|Part of the series on|
Freedom of speech by country
Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor The working conditions of Journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence. Australia is a federation, and responsibility for censorship is divided between the states and the federal government Censorship in Belarus Freedom of press In 2007 Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 151st out of 168 countries in its global press freedom listing Censorship in Bhutan is comparable to its South Asian neighbours although not as focused or systematic as censorship in China. Censorship in Burma (or Myanmar refers to government policies in controlling and regulating certain information particularly on religious, ethnic, political In Canada the principles of Community standards and Public interests are the primary adjudicants of what may be published or broadcast by the media. Censorship in the People's Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the People's Republic of China Censorship in Cuba has been reported on extensively and resulted in European Union sanctions as well as statements of protest from groups governments and noted individuals As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied In standard conditions France does not have Censorship laws being a Liberal democracy respectful of Freedom of press. Censorship in Germany has taken many forms during the history of the region. Censorship in India mainly targets religious issues It is justified by the government as necessary to maintain communal harmony peace and tranquillity given the history of communal tension Censorship in Iran is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Although Ireland does not currently exercise much censorship in practice the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship and has specific laws covering Films, Israel has media censorship laws based on British emergency regulations from 1945 that apply to domestic media foreign newspapers and wire service transmissions from In Japan, Article 21 of the Japanese Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and prohibits formal censorship Censorship is a growing concern for Malaysia as it attempts to adapt to a modern knowledge-based economy The Government of Pakistan censors all Internet traffic by means of Routing all connections through a central exchange which is administered by the Censorship has been a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history. The United States Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Samoa states that "The law provides for freedom of speech and of the Censorship in Saudi Arabia is prevalent in the press and with internet access Censorship in Singapore mainly targets sexual political racial and religious issues as defined by an ever-shifting panoply of out-of-bounds markers. Censorship in South Asia can apply to books movies the Internet and other media North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) has a high degree of censorship and no Freedom of the press. Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced Sweden strongly protects freedom of speech and was a pioneer in officially abolishing Censorship. Censorship in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) was eliminated in 1987 Freedom of speech in Thailand was guaranteed in the articles 39 40 41 in the 1997 Constitution. Censorship in Tunisia has been an issue since the country gained independence in 1956. Freedom of expression in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation which Censorship in the United Kingdom has a long history with variously stringent and lax laws in place at different times although a much more liberal approach has been taken in recent years According to the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index the United States is currently ranked 48th in the world in terms of press freedom Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of Censorship or Punishment Advertising regulation refers to the Laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region Editing of anime in American distribution describes the process of altering Anime to prepare it to be distributed in the United States and forms part of the process Many societies have banned certain Books This is a partial list of books that have been banned. For nearly the entire History of film production certain films have been either Boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a Regime A re-edited film is a Film that has been edited from the original theatrical release Censorship of Music, the practice of censoring Music from the public may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely Similar to other forms of media Video games have been the subject of debate and Censorship. Censorship on MTV has been the subject of debate for years MTV the first and most popular Music Television network in the U Book burning (a category of biblioclasm or book destruction is the practice of destroying often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material A bleep censor (or " bleeping " is the replacement of verbal Profanity with a beep sound (usually a) in television or radio Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content Expurgation is a form of Censorship by way of purging anything noxious offensive sinful or erroneous usually from an artistic work Pixelization is a video- and image-editing technique where an image or part of it is blurred by displaying part or all of it at a markedly lower resolution Postal censorship is the Inspection or examination of Mail, most often by Governments that can include opening reading or marking of covers, Prior restraint is a Legal term referring to a Government 's actions that prevent materials from being published Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out To Whitewash is to gloss over or cover up vices crimes or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data A gag order (or suppression order) is an order sometimes a legal order by a court or government other times a private order by an employer or other institution restricting Corporate censorship is Censorship by Corporations the sanctioning of speech by spokespersons employees and business associates by threat of monetary loss loss Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor did it end with it but it had heavy influence in the life of Italians Political censorship exists when a Government attempts to conceal distort or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news Censorship by religion is a form of Censorship where Freedom of expression is controlled or limited using Religious authority or on the basis of the teachings The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks The legal issues are similar to offline censorship. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor
One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: residents of a country that bans certain information can find it on websites hosted outside the country. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages Conversely, attempts by one government to prevent its citizens from seeing certain material can have the effect of restricting foreigners, because the government may take action against Internet sites anywhere in the world, if they host objectionable material.
