Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) is the Multi-National Force-Iraq umbrella name for military, paramilitary and civilian law enforcement entities that serve under the Government of Iraq. Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status
The armed forces are administered by the Ministry of Defense( MOD), and the Iraqi Police is administered by the Ministry of Interior (MOI). The Ministry of Defence is the Iraq government agency responsible for Defence of Iraq with the Internal security. The Iraqi Police Service (IPS are the uniformed Territorial Police Force responsible for the enforcement of Civil law within Iraq. The Ministry of Interior (MoI in Iraq handles policing and border enforcement The Iraqi Security Forces are trained by the Iraqi Government with assistance from Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq. Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq ( MNSTC-I) is the branch of the Multi-National Force - Iraq that is responsible for developing organizing training The Iraqi Government and Multi-National Force Iraq had planned that Iraqi Security Forces will assume full responsibility for providing security for the Iraqi people in at least 16 of 18 Iraqi provinces during year 2008. |||} Iraq is divided into 18 Governorates (or Provinces ( Muhafazah) Baghdād  At the same time, there are concerns regarding readiness and sectarian agendas within the force.
The number of trained and equipped ISF has been an often cited benchmark of progress in the Iraq War. Iraq withdrawal benchmarks are a series of benchmarks the US Government under the Bush administration have asked the Iraqi government to meet before the The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign As of March 2008, there were 531,000 ISF (180,000 military, 340,000 police, plus others).   The Iraqi government is aiming for an aggregate security force of 600,000 which is expected to be achieved sometime in 2010.
The Iran-Iraq War ended with Iraq fielding the world's 4th largest military, with more than 70 army divisions and over 800 aircraft within its air forcethanks to funding from the surrounding Gulf states and billions in loans and funding given or secured by the US State Department to support Iraq's war with Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers The Iraqi Air Force or IQAF (Arabic Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya القوة الجوية العراقية is the military branch in Iraq responsible  Losses during the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent ejection of Iraqi forces from Kuwait by a United Nations coalition resulted in the reduction of Iraq's ground forces to 23 divisions and the air force to less than 300 aircraft. The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Military and economic sanctions prevent Iraq from rebuilding its military power. Iraq maintained a standing military of about 375,000 troops.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Iraq built and used an arsenal of chemical and biological weapons, some of which have been alleged to come from the United States. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  These weapons were ordered destroyed by United Nations order. After a protracted and problematic weapons inspection process, the majority of weapons were considered to be destroyed and facilities sealed under UN weapons inspections. The issue of Iraq's disarmament reached a crisis in 2002-2003 when U A new round of weapons inspections was performed in early 2003 by United Nations weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix, which searched Iraqi sites again, but found no new weapons. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. (born 28 June, 1928 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish Diplomat and Politician. In March 2003, a US-led coalition invaded and occupied Iraq. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Iraq War|2007 in Iraq|2008 in IraqThe post-invasion period in Iraq After a year-long investigation by an American weapons inspections team, headed by David Kay, found no large stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction (though a network of UN-inspected and sealed laboratories did exist). Dr David A Kay (born c 1940 is best known for heading the Iraq Survey Group and acting as a weapons inspector in Iraq after the 2003 U
The Iraqi military was disbanded and the Iraqi Military of Defense was dissolved shortly after the toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime regime in 2003 by Coalition Provisional Authority Order 2 May 23, 2003. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA سلطة الائتلاف الموحدة was established as a Transitional government following the On June 25, 2003, the Vinnell Corporation was awarded a contract to train the first nine battalions, or 9,000 recruits, of a 44,000 person-strong “New Iraqi Army”. The Vinnell Corporation is an international Private military company based in the United States specializing in military training logistics and support in the form Pre-2003 History The first Iraqi military forces established by the British were the Iraq Levies several battalions of troops tasked to guard the Royal Air Force bases In April 2004, an Iraqi battalion refused to fight insurgents in Fallujah, and soon thereafter Major General David Petraeus took over the training mission as he became the commander of the new Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq. General David Howell Petraeus, USA (born November 7 1952) is scheduled to become the next Commander U Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq ( MNSTC-I) is the branch of the Multi-National Force - Iraq that is responsible for developing organizing training  A new force generation plan authorized an end-strength of ten Iraqi army divisions.
