The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgment. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification The word comes from the Greek, taxis (meaning 'order' 'arrangement' and, nomos The Code is meant to guide only the nomenclature of animals, while leaving the zoologists some degree of freedom in classifying new species and higher-level taxa. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. In other words, whether a species itself is or is not a real entity is a subjective decision, but what name should be applied to it is not; the Code applies only to the latter, not to the former. A new taxon name published without adherence to the Code may be deemed simply "unavailable" if it fails to meet certain criteria, or fall entirely out of the province of science (e. g. , the "scientific name" for the Loch Ness Monster). The Loch Ness Monster ( Nessiteras rhombopteryx) is an alleged animal family and upward Incertae sedis, purportedly inhabiting Scotland 's Loch Ness Penguin
The rules in the Code determine what names are potentially valid for any taxon including the ranks of subspecies and superfamily. Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost In Zoology, as in other branches of Biology, subspecies is the Taxonomic rank immediately subordinate to a Species. Taxonomic rank ( rank, category, taxonomic category is an abstract term used in the Scientific classification, or Taxonomy, of organisms Its provisions can be waived or modified in their application to a particular case when strict adherence would cause confusion. Such exceptions are not made by an individual scientist, no matter how well-respected within his or her field, but only by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), acting on behalf of all zoologists. "ICZN" redirects here It is also sometimes used for the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature in error The Commission takes such action in response to proposals submitted to it. Note that, formally, the acronym "ICZN" refers to the Commission, and not the Code. Misapplications of the acronym are pervasive, however, and even taxonomists will use the acronym occasionally when referring to the Code.
The Code recognizes no case law. Case law' (also known as decisional law or judicial precedent) is that body of reported Judicial opinions in countries that have Common law Any dispute is decided by applying the Code directly, and never by reference to precedent.
Rules and examples of their application
The first published name of an organism or group takes priority; later names for that organism or group are junior synonyms and are not considered valid. In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon.
- John Edward Gray published the name Antilocapra anteflexa in 1855 for a species of pronghorn, based on a pair of horns. John Edward Gray ( 12 February 1800 &ndash 7 March 1875) was a British zoologist. The pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) also pronghorn antelope or prong buck, is a species of Ungulate Mammal native to interior However, it is now thought that his specimen was an unusual individual of the species Antilocapra americana published by George Ord in 1815. George Ord ( 1781 - January 24, 1866) was an American ornithologist. Ord's name thus takes priority, with Antilocapra anteflexa being a junior synonym.
- Johann Jakob Kaup published the name Leptocephalus brevirostris in 1856 for a species of eel. Johann Jakob Kaup ( April 10, 1803 - July 4, 1873) was a German naturalist True eels ( Anguilliformes) are an order of Fish, which consists of four suborders 19 families 110 Genera and approximately 600 However, it was realized in 1893 that the organism described by Kaup was in fact the juvenile form of the European eel (see eel life history for the full story). The European eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a snake-like facultatively catadromous fish which can reach in exceptional cases a length of 1½  m, but is The Eel is a long thin bony fish of the order Anguilliformes. The European eel was named Muraena anguilla by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758 and moved to the genus Anguilla by Franz Paula von Schrank in 1798. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Franz von Paula Schrank (1747 - 1835 was a German Botanist and Entomologist. So Anguilla anguilla is now the valid name for the species, and Leptocephalus brevirostris is considered a junior synonym.
The first published use of a name takes priority; later uses of a name spelled the same but used to refer to different organisms are junior homonyms and must be given replacement names. In biology a homonym is a name for a Taxon that is identical in spelling to another such name that belongs to a different Taxon. A nomen novum ( Latin for "new name" or replacement name is a scientific name that is created specifically to replace a name which is a junior
- Georges Cuvier proposed the genus Echidna in 1797 for the spiny anteater. Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier ( August 23 1769 &ndash May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist Echidnas (ɨˈkɪdnə also known as spiny anteaters, are four extant Mammal species belonging to the Tachyglossidae family of the However, Johann Reinhold Forster had published the name Echidna in 1777 for a genus of moray eels. Johann Reinhold Forster ( October 22, 1729 &ndash December 9, 1798) was a German naturalist of partial Scottish Moray eels are large cosmopolitan Eels of the family Muraenidae. Forster's use thus has priority, with Cuvier's being a junior homonym; Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger published the name Tachyglossus in 1811 and this is considered to be the valid replacement name, or nomen novum. Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger ( November 19, 1775 - May 1813 was a German Entomologist and Zoologist. A nomen novum ( Latin for "new name" or replacement name is a scientific name that is created specifically to replace a name which is a junior
The first published description of a species fixes the species epithet; if the species is later moved to another genus, it retains the first-published epithet unless that would create a homonym.