Barring total control on Internet-connected computers, such as in North Korea, total censorship of information on the Internet is very difficult (or impossible) to achieve due to the underlying distributed technology of the Internet. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Pseudonymity and data havens (such as Freenet) allow unconditional free speech, as the technology guarantees that material cannot be removed and the author of any information is impossible to link to a physical identity or organization. Pseudonymity is a word derived from Pseudonym, meaning 'false name' and describes a state of disguised identity resulting from the use of a pseudonym (also called nym A data haven is a Computer or a network that holds Data protected from government action by both technical means ( Encryption) and location in Freenet is a decentralized Censorship -resistant Distributed data store originally designed by Ian Clarke. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Digital identity refers to the aspect of digital technology that is concerned with the mediation of people's experience of their own identity and the identity of other people and things An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and
In November 2007, "Father of the Internet" Vint Cerf stated that he sees Government-led control of the Internet failing due to private ownership.
The following sections follow the OpenNet Initiative (ONI) categorization scheme: Pervasive, Substantial, Nominal, Indirect, Watchlist. The OpenNet Initiative is a joint project whose goal is to monitor and report on internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations 
While there is no universally agreed upon definition of what constitutes "pervasive censorship", organization Reporters without Borders (RSF) maintains an internet enemy list while the OpenNet Initiative categorizes some nations as practicing extreme levels of Internet censorship. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Such nations often censor political content and may retaliate against citizens who violate the censorship with measures such as imprisonment.
Cuba is on ONI's watchlist and on RSF's internet enemy list. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Cuba has the lowest Latin America ratio of computers per inhabitant, and the lowest internet access ratio of all the Western hemisphere.  Citizens have to use government controlled "access points", where their activity is monitored through IP blocking, keyword filtering and navigation history checking. According to the government, access to internet services by the Cuban population are limited due to high costs and the American embargo, but there are reports concerning the will of the government to control access to uncensored information both from and to the outer world.  The Cuban government continues to imprison independent journalists for contributing reports through the Internet to web sites outside of Cuba
Iran is in ONI's pervasive category and on RSF's internet enemy list. In the first few years of the 21st century Iran experienced a great surge in Internet usage and with 20 million people on the Internet currently has the second highest percentage of its population For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Iran Internet censorship is delegated to ISPs who attempt to filter contents critical of the government, pornographic websites, political blogs, and especially recently women's rights websites, weblogs, and online magazines. An Internet service provider ( ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a company which primarily offers their customers access to the Internet   Iranian bloggers have been imprisoned for their Internet activities by the Iranian government.  Most recently, the Iranian government has blocked access to video-upload sites such as YouTube. com. 
Maldives is not categorized by ONI and RSF removed it from its internet enemy list in 2006. The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching Maldives filters opposition websites and had imprisoned cyber dissidents in 2004 and 2005, all since released. 
Burma (also known as Myanmar) is in ONI's pervasive category and on RSF's internet enemy list. Burma has been connected to the Internet since 2000. However the military government restricts Internet access through software-based censorship including Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Burma has banned the websites of political opposition groups, sites relating to human rights, and organizations promoting democracy in Burma. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system  During the 2007 anti-government protests, Burma completely shut down all internet links from its country. The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests were a series of anti-government protests that started in Burma (also known as Union of Myanmar on August 15, 
North Korea is not categorized by ONI but is on RSF's internet enemy list. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Only a few thousand citizens in North Korea, a tiny minority of the total population, have access to the Internet, which is heavily censored by the national government. 
Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions do not censor materials from internet. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics.
Syria is in ONI's pervasive category and is on RSF's internet enemy list. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Syria has banned websites for political reasons and arrested people accessing them. 
Tunisia is in ONI's pervasive category and is on RSF's internet enemy list. Internet censorship in Tunisia is very strong Technically it is a transparent proxy that processes every HTTP request sent out and filters out sites Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Tunisia has blocked thousands of websites (such as pornography, mail, search engine cached pages, online documents conversion and translation services) and peer-to-peer and FTP transfer. For other uses of the term see Peer-to-peer (disambiguation For peer-to-peer networks used for file sharing see File sharing This filtering is performed using a transparent proxy and port blocking. In Computer networks a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program which services the requests of its clients by forwarding In Computer networking, a port is an application-specific or process-specific software construct serving as a communications endpoint used by Transport Layer protocols Cyber dissidents including pro-democracy lawyer Mohammed Abbou have been jailed by the Tunisian government for their online activities. 
