For a comparatively small island, Ireland has made a disproportionate contribution to world literature in all its branches. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world World literature refers to literature from all over the world including African literature, Arabic literature, American literature, Asian literature Irish Literature encompasses the Irish and English languages. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
The island's most widely-known literary works are undoubtedly in English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Particularly famous examples of such works are those of James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and Ireland's four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature; William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett and Seamus Heaney. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Ireland's oldest literary traditions, however, are found in the Irish language, referred to simply as "Irish". Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Indeed, Irish has the third oldest literature in Europe (after Greek and Latin) and the most significant body of written literature (both ancient and recent) of any Celtic language. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. Furthermore, the historic influence of Irish language traditions, such as a strong oral tradition of legends and poetry, has helped make much English Literature in Ireland quite distinctive from that in other countries. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges The term English literature refers to Literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by Writers not necessarily from From the older tradition, many Irish writers in English inherited a sense of wonder in the face of nature, a narrative style that tends towards the deliberately exaggerated or absurd and a keen sense of the power of satire. In addition, the interplay between the two languages has resulted in an English dialect, Hiberno-English, that lends a distinctive syntax and music to the literature written in it. Hiberno-English also known as Anglo-Irish and Irish English is English as spoken in Ireland, partly the result of the interaction of the English In Linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek grc συν- syn-, "together" and grc τάξις táxis, "arrangement" is the
Irish poetry has a long and complex history. The history of Irish poetry includes the poetries of two languages one in Irish and the other in English. Ireland has one of the oldest vernacular literature and poetry traditions in Europe and represents a more or less unbroken cycle from the 6th century to the present day. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Vernacular literature is Literature written in the Vernacular - the speech of the "common people" The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. In addition, since at least the 14th century, poetry in English has also been written in Ireland and by Irish writers abroad.
During the late Middle Ages, the old Gaelic order that had supported the old professional bards broke down, and Irish language poetry started to become marginalised and by the 19th century had entered the realm of folk art. Etymology The word is a Loanword from descendant languages of Proto-Celtic *bardos, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gwerh2 Folk art describes a wide range of objects that reflect the Craft traditions and traditional social values of various social groups
The 18th century witnessed both a late flowering of bardic poetry and song and the first major Irish poets in English, Jonathan Swift and Oliver Goldsmith. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1730 or 1728 &ndash 4 April 1774 was an Anglo-Irish writer poet and Physician known for his Novel The Vicar
In the 19th century, Irish poets writing in English set out to reinvent the Gaelic tradition in the new language, frequently translating bardic and other early Irish poets and retelling stories from Celtic mythology in Victorian verse. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Celtic mythology is the Mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the Religion of the Iron Age Celts Like other Iron Age Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities This trend resulted in the early work of W. B. Yeats.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Yeats' style changed under the influence of his contact with modernism. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century The generation of Irish poets that followed Yeats were, to simplify, divided between those who were influenced by his early Celtic style and those who followed such modernist figures as James Joyce and Samuel Beckett, both of whom wrote poetry as well as their better known fiction and drama. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet
During the course of the 20th century, the influence of Yeats has tended to dominate, either as a role model or as someone to rebel against. However, this period also saw the emergence of such significant figures as Patrick Kavanagh, Seamus Heaney and Brian Coffey. Patrick Kavanagh (Pádraig Caomhánaigh (21 October 1904 &ndash 30 November 1967 was an Irish Poet. Brian Coffey ( June 8, 1905 - April 14, 1995) was an Irish Poet and Publisher. This period also saw a revival of poetry in Irish, at least partly as a result of government policy decisions in support of the language.
Although the epics of Medieval Ireland were written in prose and not verse, most people would probably consider that Irish fiction proper begins in the 18th century with the works of Jonathan Swift (especially Gulliver's Travels) and Oliver Goldsmith (especially The Vicar of Wakefield). Jonathan Swift &mdash the first Irish novelist of noteAlthough The history of Ireland begins with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC when Hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Jonathan Swift &mdash the first Irish novelist of noteAlthough Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1730 or 1728 &ndash 4 April 1774 was an Anglo-Irish writer poet and Physician known for his Novel The Vicar The Vicar of Wakefield is a novel by the Irish author Oliver Goldsmith.
