Inoculation is the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce, and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, vaccine, or antigenic substance into the body of a human or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease; but also can be used to refer to the communication of a disease to a living organism by transferring its causative agent into the organism, to implant microorganisms or infectious material into a culture medium such as a brewers vat or a petri dish, to safeguard as if by inoculation, to introduce an idea or attitude into someone's mind, any placement of microorganisms or viruses at a site where infection is possible such as to increase soybeans' nitrogen fixation one can treat soybeans at planting with Rhizobium japonicum inoculant. A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease The verb "to inoculate" is from Middle English "inoculaten", which meant "to graft a scion (a scion is a plant part to be grafted onto another plant); which in turn is from Latin "inoculare", past participle "inoculat-". Grafting is a method of asexual Plant propagation widely used in Agriculture and Horticulture where the tissues of one Plant are encouraged to 
This article covers variolation, inoculation as a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Immunity is a material term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid Infection, Disease, or other unwanted biological invasion See vaccination for post-variolation methods of safeguarding as if by inoculation by administering weakened or dead pathogens to a healthy person or animal with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. Vaccination is the administration of Antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease
Today the terms inoculation, vaccination and immunisation are used more or less interchangeably and popularly refer to the process of artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases. Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's Immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly The microorganism used in an inoculation is called the inoculant or inoculum.
The earliest use of inoculation was from the Chinese. It is recorded that the Chinese inoculated their patients by making them snort the powdered scabs of smallpox victims. Another method of their inoculation was by scratching the powder into their skin. 
The practice was introduced to the west by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (May 26, 1689-August 21, 1762). The Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( 26 May 1689 &ndash 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat and writer Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. Year 1762 ( MDCCLXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Lady Montagu's husband, Edward Wortley Montagu, served as the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1716 to 1717. Sir Edward Wortley Montagu ( 8 February 1678 – 22 January 1761) was British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, husband See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish She witnessed inoculation in Constantinople, and was greatly impressed: she had lost a brother to smallpox and bore facial scars from the disease herself. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS In March 1718 she had the embassy surgeon, Charles Maitland, inoculate her five-year-old son. Year 1718 ( MDCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In 1721, after returning to England, she had her four-year-old daughter inoculated. Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a She invited friends to see her daughter, including Sir Hans Sloane, the King's physician. Sir Hans Sloane 1st Baronet, PRS ( 16 April, 1660 &ndash 11 January, 1753) was an Ulster-Scot Physician and George I (George Louis German Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 For the first year of his life George was the only heir to his father's and three childless Sufficient interest arose that Maitland gained permission to test inoculation at Newgate prison in exchange for their freedom on six prisoners due to be hanged, an experiment which was witnessed by a number of notable doctors. For the prison in East Granby, Connecticut, see Old Newgate Prison.  All survived, and in 1722 the Prince of Wales' daughters received inoculations. George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (
The practice of inoculation slowly spread amongst the royal families of Europe, usually followed by more general adoption amongst the people.
The practice is documented in America as early as 1721, when Zabdiel Boylston, at the urging of Cotton Mather, successfully inoculated two slaves and his own son. Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Zabdiel Boylston (born 1676 or 1679 in Brookline Massachusetts; died 1766 was a Medical doctor. Cotton Mather (February 12 1663 &ndash February 13 1728 AB 1678 ( Harvard College) A Mather, a prominent Boston minister, had heard a description of the African practice of inoculation from his Sudanese slave, Onesimus, in 1706, but had been previously unable to convince local physicians to attempt the procedure.  Following this initial success, Boylston began performing inoculations throughout Boston, despite much controversy and at least one attempt upon his life. The effectiveness of the procedure was proven when, of the nearly three hundred people Boylston inoculated during the outbreak, only six died, whereas the mortality rate among those who contracted the disease naturally was one in six. 
|Natural experiment in inoculation|
around Boston, 1721
|Variolated||c 300||6||c 2%|
|Unvariolated||c 6000||c 1000||"about 14%"|
In France considerable opposition arose to the introduction of inoculation. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Voltaire, in his Lettres Philosophiques, wrote a criticism of his countrymen for being opposed to inoculation and having so little regard for the welfare of their children, concluding that "had inoculation been practised in France it would have saved the lives of thousands. François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French ". 
Inoculation grew in popularity in Europe through the 18th century. Given the high prevalence and often severe consequences of smallpox in Europe in the 18th century (according to Voltaire, there was a 60% incidence of first infection, a 20% mortality rate, and a 20% incidence of severe scarring), many parents felt that the benefits of inoculation outweighted the risks and so inoculated their children. 
Two forms of the disease of Smallpox were recognised, now known to be due to two strains of the Variola virus. Those contracting Variola Minor had a greatly reduced risk of death — 1-2% — compared to those contracting Variola Major with 20% mortality. Infection via inhaled viral particles in droplets spread the infection more widely than the deliberate infection through a small skin wound. The smaller, localised infection is adequate to stimulate the immune system to produce specific immunity to the virus, while requiring more generations of the virus to reach levels of infection likely to kill the patient. The rising immunity terminates the infection. So the twofold effect is to ensure the less fatal form of the disease is the one caught, and to give the immune system the best start possible in combating it.
Inoculation in the East was historically performed by blowing smallpox crusts into the nostril. In Britain, Europe and the American Colonies the preferred method was rubbing material from a smallpox pustule from a selected mild case (Variola minor) into a scratch between the thumb and forefinger.  This would generally be performed when an individual was in normal good health, and thus at peak resistance. The recipient would develop smallpox; however, due to being introduced through the skin rather than the lungs, and possibly because of the inoculated individual's preexisting state of good health, the small inoculum, and the single point of initial infection, the resulting case of smallpox was generally milder than the naturally-occurring form, produced far less facial scarring, and had a far lower mortality rate. Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time As with survivors of the natural disease, the inoculated individual was subsequently immune to re-infection.
In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of inoculation with the cowpox virus, a non-fatal virus that also induced immunity to smallpox. Vaccination is the administration of Antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease Edward Jenner, FRS, ( May 17 1749 – January 26 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley Cowpox is a Disease of the skin that is caused by a Virus known as the Cowpox virus. Immunity is a material term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid Infection, Disease, or other unwanted biological invasion This led to smallpox inoculation falling into disuse and eventually being banned in England in 1840.