Uzbekistan is in ONI's pervasive category and is on RSF's internet enemy list. Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Uzbekistan prevents access to websites regarding banned Islamic movements, independent media, NGOs, and material critical of the government's human rights violations.  Some Internet cafes in the capital have posted warnings that users will be fined for viewing pornographic websites or website containing banned political material. 
Vietnam is in ONI's pervasive category and is on RSF's internet enemy list. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The main networks in Vietnam prevent access to websites critical of the Vietnamese government, expatriate political parties, and international human rights organizations, among others.  Online police reportedly monitor Internet cafes and cyber dissidents have been imprisoned for advocating democracy. 
South Korea is in ONI's substantial category but is not on RSF's internet enemy list. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː South Korea's internet censorship policy is highly political and particularly strong toward suppressing anonymosity in the Korean internet. In 2007, numerous bloggers were censored and their posts deleted by police for expressing criticism of, or even support for, presidential candidates. This even lead to some bloggers being arrested by the police.  Subsequently in 2008, just before a new presidential election, a new law legislation that required requiring all major internet portal sites to require identity verification of their users, was put into effect. This applies to all users who add any publicly viewable content. For example, to post a comment on a news article, a user registration and citizen identity number verification is required. For foreigners who do not have such numbers, a copy of passport must be faxed and verified. Although this law was initially met with public outcry, as of 2008, most of the major portals, including Daum, Naver, Nate, and Yahoo Korea, enforce such verification before the user can post any material that is publicly viewable.
Also, South Korea has banned at least 31 sites considered sympathetic to North Korea through the use of IP blocking. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, An Internet Protocol ( IP) address is a numerical identification ( Logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a Computer network .
Furthermore, search engines are required to verify age for some keywords deemed inappropriate for minors. For such keywords, age verification using national identity number is required. For foreigners, a copy of passport must be faxed to verify the age. As of 2008, practically all large search engine companies in Korea have complied with this legislation as well, including foreign-owned companies (e. g. Google Korea and Yahoo Korea)
Saudi Arabia is in ONI's substantial category and is on RSF's internet enemy list. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Saudi Arabia directs all international Internet traffic through a proxy farm located in King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology. King Abdulaziz City for Science & Technology (KACST ( Arabic: مدينة الملك عبدالعزيز للعلوم والتقنية located in Riyadh Content filtering is implemented there, based on software by Secure Computing. Secure Computing Corporation, or SCC, is a Public company ( that develops and sells Computer security appliances and hosted services that protect  Additionally, a number of sites are blocked according to two lists maintained by the Internet Services Unit (ISU): one containing "immoral" (mostly pornographic) sites, the other based on directions from a security committee run by the Ministry of Interior (including sites critical of the Saudi government). An interesting feature of this system is that citizens are encouraged to actively report "immoral" sites for blocking, using a provided Web form. The legal basis for content-filtering is the resolution by Council of Ministers dated 12 February 2001. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.  According to a study carried out in 2004 by the OpenNet Initiative:
The most aggressive censorship focused on pornography, drug use, gambling, religious conversion of Muslims, and filtering circumvention tools. The OpenNet Initiative is a joint project whose goal is to monitor and report on internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations 
The United Arab Emirates is in ONI's substantial category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. The United Arab Emirates forcibly censors the Internet using Secure Computing's solution. Secure Computing Corporation, or SCC, is a Public company ( that develops and sells Computer security appliances and hosted services that protect The nation's sole ISP Etisalat bans pornography, politically sensitive material, and anything against the moral values of the UAE. Etisalat is one of the largest Telecommunications companies in the world and the largest operator in the Arab world headquartered in the UAE (as per FT500 Etisalat blocks Skype as well. Skype (skaɪp is Software that allows users to make telephone calls over the Internet.
Yemen is in ONI's substantial category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Yemen's two ISPs block access to contents falling under the categories of gambling, adult contents, and sex education as well as material seeking to convert Muslims to other religions. 
