes known as the "poet of the blackbirds" killed World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
However, it was to be Yeats' earlier Celtic mode that was to be most influential. Amongst the most prominent followers of the early Yeats were Padraic Colum (1881–1972), F. R. Higgins (1896–1941), and Austin Clarke (1896–1974). Padraic Colum ( 8 December, 1881 &ndash 11 January, 1972) was an Irish Poet, Novelist, Dramatist, Frederick Robert Higgins ( 24 April 1896 - 6 January 1941) was an Irish Poet and Theatre director. Austin Clarke ( May 9 1896 &ndash March 19 1974) was one of the leading Irish poets of the generation after W In the 1950s, Clarke, returning to poetry after a long absence, turned to a much more personal style and wrote many satires on Irish society and religious practices. Irish poetic Modernism took its lead not from Yeats but from Joyce. The 1930s saw the emergence of a generation of writers who engaged in experimental writing as a matter of course. The best known of these is Samuel Beckett (1906–1989), who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1969. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Beckett's poetry, while not inconsiderable, is not what he is best known for. The most significant of the second generation Modernist Irish poets who first published in the 1920s and 1930s include Brian Coffey (1905–1995), Denis Devlin (1908–1959), Thomas MacGreevy (1893–1967), Blanaid Salkeld (1880–1959), and Mary Devenport O'Neill (1879–1967). Brian Coffey ( June 8, 1905 - April 14, 1995) was an Irish Poet and Publisher. Denis Devlin ( April 15, 1908 - August 21, 1959) was along with Samuel Beckett and Brian Coffey, one of the generation This article is about the poet also spelled 'McGreevy' For the Canadian politician see Thomas McGreevy. Blanaid Salkeld (1880-1959 was an Irish poet dramatist and actor whose well-known literary salon was attended by among others Patrick Kavanagh and Flann Mary Devenport O'Neill ( August 3, 1879 - 1967 was an Irish poet and dramatist and a friend and colleague of W Coffey's two late long poems Advent (1975) and Death of Hektor (1982) are perhaps his most important works; the latter deals with the theme of nuclear apocalypse through motifs from Greek mythology. Of this group, Devlin is the least experimental; his friendship with Allen Tate while working at the Irish embassy in Washington is one index of the traditional tendencies of his verse. Long poems such as 'Lough Derg' (1946) and 'The Heavenly Foreigner' (written in the late 1940s and early '50s) explore ideas of Catholicism and Europe in a densely imagistic and occasionally obscure style.
While Yeats and his followers wrote about an essentially aristocratic Gaelic Ireland, the reality was that the actual Irish Free State of the 1930s and 1940s was a society of small farmers and shopkeepers. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Inevitably, a generation of poets who rebelled against the example of Yeats, but who were not Modernist by inclination, emerged from this environment. Patrick Kavanagh (1904–1967), who came from a small farm, wrote about the narrowness and frustrations of rural life. Patrick Kavanagh (Pádraig Caomhánaigh (21 October 1904 &ndash 30 November 1967 was an Irish Poet. John Hewitt (1907–1987), whom many consider to be the founding father of Northern Irish poetry, also came from a rural background but lived in Belfast and was amongst the first Irish poets to write of the sense of alienation that many at this time felt from both their original rural and new urban homes. John Harold Hewitt ( 28 October 1907 - 22 June 1987) who was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, was the most significant Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Louis MacNeice (1907–1963), another Northern Irish poet, was associated with the left-wing politics of Michael Roberts's anthology New Signatures but was much less political a poet than W. H. Auden or Stephen Spender, for example. Frederick Louis MacNeice ( September 12 Michael Roberts may refer to Michael Roberts (writer (1902&ndash1948 British poet writer critic and broadcaster Michael Roberts (historian Michael Roberts may refer to Michael Roberts (writer (1902&ndash1948 British poet writer critic and broadcaster Michael Roberts (historian Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973 ˈwɪstən ˈhjuː ˈɔːdən who signed his works W Sir Stephen Harold Spender CBE, ( 28 February 1909 – 16 July 1995) was an English Poet, Novelist MacNeice's poetry was informed by his immediate interests and surroundings and is more social than political. In the South, the Republic of Ireland, a post-modernist generation of poets and writers emerged from the late 1950s onwards. Prominent among these writers were the poets Antony Cronin, Pearse Hutchinson, John Jordan, Thomas Kinsella and John Montague, most of whom were based in Dublin in the 1960s and 1970s. In Dublin a number of new literary magazines were founded in the 1960s; Poetry Ireland, Arena, The Lace Curtain, and in the 1970s, Cyphers.
