The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. The United Kingdom general election of 1918 was the first to be held after the Representation of the People Act 1918, which meant it was the first United Kingdom Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world It is seen as a key defining moment in modern Irish history. The history of Ireland begins with the first known settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC when Hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental This is because it saw the overwhelming defeat of the moderate nationalist Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP), which had dominated the Irish political landscape since the 1880s, and a landslide victory for the radical Sinn Féin party, which had never previously enjoyed such significant electoral success. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970
The aftermath of the elections saw the convention of an extra-legal parliament, now known as the First Dáil, by the elected Sinn Féin candidates, and the outbreak of the Irish War of Independence. The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919&ndash1921 The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla
In 1918 the whole of Ireland was a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and was represented in the British Parliament by one hundred and three MPs. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. Whereas in Great Britain most elected politicians were members of either the Liberal Party or the Conservative Party, from the early 1880s most Irish MPs were nationalists, who sat together in the British House of Commons as the Irish Parliamentary Party. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing The IPP strove for Home Rule, that is self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom and were supported by most Catholics in Ireland. Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government Home Rule was opposed by most Protestants in Ireland, who formed a majority of the population in the northern province of Ulster and favoured maintenance of the Union with Great Britain (and were therefore called Unionists). Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and The Unionists were supported by the Conservative Party, whereas from 1885 the Liberal Party was committed to enacting some form of Home Rule. Unionists eventually formed their own representation, first the Irish Unionist Party then the Ulster Unionist Party. The Irish Unionist Alliance (also known as the Irish Unionist Party) was a Unionist party founded in Ireland in the second half of the 19th century The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party Home Rule was finally achieved with the passing of the Home Rule Act 1914. The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the ( Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill) and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 The implementation of the Act was however temporarily postponed with the outbreak of World War I, expected to be over in a year, but largely due to Ulster Unionist's resistance to the Act. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster As the war prolonged, the more radical Sinn Féin began to grow in strength.
Sinn Féin was founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905. Arthur Griffith (Art Ó Gríobhtha 31 March 1872 &ndash 12 August 1922 was the founder and third leader of Sinn Féin. He believed that Irish nationalists should emulate the Ausgleich of Hungarian nationalists who, in the 19th century under Ferenc Deák, had chosen to boycott the imperial parliament in Vienna and unilaterally established their own legislature in Budapest. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich Kiegyezés established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Deák Ferenc, ( October 17, 1803, Söjtör - January 28, 1876, Budapest) was a Hungarian statesman known as Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Griffith had favoured a peaceful solution based on 'dual monarchy' with Britain, that is two separate states with a single head of state and a weak central government to control matters of common concern only. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 However by 1918, under its new leader Éamon de Valera, Sinn Féin had come to favour achieving separation from Britain by means of an armed uprising if necessary and the establishment of an independent republic. Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century In the aftermath of the 1916 Easter Rising the party's ranks were swelled by participants and supporters of the rebellion as they were freed from British gaols and internment camps, and at its 1917 Ard Fheis (annual conference) de Valera was elected leader and the new, more radical policy adopted. The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca was a rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916 Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial An Ardfheis or Ard Fheis ( pronounced ˈɛɕ plural Ardfheiseanna) (Ardfheis is an annual convention or special convention usually of a political party
Prior to 1916, Sinn Féin had been a fringe movement having a limited cooperative alliance with William O'Brien's All-for-Ireland League and enjoyed little electoral success. William O'Brien (Irish Parliamentary Party should not be confused with his contemporary William X The All-for-Ireland League (AFIL, was an Irish, Munster -based political party (1909-1918 However between the Easter Rising of that year and the 1918 general election the party's popularity increased dramatically. This was due to the perceived failure to have Home Rule implemented when the IPP resisted the partition of Ireland demanded by Ulster Unionist in 1914, 1916 and 1917, but also popular antagonism towards the British authorities created by the execution of most of the leaders of the 1916 rebels and by their botched attempt to introduce Home Rule linked with military conscription in Ireland (see Conscription Crisis of 1918). The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the Government of the United Kingdom to impose Conscription in Ireland, and contributed to pivotal
Sinn Féin demonstrated its new electoral capability in three by-election successes in 1917 in which Count Plunkett, W. T. Cosgrave and De Valera were each elected, although it did not win all by-elections in that year and in at least one case there were allegations of electoral fraud. George Noble Plunkett or Count Plunkett (An Cunta Pluincéad (1851 &ndash 1948 was an Irish nationalist and father of Joseph Mary Plunkett, one of the William Thomas Cosgrave (Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair 6 June 1880 &ndash 16 November 1965 known generally as W  Overall, however, the party would benefit from a number of factors in the 1918 elections.