A number of Irish novelists emerged during the 19th century, including Maria Edgeworth, John Banim, Gerald Griffin, Charles Kickham, William Carleton, George Moore and Somerville and Ross. Maria Edgeworth (1 January 1767 &ndash 22 May 1849 was an Anglo-Irish novelist John Banim ( April 3, 1798 - August 30, 1842) Irish Novelist, sometimes called the "Scott of Ireland" was born This article is about the Irish Author Gerald Griffin For the American Author, Educator and Professor, see Charles Joseph Kickham ( 9 May 1828 – 22 August 1882) was an Irish revolutionary novelist poet journalist and one of the most prominent This is about the Irish novelist For other uses see William Carleton (disambiguation. George Augustus Moore (24 February 1852 – 21 January 1933 was an Irish Novelist, short-story writer, Poet, art critic, Somerville and Ross refers to Edith Somerville and Violet Florence Martin, the latter writing under the name of Martin Ross Most of these writers came from the ruling classes and they wrote what came to be termed "novels of the big house". Carleton was an exception, and his Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry showed life on the other side of the social divide. Bram Stoker, the Anglican author of Dracula, was outside both traditions, as was at least the early work of Lord Dunsany. Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912 was an Irish writer of novels and short stories who is best known today for his 1897 horror Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary Antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett 18th Baron of Dunsany ( 24 July 1878 &ndash 25 October 1957) was an Anglo-Irish writer and
George Moore spent much of his early career in Paris and was one of the first writers to use the techniques of the French realist novelists in English. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is a general introduction to French literature For detailed information on French literature in specific historic periods see the separate historical articles in the He can be seen as one of the precursors of the most famous Irish novelist of the 20th century, James Joyce. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Joyce is often regarded as the father of the literary genre "stream of consciousness" which is best exemplified in his famous work, Ulysses. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Joyce also wrote Finnegans Wake, Dubliners, and the semi-autobiographical A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Finnegans Wake is a fictional work by James Joyce, published in 1939 Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write" A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist Joyce's high modernist style had its influence on coming generations of Irish novelists, most notably Samuel Beckett, Brian O'Nolan, who published as Flann O'Brien and Myles na gCopaleen, and Aidan Higgins. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin (5 October 1911 – 1 April 1966 was an Irish novelist and satirist best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Aidan Higgins (born March 3, 1927) is an Irish writer His upbringing in a landed Catholic family in Celbridge, County Kildare O'Nolan was bilingual and his fiction clearly shows the mark of the native tradition, particularly in the imaginative quality of his storytelling and the biting edge of his satire.
Cathal Ó Sándair (1922-1996), one of the most prolific Irish language authors, produced over one hundred novels, many of them westerns featuring cowboys and gun fights. Cathal Ó Sándair (1922-1996 was one of the most prolific Irish language authors Born in Weston Super Mare, England to an English father and Irish mother, his family moved to Ireland when he was a child. His first novel appeared in 1943 and featured Réics Carló, the most famous Irish language detective.
The big house novel prospered into the 20th century, and Aidan Higgins' first novel Langrishe, Go Down is an experimental example of the genre. More conventional exponents include Elizabeth Bowen and Molly Keane (writing as M.J. Farrell). Elizabeth Dorothea Cole Bowen (7 June 1899 &ndash 22 February 1973 was an Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer Molly Keane (1905 &ndash 1996 was an Irish novelist (born Mary Nesta Skrine in Ballyrankin County Kildare) Molly Keane (1905 &ndash 1996 was an Irish novelist (born Mary Nesta Skrine in Ballyrankin County Kildare)
With the rise of the Irish Free State and the Republic of Ireland, more novelists from the lower social classes began to emerge. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Frequently, these authors wrote of the narrow, circumscribed lives of the lower-middle classes and small farmers. Exponents of this style range from Brinsley McNamara to John McGahern. John McGahern (12 November 1934 – 30 March 2006 was an Irish author
The short story has also proven popular with Irish fiction writers. The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such Well known short story writers include Frank O'Connor and Sean O'Faolain. Frank O’Connor (born Michael Francis O'Connor O'Donovan) (17 September 1903 – 10 March 1966 was an Irish author of over 150 works who was best known for his Seán Proinsias Ó Faoláin (22 February 1900 &ndash 20 April 1991 was an Irish Short story writer
