Intelligence (abbreviated int. or intel. ) is not information, but the product of evaluated information, valued for its currency and relevance rather than its detail or accuracy —in contrast with "data" which typically refers to precise or particular information, or "fact," which typically refers to verified information. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's Generally a fact is defined as something that is true something that actually exists or something that can be verified according to an established standard of evaluation Sometimes called "active data" or "active intelligence", these typically regard the current plans, decisions, and actions of people, as these may have urgency or may otherwise be considered "valuable" from the point of view of the intelligence-gathering organization. Active intelligence is treated as a constantly mutable component, or variable, within a larger equation of understanding the secret, covert, or otherwise private "intelligence" of an opponent, or competitor, to answer questions or obtain advance warning of events and movements deemed to be important or otherwise relevant. A variable (ˈvɛərɪəbl is an Attribute of a physical or an abstract System which may change its Value while it is under Observation. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources
As used by intelligence agencies and related services, "intelligence" refers integrally to both active data as well as the process and the result of gathering and analyzing such information, as these together form a cohesive network (cf. An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " A social network is a Social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency such as "hive mind"). MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. In a sense, this usage of "intelligence" at the national level may be somewhat associated with the concept of social intelligence —albeit one which is tied to localized or nationalist tradition, politics, law, and the enforcement thereof. Social intelligence according to the original definition of Edward Thorndike, is "the ability to understand and manage men and women boys and girls to act wisely The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) is a term that refers to the process by which Legislation, or part of legislation and
This article deals with the general role and history of intelligence. For a more detailed look at the process, there is a hierarchy of articles, partially posted, beginning with intelligence cycle management. This article is at the top level of a series of articles about Intelligence Cycle Management
Information collected can be difficult to obtain or altogether secret material gained through ("closed sources") See list of intelligence gathering disciplines, or it can be widely available but systematically researched through Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Intelligence Gathering Disciplines HUMINT Human Intelligence - gathered from a person on the ground This article is a subset article in a series under Intelligence collection management. Traditionally, intelligence involves all-source collection, storage and indexing of data, usually in multiple languages, in the expectation that some small portion will later prove important. Intelligence gathering disciplines, or, more narrowly, and the sources and methods used to obtain them are often highly classified and sometimes compartmentalized, and intelligence officers need top level security clearance. For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to Classified
- Government intelligence is usually assigned to intelligence agencies, often with large, secret budgets. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " These use a variety of techniques to obtain information, ranging from secret agents (HUMINT) to communications intercepts (COMINT) to spy satellites (IMINT) to specialized technical methods (MASINT). HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence refers to intelligence gathering by means of interpersonal contact as opposed to the more technical A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or Communications satellite deployed for IMINT, short for IM agery INT elligence is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and Aerial photography Measurement and Signature Intelligence, or MASINT, refers to intelligence gathering activities that bring together disparate elements that do not fit within the
Depending on the national policy, some intelligence agencies engage in clandestine and covert activities beyond espionage such as political subversion, sabotage and assassination. Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. Other agencies strictly limit themselves to analysis, or collection and analysis; some governments have other organizations for covert action.
- Military intelligence is an element of warfare which covers all aspects of gathering, analyzing, and making use of information over enemy forces and the ground. Military intelligence (abbreviated MI int Commonwealth, or intel It involves spying, look-outs, high-tech surveillance equipment, and also secret agents.
- Business intelligence denotes the public or secret information that an organization obtains about its competitors and markets. Business intelligence ( BI) refers to technologies applications and practices for the collection integration analysis and presentation of business Information and See also data warehousing. A data warehouse is a Repository of an organization's electronically stored data
Intelligence as used here, when done properly, serves a function for organizations similar to that which intelligence (trait) serves for individual humans and animals. Intelligence (also called intellect) is an Umbrella term used to describe a property of the Mind that encompasses many related abilities such as the capacities Intelligence collection is often controversial and seen as a threat to privacy. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively Intelligence is essential for government policy formation and operations; it is a policy matter for individual governments whether While usually associated with warfare, intelligence can also be used to preserve peace. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War.