Australia is in ONI's nominal category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Internet censorship in Australia is largely the province of the Federal Government and its laws on Internet censorship are theoretically amongst the most restrictive in the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
Brazil is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld A judicial order by judge Ênio Santarelli Zulianio forbade access to a YouTube video depicting Brazilian model and TV host Daniela Cicarelli performing sexual acts on a beach in Cádiz, Spain. A judge, or justice, is an Official who presides over a Court of law YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees Daniela Cicarelli Lemos (born November 6, 1978, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil) is a former TV show hostess Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. With the widespread circumvention of YouTube policy by video uploaders, two Internet providers - Telefonica and Brasil Telecom - denied all YouTube access to customers - although it was still possible to access YouTube with the aid of proxies. Telefónica SA, (,,,,) is a Spanish telecommunication company. Brasil Telecom SA (BrT ( Bovespa: BRTP3 / BRTP4( NYSE: BRP is a major Brazilian Telecommunications company headquartered in the Brazilian YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees Four days after Brasil Telecom blocked YouTube, judge Zulianio ordered the reestablishment of free YouTube browsing, maintaining that only the Cicarelli video was to be restricted. Cicarelli later was denied the right to keep the video off the Internet by higher courts.
The state of São Paulo was the first state to enact an act requiring cybercafés to keep a user's list with address, full name, date of birth, phone number, and an identity card number. ( is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy An identity document, also called a piece of identification ( ID) is a document used to verify aspects of a person's Identity. 
Canada is in ONI's nominal category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In a few cases, information which the government is actively attempting to keep out of Canadian broadcast and print media (such as names of young offenders or information on criminal trials subject to publication bans) is available to Canadian users via Internet from sites hosted outside Canada.
Project Cleanfeed Canada run by Cybertip. ca and modeled after a similar program in the United Kingdom, (Cleanfeed) Canada's largest ISPs (which includes Rogers and Bell Canada) are blocking access to hundreds of child pornography sites from abroad as of November 2006. Cleanfeed is a Content blocking system implemented in the UK by BT, Britain's largest Internet provider which (as of 2008) targets only child sexual
Denmark is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Denmark's biggest Internet service provider TDC A/S launched a DNS-based child pornography filter on October 18, 2005 in cooperation with the state police department and Save the Children, a charity organisation. TDC A/S ( Tele - Denmark Communications is the former Telecom Monopoly in Denmark. The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Save the Children is a leading international organisation helping children in need around the world Since then, all major providers have joined and as of May 2006, 98% of the Danish Internet users are restricted by the filter.  The filter caused some controversy in March 2006, when a legal sex site named Bizar.dk was caught in the filter, sparking discussion about the reliability, accuracy and credibility of the filter.  Also, as of October 18, 2005, TDC A/S has blocked access to AllOfMP3.com, a popular MP3 download site, through DNS filtering. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. TDC A/S ( Tele - Denmark Communications is the former Telecom Monopoly in Denmark. MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a Digital audio encoding format using a form of Lossy data compression The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet. 
February 4, 2008 a Danish court has ordered the Danish ISP Tele2 to shutdown access to the filesharing site thepiratebay.org for all its Danish users. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Tele2 AB is one of Europe's biggest Telecommunications operators with about 24 million customers in 12 countries 
Fiji is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य In May 2007 it was reported that the military in Fiji had blocked access to blogs critical of the regime. 
Finland is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Following a "voluntary law"  enacted by Finnish parliament in 2007-01-01, most of the Finland's major Internet service providers decided on November 22, 2006 to begin filtering child pornography and first ISPs started filtering on January 2008. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The blacklist is provided by Finnish police and should contain only foreign sites. Technically filtering was planned to be URI based like the United Kingdom's Cleanfeed, but so far implementations have been DNS based.
A majority of these censored Internet sites, however, are actually not censored by the Finnish ISPs due to actual child pornography, but due to "normal" adult pornography instead, including images of interracial and homosexual sex. Most of the known sites are also located in EU or United States where child pornography is strictly illegal anyway. Two-thirds of the Finnish internet censorship list of the filtered domains can currently be seen on lapsiporno.info, the homepage of Matti Nikki, a Finnish activist criticizing Internet censorship in the European Union and especially in Finland. Lapsipornoinfo ("childporninfo" is a Finnish Website opposed to Internet censorship. On February 12th 2008, Nikki's page was also added to National Bureau of Investigation's blacklist (Wikinews article). Keskusrikospoliisi (Centralkriminalpolisen National Bureau of Investigation located in the city of Vantaa is a division of Finland 's national police
France is in ONI's watchlist and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. French courts demanded Yahoo! block Nazi material in the case LICRA vs. Yahoo. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Ligue contre le racisme et l'antisémitisme et Union des étudiants juifs de France c The case is currently on appeal for an en banc rehearing.