With the foundation of the Irish Free State it became official government policy to promote and protect the Irish language. Although not particularly successful, this policy did help bring about a revival in Irish-language literature. Specifically, the establishment in 1926 of An Gúm ("The Project"), a Government sponsored publisher, created an outlet both for original works in Irish and for translations into the language. Since then, a number of Irish-language poets have come to prominence. These include Máirtín Ó Direáin (1910–1988), Seán Ó Ríordáin (1916–1977), Máire Mhac an tSaoi (born 1922), Gabriel Rosenstock (born 1949), and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (born 1952). Máirtín Ó Direáin (1910-1988 born in Sruthán on Inishmore in the Aran Islands was an Irish language poet Seán Ó Ríordáin (1917-1977 was an Irish language poet born in the Irish speaking parish of Muskerry in County Cork. Máire Mhac an tSaoi (born 1922 Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish language scholar and academic Gabriel Rosenstock is an Irish poet and Haiku writer He was born in Kilfinane, County Limerick in 1949 Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (born 1952 is an Irish poet Born in Lancashire, England in 1952 of Irish parents she moved to Ireland at the age of 5 While all these poets are influenced by the Irish poetic tradition, they have also shown the ability to assimilate influences from poetries in other languages. The dramatist and actor Micheál MacLiammóir (1899-1978) included many poetic verses he wrote in the Irish-language in his works. Micheál MacLíammóir (born Alfred Willmore) ( October 25, 1899 &ndash March 6, 1978) was an Irish Actor,
The Northern Irish poets have already been mentioned in connection with John Hewitt. Of course, there were others of some importance too, including Robert Greacen (1920-2008), who along Valentin Iremonger edited an important anthology, Contemporary Irish Poetry in 1949. Robert Greacen (b 24 October 1920, Derry - d 13 April 2008, Dublin) was an Irish poet and member of Aosdána Greacen was born in Derry, lived in Belfast in his youth and then in London during the 1950s, 60s and 70s. He won the Irish Times Prize for Poetry in 1995 for his Collected Poems, after he returned to live in Dublin when he was elected a member of Aosdana. Other poets of note from this time include Roy McFadden (1921–1999), a friend for many years of Greacen. Another Northern poet of note is Padraic Fiacc (1924- ), who was born in Belfast, but lived in America during his youth. n the 1960s, and coincident with the rise of the Troubles in the province, a number of Ulster poets began to receive critical and public notice. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Prominent amongst these were John Montague (born 1929), Michael Longley (born 1939), Derek Mahon (born 1941), Seamus Heaney (born 1939), and Paul Muldoon (born 1951). John Montague (born February 28, 1929) is an Irish poet He was born in New York and brought up in Tyrone Michael Longley (born 27 July, 1939 in Belfast, Northern Ireland) is a Northern Irish Poet. Derek Mahon (born 23 November 1941) is a Northern Irish poet He was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Paul Muldoon (born 20 June 1951 is a writer academic and educator as well as Pulitzer Prize -winning poet from County Armagh, Northern Ireland
Heaney is probably the best-known of these poets. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995, and has served as Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory and Emerson Poet in Residence at Harvard, and as Professor of Poetry at Oxford. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Derek Mahon was born in Belfast and worked as a journalist, editor, and screenwriter while publishing his first books. His slim output should not obscure the high quality of his work, which is influenced by modernist writers such as Samuel Beckett. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet
Muldoon is Howard G. B. Clark '21 Professor in the Humanities at Princeton University. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. In 1999 he was also elected Professor of Poetry at the University of Oxford. Some critics find that these poets share some formal traits (including an interest in traditional poetic forms) as well as a willingness to engage with the difficult political situation in Northern Ireland. Others (such as the Dublin poet Thomas Kinsella) have found the whole idea of a Northern school to be more hype than reality, though it must be noted that this view is not widely held. Thomas Kinsella (born May 4, 1928) is an Irish poet, Translator, editor and publisher
In the late 1960s, two young Irish poets, Michael Smith (b. Michael Smith (born 1942 is an Irish poet author and Translator. 1942) and Trevor Joyce (b. Trevor Joyce (born 26 October 1947) is an Irish Poet, born in Dublin. 1947) founded the New Writers Press publishing house and a journal called The Lace Curtain. New Writers Press is an Irish small press that specialises in Poetry Publishing. The Lace Curtain was an occasional literary magazine founded and edited by Michael Smith and Trevor Joyce under their New Writers Press imprint Partly this was to publish their own work and that of some like-minded friends, and partly it was to promote the work of neglected Irish modernists like Coffey and Devlin. Both Joyce and Smith have published considerable bodies of poetry in their own right. Among the other poets published by the New Writers Press were Geoffrey Squires (born 1942), whose early work was influenced by Charles Olson, and Augustus Young (born 1943), who admired Pound and who has translated older Irish poetry, as well as work from Latin America and poems by Bertolt Brecht. Geoffrey Squires (born 1942 is an Irish poet who works in what might loosely be termed the modernist tradition Charles Olson ( 27 December 1910 &ndash 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet For the US Representative from Vermont see Augustus Young (representative. (born; 10 February 1898&ndash14 August 1956 was a German Poet, Playwright, and Theatre director. Younger poets who write what might be called experimental poetry include Maurice Scully (born 1952), and Randolph Healy (born 1956). Maurice Scully (born 1952) is an Irish poet and editor who works in the modernist tradition Randolph Healy (born 1956 is an Irish poet and publisher Healy was born in Scotland and moved to Dublin at the age of 18 months Almost all these poets along with many younger experimentalists have performed their work at the annual SoundEye Festival in Cork.