The Irish electorate in 1918, as with the entire electorate throughout the United Kingdom, had changed in two major ways since the preceding general election. Firstly, because of the intervening Great War, which had been fought from 1914 to 1918, the British general election due in 1915 had not taken place. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All As a result, no election took place between 1910 and 1918, the longest such spell in modern British and Irish constitutional history. Thus the 1918 elections saw dramatic generational change. In particular:
Secondly, the franchise had been greatly extended by the Representation of the People Act 1918. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in the United Kingdom. This increased the Irish electorate from around 700,000 to about two million. All men over 21 and military servicemen over 19 gained a vote in parliamentary elections without property qualifications. It also granted voting rights to women (albeit only those over 30) for the first time.
Overall, a new generation of young voters, the disappearance of much of the oldest generation of voters, and the sudden influx of women over thirty, meant that vast numbers of new voters of unknown voter affiliation existed, changing dramatically the make-up of the Irish electorate.
Voting in most Irish constituencies occurred on 14 December 1918. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common While the rest of the United Kingdom fought the 'Khaki election' on other issues involving the British parties, in Ireland four major political parties had national appeal. These were the IPP, Sinn Féin, the Irish Unionist Party and the Irish Labour Party. The Irish Unionist Alliance (also known as the Irish Unionist Party) was a Unionist party founded in Ireland in the second half of the 19th century The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre is a Democratic socialist and Social democratic Political party in the Republic of Ireland. The Labour Party, however, decided not to take participate in the election, fearing that it would be caught in the political crossfire between the IPP and Sinn Féin; it thought it better to let the people make up their minds on the issue of Home Rule versus a Republic by having a clear two way choice between the two nationalist parties. The Unionist Party favoured continuance of the union with Britain (along with its subordinate, the Ulster Unionist Labour Association, who fought as 'Labour Unionists'). The Ulster Unionist Labour Association was an association of Trade unionists founded by Edward Carson in 1918 aligned with the Ulster Unionists in A number of other small nationalist parties also took part.
In Ireland 105 MPs were elected from 103 constituencies. Ninety-nine seats were elected from single seat geographical constituencies under the Single Member Plurality or 'first past the post' system. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member However, there were also two two-seat constituencies: University of Dublin, (Trinity College) elected two MPs under the Single Transferable Vote and Cork City elected two MPs under the Bloc voting system. Dublin University is a University constituency in Ireland, which has been used to elect members of various legislative bodies including currently Seanad Éireann Single transferable vote (STV is a preferential Voting system designed to minimize Wasted votes and provide Proportional representation Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast
In addition to ordinary geographical constituencies there were three university constituencies: the Queen's University of Belfast and the University of Dublin (which would return two Unionist MPs), and the National University of Ireland (which would elect a member of Sinn Féin). Queen's University of Belfast was a University constituency in both the United Kingdom Parliament (from 1918 until 1950) and the Parliament National University of Ireland ( NUI for short is a parliamentary constituency in Ireland through which graduates of the National University of Ireland have elected
Of the 105 seats in Ireland many were uncontested. In some cases this was clearly because there was a certain winner, and the rival parties decided against devoting their money and effort to unwinnable seats. British government propaganda formulated in Dublin Castle and circulated through a censored press alleged that republican militants had threatened potential candidates to discourage non-Sinn Féin candidates from running. Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic For whatever reason, in the 73 constituencies in which Sinn Féin candidates were elected 25 were returned unopposed, although the constituencies which Sinn Féin won uncontested seats were those which subsequently showed high levels of support for republican candidates.
