|Median sagittal section of two lumbar vertebræ and their ligaments. (Intervertebral fibrocartilage labeled at center left. )|
|Costotransverse articulation. Seen from above. (Intervertebral fibrocartilage labeled at top center . )|
|Gray's||subject #72 289|
Intervertebral discs (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lie between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Introduction ( Joints or Articulations Sutural ligament Fibrocartilages Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH) is a huge Controlled vocabulary (or metadata system for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books Elsevier, the world's largest Publisher of Medical and Scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group A vertebra (plural vertebrae) is an individual Irregular bone in the spinal or Vertebral column ( aka ischis a flexuous and flexible column In Human anatomy, the vertebral column ( backbone or spine) is a column of 34 Vertebrae the Sacrum, Intervertebral Each disc forms a cartilaginous joint to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together. A joint is the location at which two or more Bones make contact In Anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures Fibrous tissue that connects Bones to other bones
Discs consist of an outer annulus fibrosus, which surrounds the inner nucleus pulposus. Each Intervertebral fibrocartilage is composed at its circumference of laminæ of fibrous tissue and Fibrocartilage, forming the annulus fibrosus. Nucleus pulposus is the jelly-like substance in the middle of the Spinal disc. The annulus fibrosus consists of several layers of fibrocartilage. White fibrocartilage consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue in various proportions to the former of these constituents it owes its flexibility and toughness The strong annular fibers contain the nucleus pulposus and distribute pressure evenly across the disc. The nucleus pulposus contains loose fibers suspended in a mucoprotein gel the consistency of jelly. The nucleus of the disc acts as a shock absorber, absorbing the impact of the body's daily activities and keeping the two vertebrae separated. The disc can be likened to a doughnut: whereby the annulus fibrosis is similar to the dough and the nucleus pulposis is the jelly. If one presses down on the front of the doughnut the jelly moves posteriorly or to the back. When one develops a prolapsed disc the jelly/ nucleus pulposis is forced out of the doughnut/ disc and may put pressure on the nerve located near the disc. This can give one the symptoms of sciatica. Sciatica is a set of symptoms including Pain that may be caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that give rise to the Sciatic nerve
There is one disc between each pair of vertebrae, except for the first cervical segment, the atlas. In Anatomy, the atlas (C1 is the topmost (first Cervical vertebra of the spine. The atlas is a ring around the roughly cone-shaped extension of the axis (second cervical segment). In Anatomy, the second Cervical vertebra (C2 of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle" or epistropheus. The axis acts as a post around which the atlas can rotate, allowing the neck to swivel. There are a total of twenty-three discs in the spine, which are most commonly identified by specifying the particular vertebrae they separate. In Human anatomy, the vertebral column ( backbone or spine) is a column of 34 Vertebrae the Sacrum, Intervertebral For example, the disc between the fifth and sixth cervical vertabrae is designated "C5-6".
As people age, the nucleus pulposus begins to dehydrate, which limits its ability to absorb shock. The annulus fibrosus gets weaker with age and begins to tear. While this may not cause pain in some people, in others one or both of these may cause chronic pain.
Pain due to the inability of the dehydrating nucleus pulposus to absorb shock is called axial pain or disc space pain. One generally refers to the gradual dehydration of the nucleus pulposus as degenerative disc disease. Degeneration of the Intervertebral disc, which is often called " degenerative disc disease " (DDD of the spine, is a condition that can be painful and can
When the annulus fibrosus tears due to an injury or the aging process, the nucleus pulposus can begin to extrude through the tear. This is called disc herniation. Near the posterior side of each disc, all along the spine, major spinal nerves extend out to different organs, tissues, extremities etc. It is very common for the herniated disc to press against these nerves (pinched nerve) causing radiating pain, numbness, tingling, and diminished strength and/or range of motion. Radiculopathy is not a specific condition but rather a description of a problem in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a Neuropathy) In addition, the contact of the inner nuclear gel, which contains inflammatory proteins, with a nerve can also cause significant pain. Nerve-related pain is called radicular pain. Radicular Pain, or Radiculitis, is pain "radiated" along the dermatome (sensory distribution of a Nerve due to inflammation or other irritation
Herniated discs go by many names and these can mean different things to different medical professionals. A slipped disc, ruptured disc, or a bulging disc can all refer to the same medical condition.
Protrusions of the disc into the adjacent vertebra are known as Schmorl's nodes. Schmorl's nodes are protrusions of the cartilage of the Intervertebral disc through the Vertebral body endplate and into the adjacent Vertebra.
Artificial intervertebral disc
Posterior longitudinal ligament, in the thoracic region. Back pain (also known " dorsalgia " is Pain felt in the back that usually originates from the Muscles Nerves Bones Sciatica is a set of symptoms including Pain that may be caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that give rise to the Sciatic nerve In Human anatomy, the vertebral column ( backbone or spine) is a column of 34 Vertebrae the Sacrum, Intervertebral
Median sagittal section through the occipital bone and first three cervical vertebræ.
Costovertebral articulations. Anterior view.