India is in ONI's nominal category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Internet censorship in India is carried out by Central as well as state governments of India, despite Article 19 of the Indian Constitution which guarantees India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country As of July 2006 the Indian government has directed ISPs to block seventeen websites, including some hosted on the Geocities, Blogspot and Typepad domains. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Yahoo! GeoCities is a Webhosting service founded by David Bohnett and John Rezner in late 1994 as Beverly Hills Internet (BHI Blogger is a Blog publishing system. It was created by Pyra Labs, which was bought by Google in 2003 TypePad is a blogging service from company Six Apart Ltd, and the largest paid blogging service in the world Initial implementation difficulties led to these domains being blocked entirely.  Access to sites on these domains other than the specifically banned ones was restored by most ISPs after about a week.  The first documented incident of Internet censorship in India was the Yahoo! Groups ban of 23 September 2003. Yahoo! Groups operate as both electronic mailing lists and Internet forums Group messages can be posted and read by E-mail or on the Group homepage like a web Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Kynhun, a Yahoo! group linked to the outlawed "Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council", a minor separatist group, was ordered banned by the Department of Telecommunications. Difficulties in implementing the ban by the ISP's ultimately led to all Yahoo! groups being banned for a period of about two weeks.
Recently, Indian law enforcement has entered an agreement with the popular social networking site Orkut to track down what it deems defamatory content which, in their example, includes content critical of Bal Thackeray. orkut is a Social networking service which is run by Google and named after its creator an employee of Google - Orkut Büyükkökten. Bal Keshav Thackeray (बाळ केशव ठाकरे (born January 23, 1926) popularly known as Balasaheb Thackeray is the founder and 
Israel is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The religious parties in Israel proposed and internet censorship legislation would only allow access to adult-content Internet sites for users who identify themselves as adults and request not to be subject to filtering. In 27/02/2008 the law passed in its first of three votes required. 
Italy is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Italy bans the use of foreign bookmakers over the Internet by mandating certain edits to DNS host files of Italian ISPs. A bookmaker, bookie or turf accountant, is an organization or a person that takes bets and pays winnings depending upon results and depending on the nature 
Morocco is in ONI's watchlist and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. As of March 2006 Morocco had blocked access to many blogging sites such as LiveJournal. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa As of March 2006, Morocco had blocked access to many blogging sites, such as LiveJournal. LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a Virtual community where Internet users can keep a Blog, Journal or Diary. Reporters Without Borders says that Morocco now censors all political websites advocating Western Sahara's independence. Google Earth has also been added to the list of censored websites in Morocco. Google Earth is a Virtual globe program that was originally called Earth Viewer and was created by Keyhole Inc, a company acquired by Google in 2004 In 2007 Morocco's main telecommunication operator Maroc Telecom also censored YouTube for nearly a month, without giving any reason for that. Maroc Telecom (اتصالات المغرب Itissalatt Al Maghreb; Acronym: IAM) is the main Telecommunication company in Morocco YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees
Since 2007 in the Netherlands one major ISP, UPC, blocks access on DNS level to sites authorities claim are known to provide child pornography. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands In the second quarter of 2008 all other Dutch ISP's have agreed with Ernst Hirsch Ballin of the Ministry of Justice to also block all the sites that are on the list. Ernst Maurits Henricus Hirsch Ballin (born Amsterdam, December 15 1950 is a Dutch politician, minister of Justice in the Fourth cabinet The blacklist is compiled by the National Police Forces (KLPD) . The Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD National Police Services Agency is responsible for specialist missions that benefit from a centralized approach Ernst Hirsch Ballin has said  that at the moment 150 websites are blocked. It contains no websites that are hosted in EU countries and they are checked once every 2 months by Productteam Bestrijding Kinderpornografie.
Norway is in ONI's watchlist and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Norway's major Internet service providers have a DNS filter which blocks access to sites authorities claim are known to provide child pornography, similar to Denmark's filter. A partial sample of the Norwegian internet censorship list can be seen at a Finnish site criticizing internet censorship.
Pakistan is in ONI's watchlist and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. The Government of Pakistan censors all Internet traffic by means of Routing all connections through a central exchange which is administered by the Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Pakistan has blocked access to websites critical of the government. Currently, the government has blocked blogs hosted on Blogspot. com. A ban on pornographic websites has also been enacted.