Sinn Féin candidates were elected in 73 constituencies but four party candidates (Arthur Griffith, Éamon de Valera, Eoin MacNeill and Liam Mellows) were elected for two constituencies and so the total number of individual Sinn Féin MPs elected was 69. Liam Mellows (25 May 1895 – 8 December 1922 often spelled 'Liam Mellowes' was an Irish Nationalist and Sinn Féin politician Despite the isolated allegations of intimidation and electoral fraud on the part of both Sinn Féin supporters and its Unionist opponents, the election was seen as a landslide victory for Sinn Féin. Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior "which would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" fear of Injury or Harm. Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election.
The proportion of votes cast for Sinn Féin, namely 46,9% of votes for 48 "first past the post" seats won in the 80 constituencies it contested, is understated by the fact that 25 candidates in some of its strongest support bases were uncontested, reducing its real support level in these constituencies from a possible level of 80pc. This is close to the total level of enjoyed by Sinn Féin's three major breakaway parties after partition. The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
The party returned with the second-largest number of seats was the Irish Unionist Party with 22 seats. The success of the Unionists was largely limited to Ulster, however, and in the rest of Ireland Southern Unionists were elected only in the constituencies of the University of Dublin and Rathmines. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster The Irish Unionist Alliance (also known as the Irish Unionist Party) was a Unionist party founded in Ireland in the second half of the 19th century The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin (since the 19th century located in Dublin, Dublin Rathmines, a division of County Dublin based on the suburb of Rathmines, was a former UK Parliament constituency in Ireland.
The IPP suffered a catastrophic defeat and even its leader, John Dillon, failed to be re-elected. John Dillon (4 September 1851 – 4 August 1927 was an Irish land reform agitator Irish Home Rule activist nationalist politician Member of Parliament The IPP won six seats in Ireland, all but one of which were won in Ulster. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster The sole exception was Waterford City, the seat previously held by John Redmond, who had died earlier in the year, and retained by his son Captain William Archer Redmond. John Edward Redmond (Seán Éamonn Mac Réamoinn (1 September 1856 &ndash 6 March 1918 was an Irish nationalist Politician, Barrister, MP William Archer Redmond DSO (1886 &ndash 17 April 1932 was the son of John Redmond, the Irish nationalist politician and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Four of their Irish seats were a part of the arrangement brokered by Cardinal Logue between Sinn Féin and the IPP to avoid unionist victories in Ulster, a deal which saved some seats for the party but may have cost it the support of Protestant voters elsewhere. IPP came close to winning other seats in Louth and Wexford South, and in general their support held up better in the north and east of the country. County Louth is a former UK Parliament constituency in Ireland returning two Members of Parliament 1801-1885 and one in 1918-1922 South Wexford was a former UK Parliament constituency in Ireland returning one Member of Parliament 1885-1922 The party was represented in Westminster by seven MPs because T. P. O'Connor won an election from emigrant votes in the English city of Liverpool. Thomas Power O'Connor ( 5 October 1848 &ndash 18 November 1929) known as T England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary The IPP's losses were exaggerated by the "first-past-the-post" system which gave it a share of seats far short of its rather larger share of the vote (21,7%) and the number of seats it would have won under a "proportional representation" ballot system. The remnants of the IPP then became the Nationalist Party (Northern Ireland) under the leadership of Joseph Devlin. The Nationalist Party † (NP - was the continuation of the Irish Parliamentary Party, and was formed after partition by the Northern Ireland based members Joseph Devlin, also known as Joe Devlin ( 13 February 1871 &ndash 18 January 1934) was an Irish Journalist, influential
|Irish (UK) General Election 1918|
|No. of Seats||% of Seats||No. of Votes||% of Votes|
|Sinn Féin||Éamon de Valera||73||69. Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century 5||476,087||46. 9|
|Irish Unionist||Edward Carson||22||20. The Irish Unionist Alliance (also known as the Irish Unionist Party) was a Unionist party founded in Ireland in the second half of the 19th century Edward Henry Carson Baron Carson, PC, Kt, KC (often known as Sir Edward Carson or Lord Carson) ( 9||257,314||25. 3|
|Irish Parliamentary||John Dillon||6||5. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing John Dillon (4 September 1851 – 4 August 1927 was an Irish land reform agitator Irish Home Rule activist nationalist politician Member of Parliament 7||220,837||21. 7|
|Labour Unionist||3||2. The Ulster Unionist Labour Association was an association of Trade unionists founded by Edward Carson in 1918 aligned with the Ulster Unionists in 8||30,304||3. 0|