During 2006, the Coalition's campaign plan for Iraq called for a small Coalition footprint and a rapid handover of security responsibilities to newly generated Iraqi security forces. It turned out, however, that the ISF were not ready and that the time plan was too optimistic. Even though Iraqi forces had been trained and equipped, they hadn't developed the capabilities needed to plan, conduct and sustain effective counter-insurgency operations. There were also challenges at the ministerial level, within the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Defense. The ministries could not sustain its forces in terms of logistics, intelligence, communications and procurement.  A bi-product of the surge was that it provided the ISF time for training and leadership development, as well as more Coalition partnering units. The surge is a phrase commonly used to describe United States President George W One of the lessons learned is that the Coalition should not draw down too quickly, according to U.S. Brigadier General Dana Pittard
The Iraqi Army launched its first solely planned and executed high-profile division-level operation March 25, 2008 with Operation Charge of the Knights. Dana JH Pittard is a Brigadier General in the United States Army. For other battles of Basra see Battle of Basra. The Battle of Basra began on March 25, 2008, when the Iraqi Army The IA received Coalition support only in air support, logistics and via embedded advisors. In Military tactics, close air support ( CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to Military Logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces A transition team is a 10-15 soldier team that lives with and trains Iraqi Security Forces (ISF the Afghan National Army (ANA and other allies in the War Also, a British infantry brigade stationed in Basra were ready in a tactical overwatch role but did not need to intervene. Urban operations are considered to be among the most complex types of warfare. Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in Urban areas such as Towns and cities.
Iraqi security forces are composed of forces serving under the Ministry of Interior (MOI) and the Ministry of Defense (MOD). MOD forces are the army, the navy and the air force. Pre-2003 History The first Iraqi military forces established by the British were the Iraq Levies several battalions of troops tasked to guard the Royal Air Force bases The Iraqi Navy is one of the components of the Military of Iraq currently being reconstructed by UK - US Coalition forces in Iraq. The Iraqi Air Force or IQAF (Arabic Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya القوة الجوية العراقية is the military branch in Iraq responsible MOI forces are the police, the paramilitary national police and the border enforcement forces. The Iraqi Police Service (IPS are the uniformed Territorial Police Force responsible for the enforcement of Civil law within Iraq. Also, other ministries have Facility Protection Service personnel who act as guards at government buildings and as personal security details to protect ministry officials. 
The Iraqi Army is an objective counter-insurgency force that is currently being developed by the government of Iraq in cooperation with Coalition forces. Pre-2003 History The first Iraqi military forces established by the British were the Iraq Levies several battalions of troops tasked to guard the Royal Air Force bases Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants The force generation plan as of March 2008 includes 13 divisions, each division consisting of 4 brigades. 
The Iraqi army is described as the most important element of the counter-insurgency fight.  The tactic is to provide security and other services on a local level by using infantrymen on dismounted patrols. As insurgents lose the passive or active support from the local population, they will easily be defeated, it is believed.
Light infantry brigades will be equipped with small arms, machine guns, RPGs, body armor and light armored vehicles. Mechanized infantry brigades will be equipped with T-54/55 main battle tanks and BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles.  The Hungarian Armed Forces have donated 77 Soviet-made T-72 tanks from their own arsenal. The tanks have been refurbished by Hungarian specialists and were delivered in fully battle-ready condition in 2004. Training personnel was also provided to the newly forming Iraqi army. Iraq will also be receiving 120 additional T-72 tanks from Slovenian and Slovakian army reserves. Iraq is currently receiving hundreds of secondhand M-60 tanks from U. S. army stockpiles, as well as 306 M-60's from the Greek Army.
The Iraqi Navy is a small force with 800 sailors and marines designed to protect shoreline and inland waterways from insurgent infiltration. The Iraqi Navy is one of the components of the Military of Iraq currently being reconstructed by UK - US Coalition forces in Iraq. The navy is also responsible for the security of offshore oil platforms. The navy will have coastal patrol squadrons, assault boat squadrons and a marine battalion. Marines (from the English adjective marine, meaning of the sea, from Latin language mare, meaning sea via French adjective  The force will consist of 2,000 to 2,500 sailors by year 2010. 
The Iraqi Air Force is designed to support ground forces with surveillance, reconnaissance and troop lift. The Iraqi Air Force or IQAF (Arabic Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya القوة الجوية العراقية is the military branch in Iraq responsible Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C-130 transport aircraft to move troops, equipment and supplies it currently has 3000 personnel. 
The primary objective of the Iraqi Police is to safeguard the public and provide internal security at the local level. The Iraqi Police Service (IPS are the uniformed Territorial Police Force responsible for the enforcement of Civil law within Iraq. The Iraqi police is presently mainly focused on counter-insurgency operations, but over time the Iraqi police will improve criminal investigation capabilities including forensic investigative capabilities.
During the Saddam regime, the Iraqi police was used as an instrument to terrorize, intimidate and incite fear into the populace, using torture, threat and murder. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 Today, the new Iraqi police force is tasked with protecting people from such acts. The police course curriculum includes democratic policing, human rights, first aid, police ethics and leadership communications currently there are over 340,000 Iraqi police.