Russia is in ONI's watchlist and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Russia pressured Lithuania into shutting down the Kavkaz-Center website, a site that hosts videos on attacks on Russian forces in Chechnya, and reports on the Second Chechen War from a Chechen separatist perspective. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26  In February 2008, it became known that six Russian internet providers with ties to the government were blocking access to an opposition aggregate news site. After this became public, the biggest of these companies dropped the block and explained that it was "testing content filters". The other five blocks remain in place. 
In 2007 a lawsuit against Savva Terentiev, a musician from Syktyvkar, was started because of a commentary in a LiveJournal blog, in which he sharply criticised local police forces. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Syktyvkar (Сыктывка́р is a city in Russia, capital of the Komi Republic. LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a Virtual community where Internet users can keep a Blog, Journal or Diary. He was accused of "provoking antagonism between social groups". Although several philological expert examinations of the text denied this accusations, arguing that this was just a relational expression, the lawsuit is still not closed. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" 
Singapore is in ONI's nominal category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Singapore In Singapore, three people were arrested and charged with sedition for posting racist comments on the Internet, of which two have been sentenced to imprisonment. This is about the law term For other uses see Sedition (disambiguation Sedition is a term of Law which refers to covert conduct List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of
Sweden is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Sweden's major Internet service providers have a DNS filter which blocks access to sites authorities claim are known to provide child pornography, similar to Denmark's filter. A partial sample of the Swedish internet censorship list can be seen at a Finnish site criticizing internet censorship. The Swedish police are responsible for updating this list of forbidden Internet sites. On July 6, Swedish police said that there is material with child pornography available on torrents linked to from the torrent tracker site Pirate bay and said it would be included in the list of forbidden Internet sites. Child pornography refers to material depicting Children being in a state of undress engaged in erotic poses or sexual activity The Pirate Bay is a Swedish Website that indexes and tracks BitTorrent ("torrent" files This, however, did not happen as the police claimed the illegal material had been removed from the site. Police though never specified even to TPB what the illegal content was. This came with criticism and accusations that the intended Pirate Bay censorship was political in nature, as Pirate Bay has been an embarrassing site for the Swedish government.
Thailand is in ONI's nominal category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Internet censorship is effected in Thailand by two methods The Royal Thai Police blocks approximately 32 500 websites and the The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Significant efforts have been made in Thailand to oppose sites that are representing illegal activities. Activities such as gambling, drug usage and pornography are strictly banned, using DNS control in Thailand and, more effectively, a transparent proxy. The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet. This makes the website appear to be inaccessible. Also, the government has banned sites that discuss circumventing Internet censorship.
Turkey is not categorized by ONI and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Actually there is a governmental association recently established just for controlling and banning internet sites. As it is governmental association it has power to ban internet sites without prior court judgement (as it was). Although there are no specific laws for Internet censorship in Turkish Penal Code, on March 6, 2007, the government of Turkey blocked access to the video-upload site; YouTube. Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches com, with the following statement on the website; "Access to www. youtube. com site has been suspended in accordance with decision no: 2007/384 dated 06. 03. 2007 of Istanbul First Criminal Peace Court. " The ban was met with widespread protests and lifted two days later. Youtube has banned in Turkey again in 12. 03. 2008 with decision no 2008/251.
Hundreds of web sites not as popular as Youtube are still banned in Turkey, including all subdomains and the main domain of the widely popular wordpress. com web site. Wordpress is banned in Turkey since August 2007. Some other prominent web sites previously banned by court orders in Turkey include Google Groups, GeoCities and Alibaba. Google Groups is a free service from Google where groups of people have discussions about common interests Yahoo! GeoCities is a Webhosting service founded by David Bohnett and John Rezner in late 1994 as Beverly Hills Internet (BHI Alibaba ( ( is a Hangzhou -based e-commerce / e-auction company specializing in global trading
According the 5651st law of Turkish Penal Code, directing people to suicide, sexual abuse of children, advertising drugs, pornography, prostitution, insulting and gambling web sites are forbidden. Turkish Telecommute Foundation has a reporting  website.