Well-known national intelligence organizations
Korea, Republic of
- Air Force, Air Intelligence Agency (AIA)
- Army, Intelligence
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- Coast Guard, Intelligence
- Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
- Department of Energy, Office of Intelligence
- Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis
- Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR)
- Department of the Treasury, Office of Intelligence and Analysis
- Director of National Intelligence
- Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of National Security Intelligence
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
- Marine Corps, Intelligence
- National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
- National Security Agency (NSA)
- National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
- Navy, Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)
Major publicly accessible intelligence sources
- Open Sources Center, select "Intelligence" section. The following is a partial list of current intelligence agencies. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS is the Australian government Intelligence agency responsible for collecting foreign intelligence undertaking counter-intelligence Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Canadian Security Intelligence Service ( CSIS) (Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité ( SCRS) is the primary Intelligence agency of the The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Politiets Efterretningstjeneste ( PET) ( Danish Security Intelligence Service abbreviated DSIS) is the National security Intelligence agency The Danish Defence Intelligence Service ( DDIS) ( Danish: Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste, short FE (often but incorrectly FET) This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST (Directorate of Territorial Surveillance was a directorate of the French National Police operating as a domestic Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Bundesnachrichtendienst ( Federal Intelligence Service, BND is the foreign Intelligence agency of the German government under the control of the India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Research and Analysis Wing ( RAW or R&AW) is India 's external Intelligence agency. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security ( Persian: وزارت اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Vezarat-e Ettela'at va Amniat-e Keshvar) is the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Mossad ( HaMossad leModi'in v'leTafkidim Meyuhadim) (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The National Intelligence Service ( NIS) is the chief Intelligence agency of South Korea. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Intelligence Bureau (IB is part of the Ministry of Interior of Pakistan. History After independence in 1947 two new intelligence agencies were created in Pakistan called the Intelligence Bureau (IB and Military Intelligence Military Intelligence (MI is part of the Pakistan Army and reports to the Commander-in-Chief Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Foreign Intelligence Service ( Russian: Служба Внешней Разведки (or SVR) is Russia 's primary external intelligence agency The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation ( FSB) ( Russian: ФСБ Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Federalnaya GRU is the English transliteration of the Russian Acronym ГРУ, which stands for "Гла́вное Разве́дывательное FAPSI (ФАПСИ or Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information (FAGCI (Федеральное Агентство Правительственной Связи In the Russian Federation, the Federal Protective Service ( FSO) (Федеральная служба охраны ФСО was formerly the Ninth Chief Directorate Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The National Intelligence Organization, or Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı ( MİT) in Turkish, is the governmental intelligence organization of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ is a British Intelligence agency responsible for providing Signals intelligence (SIGINT and Information The Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS is an element of the United Kingdom 's Ministry of Defence, responsible for collection and assessment of all-source intelligence The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The United States Department of Energy ( DOE) is a Cabinet -level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ( NGA) is an agency of the United States Government with the primary mission of collection analysis and The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government The National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO) located in Chantilly
- Jane's Information Group; Defence, Law Enforcement, Political and General Intelligence
- CIA World Fact Book
- credit rating agencies
- Dow Jones
- Internet search engines such as Google
- newspapers of record, such as the New York Times
- private investigators
- public libraries
- Andrew, Christopher. The Bloomberg Terminal is a Computer system that enables Financial professionals to access the Bloomberg Professional service through which users can monitor The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the A credit rating agency ( CRA) is a company that assigns Credit ratings for Issuers of certain types of Debt obligations as well as the debt instruments Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Google Inc is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to its Internet search, e-mail, online LexisNexis (sometimes simply called "Lexis" or "Nexis" among users is a popular searchable Archive of content from Newspapers Magazines A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. A private investigator or private detective (often shortened to PI or private eye) is a person who can be hired by individuals or groups to undertake A public library (also called circulating library) is a Library which is accessible by the Public and is generally funded from public sources (such For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (1996)
- Black, Ian. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services (1992)
- Bungert, Heike et al eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (2003) essays by scholars
- Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet (1996), 1200 pages
- Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security (2003), 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology
- O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Espionage, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA (1991)
- Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It (2002), popular
- Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (1997)
- Richelson, Jeffery T. The U. S. Intelligence Community (4th ed. 1999)
- West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 (1983)
- West, Nigel. Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization (1992)
- Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision (1962)
World War I
- Beesly, Patrick. Room 40. (1982). Covers the breaking of German codes by RN intelligence, including the Turkish bribe, Zimmermann telegram, and failure at Jutland.
- May, Ernest (ed. ) Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment before the Two World Wars (1984)
- Tuchman, Barbara W. The Zimmermann Telegram (1966)
World War II: 1931–1945
- Babington-Smith, Constance. Air Spy: The Story of Photo Intelligence in World War II (1957)
- Beesly, Patrick. Very Special Intelligence: The Story of the Admiralty's Operational Intelligence Centre—1939–1945 (1977)
- Hinsley, F. H. British Intelligence in the Second World War (1996) abridged version of multivolume official history.
- Jones, R. V. The Wizard War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939–1945 (1978)
- Kahn, David. Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II (1978)
- Kahn, David. Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes, 1939–1943 (1991)
- Kitson, Simon. The Hunt for Nazi Spies: Fighting Espionage in Vichy France, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, (2008). ISBN 978-0-226-43893-1.
- Lewin, Ronald. The American Magic: Codes, Ciphers and the Defeat of Japan (1982)
- May, Ernest (ed. ) Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment before the Two World Wars (1984)
- Smith, Richard Harris. OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (2005)
- Stanley, Roy M. World War II Photo Intelligence (1981)
- Wark, Wesley. The Ultimate Enemy: British Intelligence and Nazi Germany, 1933–1939 (1985)
- Wark, Wesley K. "Cryptographic Innocence: The Origins of Signals Intelligence in Canada in the Second World War", Journal of Contemporary History 22 (1987)
Cold War Era: 1945–1991
- Aldrich, Richard J. The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence (2002).
- Ambrose, Stephen E. Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Intelligence Establishment (1981).
- Andrew, Christopher and Vasili Mitrokhin. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (1999)
- Andrew, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky. KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (1990).
- Bogle, Lori, ed. Cold War Espionage and Spying (2001), essays by scholars
- Dorril, Stephen. MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (2000).
- Dziak, John J. Chekisty: A History of the KGB (1988)
- Koehler, John O. Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police (1999)
- Persico, Joseph. Casey: The Lives and Secrets of William J. Casey-From the OSS to the CIA (1991)
- Prados, John. Presidents' Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II (1996)
- Rositzke, Harry. The CIA's Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Action (1988)
- Trahair, Richard C. S. Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies and Secret Operations (2004), by an Australian scholar; contains excellent historiographical introduction
- Weinstein, Allen, and Alexander Vassiliev. The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—The Stalin Era (1999).
- ISRIA, HTML, The Relations between the CIA and the Executive Power since 2001, February 5, 2006.
- ISRIA, PDF, The Role of Open Sources in Intelligence, December 31, 2005.
- Read Congressonal Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Intelligence issues
- The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments by J. Ransom Clark, Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Muskingum College
- Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime
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