- The Common Chimpanzee was named Simia troglodytes by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in 1799; Lorenz Oken moved it to the new genus Pan in 1816, so the valid name is now Pan troglodytes. The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach ( May 11, 1752 – January 22, 1840) was a German doctor and Physiologist, Lorenz Oken ( August 1, 1779 &ndash August 11, 1851) was a German naturalist. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan.
- Two species of Madagascar snake were given the species epithet madagascariensis by André Marie Constant Duméril and Gabriel Bibron in 1844 — Pelophilus madagascariensis and Xiphosoma madagascariensis. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern André Marie Constant Duméril (1774 - 1860 was a French Zoologist. Gabriel Bibron (1806 - 1848 was a French Zoologist. He classified a number of Reptile species with André Marie Constant Duméril. George Albert Boulenger moved the former to the genus Boa in 1893, giving it the name Boa madagascariensis. George Albert Boulenger (born Brussels, Belgium, October 19, 1858; died Saint Malo, France, November 23 Boa Kwon (born November 5, 1986) have contributed to her commercial success in South Korea and Japan and her popularity throughout Asia This meant that when Arnold G. Kluge of the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan moved Xiphosoma madagascariensis to the genus Boa in 1991, the name Boa madagascariensis was invalid — a junior secondary homonym. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor ( U of M, U-M, UM or simply Michigan) is a top-ranked Coeducational public research So Kluge gave the species the replacement name Boa manditra. This example also demonstrates a case where rules of gender agreement come into play (a tradition which has become more controversial in recent years). That is, an adjectival species epithet must - with very few exceptions - agree in gender with the name of the genus in which it is placed. If a species is moved, therefore, often it must have its spelling changed as a result. The genus name Xiphosoma is neuter in gender, and therefore the original spelling of the species should have been madagascariense, which is the neuter form - the spelling change to madagascariensis would occur only after being placed in Boa. Epithets that are nouns, or arbitrary combinations of letters, are not changed, but this is not always obvious from the appearance of a name, as in manditra, which is a noun, and would not change if, for example, it were moved to the genus Pelophilus (it would become Pelophilus manditra and not Pelophilus manditrus). Changes in placement, or confusion over proper Latin grammar, lead to many incorrectly-formed names appearing in print, and automated searches failing to find all the variant spellings of a given name (e. g. , the epithets atra and ater may refer to the same species). Accordingly, many laymen and some scientists object to the continued adherence to this long-standing practice.
In the interests of stability of nomenclature, the rule of priority can be reversed if a junior name has been used very widely and for a long period of time.
- Carolus Linnaeus named the Domestic Cat Felis catus in 1758; Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber named the Wildcat Felis silvestris in 1775. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber ( Weißensee Thuringia, 1739 — Erlangen, 1810 was a German naturalist. The Wildcat ( Felis silvestris) sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small felid native to Europe, the western part of Asia For taxonomists who consider these two kinds of cat to be a single species rule of priority means that the species ought to be named F. catus but in practice almost all biologists have used F. silvestris for the wild cat. In opinion 2027 (published in Volume 60, Part 1 of the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 31 March 2003 ) the Commission "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms", confirming F. silvestris for the wild cat, as a nomen protectum. A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda) is a scientific name that enjoys special nomenclatural protection Taxonomists who consider the domesticated cat a subspecies of the wild cat should use F. silvestris catus; the name F. catus remains available for the domestic cat where it is considered to be a separate species.
External links In zoology, a binomen, or binominal name is the name of a species In zoology, a trinomen, or trinominal name refers to the name of a Subspecies. Taxonomic rank ( rank, category, taxonomic category is an abstract term used in the Scientific classification, or Taxonomy, of organisms In biology a homonym is a name for a Taxon that is identical in spelling to another such name that belongs to a different Taxon. In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon. A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda) is a scientific name that enjoys special nomenclatural protection The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ( ICBN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal Botanical names that are given to
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