|Belfast Labour Party||—||—||12,164||1. The Belfast Labour Party was a Political party in Belfast, Ireland from 1892 until 1924 2|
|Independent Unionist||1||0. 95||9,531||0. 9|
|Independent Nationalist||—||—||8,183||0. 8|
|Independent Labour||—||—||659||0. 1|
|Totals||105||100. 0||615,515||100. 0|
After the election the elected Sinn Féin candidates, although entitled to sit as MPs in the British parliament, chose to boycott the Westminster body and instead assembled as a revolutionary parliament they called Dáil Éireann: the Irish for "Assembly of Ireland". The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919&ndash1921 Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. However Unionists and members of the IPP refused to recognise the Dáil. At its first meeting attended by 27 deputies (other were still imprisoned or impaired) on 21 January 1919 the Dáil issued a Declaration of Independence and proclaimed itself the parliament of new a state called the "Irish Republic". Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Declaration of Independence (Forógra na Saoirse Déclaration d'Indépendance was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed The Irish Republic ( Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a unilaterally declared independent state of Ireland proclaimed
On the same day, in unconnected circumstances, two local Irish members of the Royal Irish Constabulary guarding gelignite were ambushed and killed at Soloheadbeg, in Tipperary, by members of the Irish Volunteers. The Royal Irish Constabulary ( RIC) ( Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann) was one of Ireland's two police forces in the early twentieth century Soloheadbeg ('sɔləhɛdbɛg Solchaid Beag is a small Townland, some two miles outside Tipperary Town, near Limerick Junction railway station Tipperary ( Irish: Tiobraid Árann, lit "The well of Arra" is the name of a town (pop 4546 in the south-west of County Tipperary, Ireland The Irish Volunteers ( Óglaigh na hÉireann) was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists. Although it had not ordered this incident the course of events soon drove the Dáil to recognise the Volunteers as the army of the Irish Republic and the ambush as an act of war against Great Britain. The Volunteers therefore changed their name, in August, to the Irish Republican Army. The Irish Republican Army ( IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann was a military organisation descended from the Irish Volunteers, established 25 November 1913 and who In this way the 1918 elections lead to the outbreak of the Anglo-Irish War. The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla
The train of events set in motion by the elections would eventually bring about the first internationally recognised independent Irish state, the Irish Free State, established in 1922. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Furthermore the leaders of the Sinn Féin candidates elected in 1918, such as de Valera, Michael Collins and W. Michael John ("Mick" Collins (Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin 16 October 1890 &ndash 22 August 1922 was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for T. Cosgrave, came to dominate Irish politics. De Valera, for example, held at least some form of elected office from his first election as an MP in a by-election in 1917 until 1973. A by-election or bye-election (called special election in the United States) is an Election held to fill a political office that has become vacant Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The two major parties in the Republic of Ireland today, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, are both descendants of Sinn Féin, a party that first enjoyed substantial electoral success in 1918. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach shortened to Fianna Fáil ( is currently the largest Political party in the Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, shortened to Fine Gael (ˌfina gail meaning Family of the Irish or Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest
The correct interpretation of the results of the 1918 general election has been the subject of some controversy. This is because Sinn Féin treated the result as a unilateral mandate from the Irish people, to immediately set about establishing an independent, all-Ireland state, and to initiate an undeclared war of separation from Great Britain while totally ignoring the unresolved Ulster and Unionist situation. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands However, the party's Democratic Programme did not promise the electorate a war, just a 32-county Irish Republic. The Democratic Programme was a declaration of economic and social principles adopted by the First Dáil at its first meeting on 21 January 1919 The Irish Republic ( Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a unilaterally declared independent state of Ireland proclaimed Further, its election Manifesto sought a place for Ireland at the peace conference, which could not be expected on launching a new war. Sinn Féin Manifesto for the December 1918 election Following its reform in 1917 the Sinn Féin party campaigned against conscription in Ireland.