In addition to these two loose groupings, a number of prominent Irish poets of the second half of the 20th century could be described as outsiders, although these poets could also be considered leaders of a mainstream tradition in the Republic which was critically eclipsed by the Ulster-centric focus of American and British-based Irish Studies academics and the prejudices of others who are gender study specialists. These include Thomas Kinsella (born 1928), whose early work was influenced by Auden. Thomas Kinsella (born May 4, 1928) is an Irish poet, Translator, editor and publisher Kinsella's later work exhibits the influence of Pound in its looser metrical structure and use of imagery but is deeply personal in manner and matter. Vagina Imagery is used in literature to refer to descriptive language that evokes sensory experience He is Professor of English at Temple University, Philadelphia. Kinsella also edited the poetry of Austin Clarke, who, in his later work at least, could also be included with the outsiders in Irish poetry.
Michael Hartnett (1941–1999) was unusual amongst Irish poets in that he was equally fluent in both Irish and English. Michael Hartnett may refer to Michael Hartnett (poet Irish poet As well as original work in both languages, including haiku in English, he published translations in English of bardic poetry and of the Tao Te Ching. The Tao Te Ching or Dao De Jing ( originally known as Laozi or Lao tzu ( is a Chinese classic In his 1975 book A Farewell to English he declared his intention to write only in Irish in the future, describing English as 'the perfect language to sell pigs in'. A number of volumes in Irish followed: Adharca Broic (1978), An Phurgóid (1983) and Do Nuala: Foighne Chrainn (1984). In 1984 he returned to Dublin to live in the suburb of Inchicore. The following year marked his return to English with the publication of Inchicore Haiku, a book that deals with the turbulent events in his personal life over the previous few years. This was followed by a number of books in English including A Necklace of Wrens (1987), Poems to Younger Women (1989) and The Killing of Dreams (1992). He died in Dublin in 1999, aged 58.
John Jordan (1930–1988) was a poet, short story writer, literary critic and academic. John Jordan (1930–1988 was an Irish poet born in Dublin on 8 April 1930 He was the first Editor of the revived Poetry Ireland magazine in the 1960s and also the founding editor of Poetry Ireland Review in the early 1980s. As editor of the 1960s Poetry Ireland journal he published the young Seamus Heaney and first published work by Paul Durcan and Michael Hartnett. Paul Durcan (b 16 October 1944, Dublin) is a contemporary Irish Poet. Michael Hartnett may refer to Michael Hartnett (poet Irish poet He was a Lecturer in English at University College Dublin and a Professor of English at the Memorial University of Newfoundland at St. John's. He was a noted critic who wrote regularly for the magazine Hibernia and for academic journals such as University Review, Irish University Review, and Studies. He died in Cardiff, Wales, in 1988. His Collected Works have been edited by his Literary Executor, Hugh McFadden. Hugh McFadden is an Irish poet literary editor and freelance journalist The Collected Poems were published posthumously by Dedalus Press in 1991; The Collected Stories by Poolbeg Press, in 1991; and the Selected Prose, Crystal Clear was published by Lilliput Press, Dublin, in 2006. His Selected Poems , edited with an Introduction by McFadden, was published by Dedalus Press in Dublin in February 2008.
Eoghan Ó Tuairisc (Eugene Watters) (1919–1982) was another bilingual poet. Eoghan Ó Tuairisc ( Eugene Rutterford Watters) ( April 3 1919 &ndash 24 August 1982) was an Irish poet and writer His The Weekend of Dermot and Grace (1964) is one of the most interesting Irish long poems of the second half of the 20th century and one of the few examples of the application of the lessons of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land in any work by an Irish poet. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. The Waste Land ( 1922) is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T Patrick Galvin (born 1927) worked mainly with the ballad tradition and his poetry displays his left-wing politics. Patrick Galvin (born 1927 is an Irish Writer and Poet born in Cork off Barrack Street a poor part of Cork known for its variety of local characters He has also written several volumes of memoirs, one of which, Song for a Raggy Boy, has been made into a film. Song For a Raggy Boy is a 2003 Film directed by Aisling Walsh. Cathal Ó Searcaigh (born 1956) writes exclusively in Irish. Cathal Ó Searcaigh ( born 1956 is an Irish poet who writes in the Irish language (specifically the Ulster dialect) Many of his poems are candidly homoerotic in their subject matter. Homoeroticism refers to the representation of same-sex love and desire most especially as it is depicted or manifested in the Visual arts and Literature. He has also written plays, such as Oíche Ghealaí ("Moonlit Night"), whose homosexual content created controversy when it opened in Letterkenny in 2001. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Letterkenny (Leitir Ceanainn is the largest town in County Donegal, Ireland.  Other poets mentioned further on in the sections on women poets and Irish poetry in the Twenty-first Century would deserve a prominence equal to the poets mentioned here.