The Iraqi police are equipped with AK-47s, Glock pistols, body armor, pick-up trucks and SUVs. 
The Iraqi Police Service (IPS) is responsible for the day to day patrolling of cities around most crimes. The IPS is recruited locally and generally reflective of the demographic makeup of its neighborhoods.
The National Police (NP) is a paramilitary gendarmerie type force designed to bridge the gap between local policing and the army, allowing the MOI to project power across provinces and maintain law and order while an effective community police is developed. A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian Although called police, the force has been trained primarily for military operations.
Because of frequent allegations of abuse and other illegal activities, the government of Iraq decided in the fall of 2006 to reform and retrain all NP units. The NP transformation will yield a police organization capable of performing criminal investigations as well as tactical operations. The transformation includes a reorganization that resulted in replacement of two division headquarters with a National Police Headquarters. 
Weak or corrupt leadership, militia influences and lack of logistical and maintenance sustainment have affected the capabilities of NP units. Initial estimates compiled during NP transformation show that the NP are disproportionately Shia. Recruiting initiatives are targeting Sunnis to improve the diversity of the NP force.
NP units are equipped with small arms, machine guns, pick-up trucks and SUVs. The mechanized battalions are equipped with light armored vehicles. 
Iraq's borders are controlled by the Department of Border Enforcement (DBE) and the Department of Ports of Entry (POE) collectively. The DBE is manning 405 border structures. There are 14 land points of entry. As of November 2006, there were 28,300 DBE personnel trained, organized into 5 regions, 12 brigades and 38 battalions. Force generation and equipment goals are on schedule for completion by December 2006. 
There are more than 150,000 Facility Protection Service personnel who work for 26 ministries and 8 independent directorates. The Facilities Protection Service is an Iraqi Paramilitary force tasked with the fixed site protection of Iraqi Government buildings facilities and personnel Anecdotal evidence suggests that some of them are unreliable and responsible for violent crimes. PM Maliki has announced a reform to consolidate all Facilities Protection Service personnel into a unified organization responsible to the MOI. Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki ( Arabic: نوري كامل محمّد حسن المالكي transliterated Nūrī Kāmil al-Mālikī; born June As of December 2005, the Coalition no longer provides material or logisitcal support to the FPS. 
Under the Geneva Convention, the Coalition was obliged to provide security for the Iraqi people after the toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 After the dissolution of the Coalition Provisional Authority June 28, 2004, the Coalition stayed in country at the request of the Iraqi government and under a UN Mandate to help the fledgling government develop its security forces and fight an insurgency. The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA سلطة الائتلاف الموحدة was established as a Transitional government following the The term UN mandate is typically used to refer to a long-term international mission which has been authorized by the United Nations General Assembly or the UN One mission objective for the MNF-I is an “Iraq that has a security force that can maintain domestic order and deny Iraq as a safe haven for terrorists”. This page is about the military command, for more general discussion of the coalition forces see Multinational force in Iraq or Iraq War. The strategy to achieve this is basically to train and equip Iraqi Security Forces and gradually transition security responsibilities to the ISF.
As of November 2007, all of the original ten Iraqi Army divisions have been transferred to an all-Iraqi chain of command. Leadership problems within the National Police have been addressed during the fall of 2006 and early 2007 by replacing National Police commanders. The National Police brigades are currently deployed in Operation Law and Order. Operation Imposing Law, also known as Operation Law and Order ( عملية القانون والنظام "'amaliat al-qaanoon wa an-nazaam Geographically, the ISF are responsible more than 70% of Iraq, including most populated areas. First, ISF will assume responsibility for counter-insurgency operations, with Coalition help in medical evacuations and logistics. Medical evacuation, often termed MEDEVAC or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to the wounded being Military Logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces In the next step, ISF will develop capacity to sustain themselves.