In 1921, under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, or Fourth Home Rule Act, Ireland was divided into two separate jurisdictions: six counties in the northeast became home ruled Northern Ireland, and the rest of the country that would eventually become the modern Republic of Ireland. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. 1918 was therefore the last occasion on which a general election occurred across the whole of Ireland, north and south, on the same day. For this reason many republicans have regarded the election as conferring a mandate for a united Ireland that was still unchanged over eighty years later. Indeed the 1918 general election has become a potent symbol for militant republicans who have argued that the elections conferred legitimacy both on the anti-Treaty faction in the Irish Civil War of 1922–1923 and on the violent campaigns of later groups such as the Provisional IRA that erupted many decades later. The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the However, subsequent republican legitimatism is based on the members of the Second Dáil elected in 1921. A principle within Irish republicanism, the concept of Irish republican legitimatism denies the legitimacy of the political entities of Republic of Ireland and The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
Critics of these interpretations make a number of arguments. Some question the legitimacy of the original mandate won by Sinn Féin. It is argued that Sinn Féin practiced widespread intimidation and electoral fraud and that this called the result into question. Some also argue that the use of the first-past-the-post electoral system and/or the large number of uncontested constituencies exaggerated the effect of the pro-Sinn Féin vote so that, while the party won around 70% of the total number of Irish seats, its share of the vote may have been less than 50% and so not have amounted to a majority. Turnout in contested seats was 68%, appreciable by any standards where many were first time voters, others possibly unaware of their voting rights, even especially for such a crucial election where certainly all Sinn Féin supporters would have voted.
Because of the large number of uncontested constituencies, it is impossible to know with certainty what share of the vote Sinn Féin would have won had all seats been contested, except that it would have increased. However, this has not stopped some historians attempting to speculate, for example by extrapolating from the vote counts in constituencies neighbouring those that were uncontested. 
Unionists argue from a different perspective. They insist that, regardless of the result, no election result considered on an all-Ireland basis could justify the imposition of a united Ireland on the Unionist minority in the north-east. Some still point to the fact that Unionists won a majority share of the vote, in both the historical northern province of Ulster and in the six counties that would later become Northern Ireland, to argue that the 1918 election in fact established a mandate for the north-east, at least, to remain within the United Kingdom.
Other arguments, leaving aside the immediate politics of 1918, dispute the capacity of any 1918 mandate for a united Ireland to legitimise acts of violence committed then or later. Although the 1918 general election was the last held throughout the whole of Ireland on a single day, in every election held since 1921 candidates advocating violent resistance to the partition of Ireland have fallen far short of winning a majority in either part of Ireland. The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
In 1998 both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland voted on the same day in referendums on the Belfast Agreement. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Voters in both jurisdictions endorsed the agreement which, among many other provisions, enshrined the principle that a united Ireland should be brought about by only peaceful, constitutional means. A United Ireland is the term used to refer to a sovereign state encompassing the whole of the island of Ireland. Whether or not it should be prevented by only peaceful, constitutional means is still debated hotly in some circles.