United Kingdom is in ONI's watchlist and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Censorship in the United Kingdom has a long history with variously stringent and lax laws in place at different times although a much more liberal approach has been taken in recent years The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located British Telecommunications passes internet traffic through a service called Cleanfeed which uses data provided by the Internet Watch Foundation to identify pages believed to contain indecent photographs of children. BT Group plc (formerly British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (ˌbiːˈtiː bee tee) (previously known as British Telecom and still Cleanfeed is a Content blocking system implemented in the UK by BT, Britain's largest Internet provider which (as of 2008) targets only child sexual The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF is a self-regulated charitable body the only such recognised organisation in the UK operating an internet ‘Hotline’ for the public  When such a page is found, the system creates a 'URL not found page' error rather than deliver the actual page or a warning page.
In 2003, after the murder of Jane Longhurst by a man who claimed to have an obsession with Internet pornography, the family campaigned to tighten laws regarding pornography on the Internet and have gained support such that possession may become illegal. Jane Longhurst died at the hands of Graham Coutts on 14 March 2003. Internet pornography is Pornography that is distributed by means of various sectors of the Internet, primarily via Websites Peer-to-peer Due to the international nature of the Internet Internet pornography carries with it special issues with regard to the law  What the Government has termed "extreme pornography" could now become illegal to possess.  The government has begun to crack down on sites depicting rape, strangulation, torture and necrophilia. 
In Scotland, 2004, a committee of Members of the Scottish Parliament has backed a call to ban adult pornography as the Equal Opportunities Committee supported a petition claiming links between porn and sexual crimes and violence against women and children. Member of the Scottish Parliament ( MSP) ( Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ( BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected  A spokeswoman said "While we have no plans to legislate we will, of course, continue to monitor the situation. "
United Kingdom, the new Home Office Minister Vernon Coaker set a deadline of the end of 2007 for all ISPs to implement a "Cleanfeed"-style network level content-blocking platform. The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order Vernon Rodney Coaker (born June 17, 1953, London) is the Labour Member of Parliament for Gedling in Nottinghamshire Cleanfeed is a Content blocking system implemented in the UK by BT, Britain's largest Internet provider which (as of 2008) targets only child sexual Currently, the only web sites ISPs are expected to block access to are sites the Internet Watch Foundation has identified as containing images of child abuse. The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF is a self-regulated charitable body the only such recognised organisation in the UK operating an internet ‘Hotline’ for the public However such a platform is capable of blocking access to any web site added to the list (at least, to the extent that the implementation is effective), making it a simple matter to change this policy in future. The Home Office has previously indicated that it has considered requiring ISPs to block access to articles on the web deemed to be "glorifying terrorism", within the meaning of the new Terrorism Act 2006. The Terrorism Act is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament made law on March 30 2006, after being introduced on October 12 2005 
The United States of America is in ONI's nominal category and is not on RSF's internet enemy list. Internet censorship in the United States is the suppression of information published or viewed on the Internet in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States enacted in 1996 the Communications Decency Act, which severely restricted online speech that could potentially be seen by a minor – which, it was argued, was most of online speech. The Communications Decency Act of 1996 ( CDA) was arguably the first attempt by the United States Congress to regulate pornographic material on the In law the term minor (also infant or infancy) is used to refer to a person who is under the age in which one legally assumes Adulthood and is legally Free speech advocates, however, managed to have most of the act overturned by the courts. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act criminalizes the discussion and dissemination of technology that could be used to circumvent copyright protection mechanisms, and makes it easier to act against alleged copyright infringement on the Internet. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA is a United States Copyright Law which implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Many school districts in the United States frequently censor material deemed inappropriate for the school setting. In 2000, the U. S. Congress passed the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) which requires schools and public libraries receiving federal funding to install internet filters or blocking software. The Children's Internet Protection Act ( CIPA) is one of a number of bills that the United States Congress has proposed in an attempt to limit children's exposure to Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content  Congress is also considering legislation to require schools and libraries to block access to social networking websites, The Deleting Online Predators Act. The Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 ( DOPA) is a bill ( H Opponents of Internet censorship argue that the free speech provisions of the First Amendment of the U. S. Constitution bars the government from any law or regulation that censors the Internet. 