Although the documented history of Irish theatre began at least as early as 1601, the earliest Irish dramatists of note were William Congreve, one of the most interesting writers of Restoration comedies, and Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, who were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage in the 18th century. The history of Irish theatre begins with the Gaelic Irish tradition The history of Irish theatre begins with the Gaelic Irish tradition William Congreve ( 24 January 1670 &ndash 19 January 1729) was an English Playwright and Poet. Restoration comedy is the name given to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710 Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1730 or 1728 &ndash 4 April 1774 was an Anglo-Irish writer poet and Physician known for his Novel The Vicar Richard Brinsley Sheridan (30 October 1751 &ndash 7 July 1816 was an Irish playwright and Whig Statesman. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
In the 19th century, Dion Boucicault was an extremely popular writer of comedies. Dionysius Lardner Boursiquot (born December 26, circa 1820 &ndash died September 18, 1890) was an Irish Actor and Playwright However, it was in the last decade of the century that the Irish theatre finally came of age with the emergence of George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde and the establishment in Dublin in 1899 of the Irish Literary Theatre. George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
This last company, later to become the Abbey Theatre, performed plays by W.B. Yeats, Lady Gregory, John Millington Synge, and Sean O'Casey. The Abbey Theatre (Amharclann na Mainistreach also known as the National Theatre of Ireland (Amharclann Náisiúnta na hÉireann is a Theatre located in Dublin Isabella Augusta Lady Gregory (15 March 1852 – 22 May 1932 née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish Dramatist and folklorist. Edmund John Millington Synge ( (16 April 1871 – 24 March 1909 was an Irish Playwright, Poet, Prose writer and collector of Folklore. Seán O'Casey ( Irish Seán Ó Cathasaigh (30 March 1880 &ndash 18 September 1964 was a major Irish dramatist and Memoirist A committed irish Equally importantly, through the introduction by Yeats, via Ezra Pound, of elements of the Noh theatre of Japan, a tendency to mythologise quotidian situations, and a particularly strong focus on writings in dialects of Hiberno-English, the Abbey was to create a style that held a strong fascination for future Irish dramatists. Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate or is a major form of classic Japanese musical Drama that has been performed since the 14th century For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
The twentieth century saw a number of Irish playwrights come to prominence. These included Samuel Beckett, Brendan Behan, Denis Johnston, Brian Friel, Frank McGuinness, Thomas Kilroy, Tom Murphy, Hugh Leonard, and John B. Keane. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Brendan Francis Behan (ˈbiːən) (Breandán Ó Beacháin ( February 9, 1923 – March 20, 1964) was an Irish poet short story (William Denis Johnston ( June 18, 1901 – August 8, 1984) was an Irish Writer. Brian Friel (born 9 January 1929) is a playwright and more recently director of his own works from Northern Ireland who now resides in County Donegal Frank McGuinness (born 29 July 1953 in County Donegal, Ireland) is an award-winning Irish Playwright, translator and Thomas F Kilroy (1934 -) the Irish playwright and novelist was born on 23rd September 1934 in Green Street Callan, County Kilkenny and studied at University Tom Murphy (born 1935 is an Irish Dramatist who has worked closely with the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. Hugh Leonard (born John Keyes Byrne in 1926 and known to his friends as "Jack" is an Irish Dramatist and Journalist. John Brendan Keane ( July 21 1928 &ndash May 30 2002) was an Irish Playwright, Novelist and Essayist There was also a rise in the writing of plays in Irish, especially after the formation, in 1928, of An Taibhdhearc, a theatre dedicated to the Irish language. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe, also referred to as An Taibhdhearc (pron The Gate Theatre, also founded in 1928 by Micheál MacLiammóir, introduced Irish audiences to many of the classics of the Irish and European stage. The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatre 's Peacock studio Micheál MacLíammóir (born Alfred Willmore) ( October 25, 1899 &ndash March 6, 1978) was an Irish Actor,
Since the 1970s, a number of companies have emerged to challenge the Abbey's dominance and introduce different styles and approaches. These include Focus Theatre, The Children's T Company, the Project Theatre Company, Druid Theatre, Rough Magic, TEAM, Charabanc, and Field Day. The Focus Theatre in Dublin is a small but respected theatre which offers a variety of plays from new and established writers The Druid Theatre Company, was founded in Galway in 1975 by graduates of the NUIG, Garry Hynes, Marie Mullen and Mick Lally A team comprises a group of people or Animals linked in a common purpose A charabanc (pronounced sha-ra-bang) spelt "char-à-banc" is a type of Horse-drawn vehicle or motor coach, usually open-topped common in Britain Field Day is an annual Amateur radio exercise widely sponsored by IARU regions and member organizations encouraging emergency communications preparedness These companies have nurtured a number of writers, actors, and directors who have since gone on to be successful in London, Broadway and Hollywood. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located