Developing host-nation security forces is a cornerstone of the United States COIN doctrine. See also Insurgency In the context of an occupation or a Civil war, counter-insurgency (abbreviated COIN is a military term for the combat  After a review of the military strategy in the end of 2004, then commanding general of the MNF-I George Casey directed the Coalition forces to shift their focus from fighting insurgents to training Iraqis. This page is about the military command, for more general discussion of the coalition forces see Multinational force in Iraq or Iraq War. George Casey may refer to George William Casey Sr (1922-1970 US Army general George W  At the time, the insurgency was mainly directed against the occupation and it was believed that if the Coalition would reduce its presence then the insurgency would diminish. The Iraqi insurgency is composed of diverse mix of militias foreign fighters all Iraqi units or mixtures using violent measures against the US-led Coalition in Iraq Military planners had hoped that national elections would change the perception of being under occupation, stabilize the situation and allow the Coalition to reduce its presence. After national elections in December 2005, however, the insurgency shifted focus from a resistance against the occupation towards sectarian conflict. Accelerated by the Golden mosque bombing in February 2006, the levels of sectarian violence rose dramatically and the security situation deteriorated. This article is about the bombing that took place in 2006 For the later bombing see 2007 al-Askari Mosque bombing The 2006 al-Askari Mosque bombing occurred at In Baghdad a cycle of sectarian violence accelerated in which Al-Qaeda affiliated Sunni insurgents carried out spectacular suicide-bombings in Shia districts and Shia militias retaliated with extrajudicial killings in Sunni districts. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The Islamic State of Iraq or Dawlat al-'Iraq al-Islamiyya ( Arabic دولة العراق الإسلامية) is an Umbrella organization This page describes the Shia Mahdi Army of contemporary Iraq for the Sunni Mahdi Army of Nineteenth Century Sudan see Muhammad Ahmad.  It became evident that Iraqi Security Forces were incapable of putting a lid on the sectarian violence and protect the population, and the MNF-I had to adjust plans for security transition. The commander of the Iraqi Assistance Command, Dana Pittard said June 2007 that the lesson learned is that Coalition forces should not draw down too quickly and that the transitioning of security responsibilities will take time. Dana JH Pittard is a Brigadier General in the United States Army. “I think it will take a couple of years before the Iraqi security forces are going to be able to fully take control of the security situation in Iraq”, Pittard said. 
During 2008, the Iraqi government is projected to assume full responsibility for sustaining security operations and providing security for the Iraqi people in at least 16 of 18 provinces. 
In a report to U. S. Congress, the Pentagon reports that its plans for security transition is broken down into four phases:
The first phase was completed in May 2006. The second phase can be considered complete since all of the original ten IA divisions have transferred to an Iraqi chain of command and are responsible for most of Iraq's battlespace. Iraqi Army Lead-statistics are no longer included in the U. S. DoD's quarterly reports to Congress. Muthanna was the first province to enter the third phase July 2006. Al Muthanna sometimes simply Muthanna (المثنى is one of the Governorates of Iraq.  Dhi Qar province achieved PIC in September 2006 and Najaf achieved PIC in December 2006. Dhi Qar (ذي قار is a province in Iraq with an area of. In 2003 the estimated population of the governorate was 1472000 people Najaf province (النجف An-Najaf) is a province in the nation of Iraq.  Maysan province achieved PIC status on April 18, 2007. Maysan (ميسان is one of the Governorates of Iraq. It is in the east of the country bordering Iran.  The three provinces of the Kurdish region - Dahuk, Irbil and Sulaymaniyah provinces - achieved PIC status on May 30, 2007. Dahuk (also Dohuk or Duhok) is one of the Governorates of Iraq. Arbīl (أربيل Hawler is a governorate of Iraq located in the north of the country As Sulaymānīyah province ( Arabic: محافظة السليمانية (Silêmanî is a province of Iraq, within the Iraqi Kurdistan Region  Karbala province achieved PIC status on October 29, 2007 and Basra province achieved PIC December 15, 2007. Karbala province (كربلاء is a province in the nation of Iraq. Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province of Iraq, with an area of. 
The third phase is to a large extent dependent upon the readiness of local police and local governance. Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT), with personnel from the US Department of State, US Department of Justice and MNF-I are active in Ninawa, Babil, Tamim, Baghdad, Al Anbar, Salah ad Din, Diyala, Basra and Dhi Qar provinces, to assist in developing governance capabilities. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department Ninawa ( Arabic: نینوى Kurdish: Neynewa, Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Nîněwâ) is a governorate Babil (بابل is a province in Iraq. It has an area of, with an estimated population of 1385783 people in 2003 Kirkuk Governorate is one of the Governorates of Iraq located in the north of the country Baghdad Governorate (محافظة بغداد Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād in the nation of Iraq and contains the Al Anbar (الأنبار al-’Anbār or Anbar) is the largest province in Iraq geographically Salah ad Din, Salâh-ad-Dîn, or Salahuddin ( Arabic: صلاح الدين is a Governorate in Iraq, north of Baghdad Diyala (ديالى is one of the constituent Governorates of the nation of Iraq. Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province of Iraq, with an area of. Dhi Qar (ذي قار is a province in Iraq with an area of. In 2003 the estimated population of the governorate was 1472000 people 
The phases are not strictly sequential, for example Muthanna went from phase one directly to phase three. The Iraqi government and MNF-I form the Joint Committee to Transfer Security Responsibility (JCTSR), which assesses when conditions permit handing over security responsibilities to the ISF. JCTSR assesses conditions in four areas: security situation, readiness of the ISF, readiness of local governance and working relations with MNF-I.