A January 4, 2007 restraining order issued by U. Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from S. District Court Judge Jack B. Weinstein forbade a large number of activists in the psychiatric survivors movement from posting links on their websites to ostensibly leaked documents which purportedly show that Eli Lilly and Company intentionally withheld information as to the lethal side-effects of Zyprexa. Jack B Weinstein (born 1921 Kansas) is a United States federal judge in the Eastern District of New York. The Psychiatric survivors movement is a loose coalition of people who united by the resentment that they have been harmed or betrayed by Psychiatry, advocate in favor of Eli Lilly and Company ( is a global Pharmaceutical company and one of the world's largest corporations Olanzapine ( Zyprexa, Zyprexa Zydis, Zalasta, Zolafren, Olzapin, or in combination with Fluoxetine Symbyax) is The Electronic Frontier Foundation is currently appealing this prior restraint on the right to link to and post documents, claiming that citizen-journalists should have the same First Amendment rights as major media outlets. The Electronic Frontier Foundation ( EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated Prior restraint is a Legal term referring to a Government 's actions that prevent materials from being published 
The Department of Defense filters certain IP addresses. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government An Internet Protocol ( IP) address is a numerical identification ( Logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a Computer network The US military's filtering policy is laid out in a report to congress entitled Department of Defense Personnel Access to the Internet.
Major portals occasionally exclude web sites that they would ordinarily include. This renders a site invisible to people who do not know where to find it. When a major portal does this, it has a similar effect as censorship. Sometimes this exclusion is done to satisfy a legal or other requirement, other times it is purely at the discretion of the portal.
Forums and chatrooms frequently have moderators, who will edit or remove material against the rules of that community. An, or message board, is a Bulletin board system in the form of a discussion site The term chat room, or chatroom, is primarily used by Mass media to describe any form of Synchronous conferencing, occasionally even Asynchronous conferencing A forum moderator, often shortened to just mod, is a person granted special powers to enforce the rules of an Internet forum ( Message board) or Electronic The scope of these rules varies from community to community - some will want material to be suitable for a specific audience, whilst others only require discussions to be kept within the law. Many USENET groups are unmoderated. Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system
There are a number of resources that allow users to bypass the technical aspects of Internet censorship. Each solution has differing ease of use, speed, and security from other options.
Proxy websites are often the simplest and fastest way to access banned websites in censored nations. In Computer networks a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application program which services the requests of its clients by forwarding Such websites work by being themselves un-banned but capable of displaying banned material within them. This is usually accomplished by entering a URL address which the proxy website will fetch and display. They recommend using the https protocol since it is encrypted and harder to block.
Java Anon Proxy is primarily a strong, free and open source anonymizer software available for all operating systems. Java Anon Proxy, also known as Java Anonymous Proxy, JAP Anon Proxy, JAP or JonDonym, is a proxy system designed to allow browsing Open source is a development methodology which offers practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge As of 2004, it also includes a blocking resistance functionality that allows users to circumvent the blocking of the underlying anonymity service AN. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " ON by accessing it via other users of the software (forwarding client).
The addresses of JAP users that provide a forwarding server can be retrieved by getting contact to AN. ON's InfoService network, either automatically or, if this network is blocked, too, by writing an e-mail to one of these InfoServices. The JAP software automatically decrypts the answer after the user did a CAPTCHA. A CAPTCHA (ˈkæptʃə is a type of challenge-response test used in Computing to ensure that the response is not generated by a computer The developers are currently planning to integrate additional and even stronger blocking resistance functions.
Psiphon software allows users in nations with censored Internet such as China to access banned websites like Wikipedia. Psiphon is a web proxy designed to help Internet users affected by Internet censorship securely bypass content-filtering systems set up by governments such as Australia ***************************************************************************************** * * The service requires that the software be installed on a computer with uncensored access to the Internet so that the computer can act as a proxy for users in censored environments.
Tor is a free software implementation that allows users to bypass Internet censorship while granting strong anonymity (though it has its weaknesses). Tor ( The Onion Router) is a Free software implementation of second-generation Onion routing – a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified Tor ( The Onion Router) is a Free software implementation of second-generation Onion routing – a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously
Sneakernet is a term used to describe the transfer of electronic information, especially computer files, by physically carrying data on storage media from one place to another. Sneakernet is a tongue-in-cheek term used to describe the transfer of electronic information especially Computer files by physically carrying removable media such as Magnetic A sneakernet can move data regardless of network restrictions simply by not using the network at all. 
The charity relief organization Information Without Borders is attempting to implement a sneakernet routing protocol for providing cheap Internet access to developing and post-conflict regions using donated PDAs and mobile phones, and also for providing free and open Internet access to repressive regimes that restrict free expression by limiting access.