The second half of the century also saw the emergence of a number of women poets of note. Two of the most successful of these are Eavan Boland (born 1944) and Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin (born 1942). Eavan Boland (born 24 September 1944 in Dublin) is an Irish Poet. Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin (born 1942 is an Irish poet born in Cork (city. Boland has written widely on specifically feminist themes and on the difficulties faced by women poets in a male-dominated literary world. She is professor of English at Stanford University. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in Ní Chuilleanáin's poetry resists easy summaries and shows her interest variously in explorations of the sacred, women's experience, and Reformation history. She has also translated poetry from a number of languages. Ní Chuilleanáin is a Fellow of Trinity College Dublin where she is an associate professor of English Literature. Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Other women poets of note are; Vona Groarke; Kerry Hardie; Medbh McGuckian; Paula Meehan; and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill, whose first language is Irish, but whose work has been translated into English.
Irish poetry in the 21st Century is undergoing development as radical as the 1960s. Increased globalisation has led to a younger generation of poets seeking influences and precursors as varied as post-war Polish poets and Contemporary Americans. An explosion of talent and publishing has been one of the consequences of free secondary school education introduced in the 1960’s. Many southern poets (e. g. Thomas McCarthy, John Ennis, Dennis O’Driscoll, Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill) whose careers were eclipsed by the Ulster-centric focus of foreign-based Irish Studies departments are now coming into wider notice. Thomas McCarthy (born 1954 is an Irish poet novelist and critic born in Cappoquin, Co John Ennis (born May 6 1964) is an American actor and comic He has been a regular cast member of Mr Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (born 1952 is an Irish poet Born in Lancashire, England in 1952 of Irish parents she moved to Ireland at the age of 5
Among the significant Irish poets to have emerged in recent years are: Pat Boran, Ciaran Carson, Patrick Chapman, Tony Curtis, Padraig J. Daly, Greg Delanty, Séan Dunne, Paul Durcan, Vona Groarke, Kerry Hardie, John Hughes, Thomas McCarthy, Hugh McFadden, Paula Meehan, Sinead Morrissey, Gerry Murphy, Bernard O'Donoghue, Conor O'Callaghan, Caitriona O'Reilly, Justin Quinn, Maurice Riordan, and William Wall
While academic attention has remained, perhaps disproportionately, focused on poetry from Northern Ireland, several of the younger generation of Irish poets (Justin Quinn, Caitriona O'Reilly) have proved perceptive and independent critics of the contemporary scene. Pat Boran (born 1963 is an Irish poet Born in Portlaoise, Boran has lived in Dublin for a number of years Ciarán Carson (born 1948 Belfast, Northern Ireland) is a Poet and Novelist. Patrick Chapman is an Irish poet author and scriptwriter born in 1968 Tony Curtis (born 1955 is an Irish poet Curtis was born in Dublin, and educated at the University of Essex and at Trinity College Dublin Pádraig J Daly (born 1943 is a contemporary Irish Poet. Pádraig J Greg Delanty (born 1958 is a noted contemporary Irish Poet. Delanty won the National Poetry Competition in 1999 and was awarded the Austin Clarke Centenary Poetry Seán Dunne (1956-1995 was a Poet born in Waterford, Ireland. Paul Durcan (b 16 October 1944, Dublin) is a contemporary Irish Poet. Vona Groarke is an Irish Poet, and was born in Edgeworthstown in the Irish midlands in 1964 Hugh McFadden is an Irish poet literary editor and freelance journalist Sinéad Morrissey (born 1972 in Portadown, County Armagh) is a Poet from Northern Ireland. Gerry Murphy is an Irish Poet. Life & work Gerry Murphy was born in Cork City in 1952 Bernard O'Donoghue (born 1945 is a noted contemporary Irish poet and academic Conor O'Callaghan is an Irish Poet, born in Newry in 1968 He has published three collections of poetry The History of Rain (1993 Patrick Caitriona O'Reilly (born in Dublin in 1973) is an Irish poet and critic Justin Quinn is an Irish poet and critic born in Dublin in 1968 Maurice Riordan was born in Lisgoold County Cork in 1953 and is a poet translator editor and tutor William Wall (b 1955 is an Irish Novelist, Poet and Short story writer