In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly-equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints and isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists These tactics were used by the stormtroopers of the German Army in 1917 during World War I, where they were also called Hutier tactics, after General Oskar von Hutier, who used these tactics to great effect during Operation Michael in March 1918. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating The Stormtroopers (in German Stoßtruppen, shock troops) were specialist military troops which were formed in the last years of World War I as the German The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Oskar von Hutier ( August 27, 1857 &ndash December 5, 1934) was one of Germany 's most successful and innovative generals of World The 1918 Spring Offensive or Kaiserschlacht ( Kaiser's Battle) and also known as the Ludendorff Offensive was a series of German attacks along the Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The first use of German infiltration tactics occurred on 3 September 1917 when the German Eighth Army decisively ended the long siege before the Russian (now Latvian) city of Riga. The 8th Army (German 8 Armee Oberkommando) was a World War I and World War II field army Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Riga (Rīga riːga) the Capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the river Daugava. The Germans employed the same tactics to break through Allied lines during the Battle of Caporetto in October 1917, in which the future Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel fought as a battalion commander. The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers; Bitka za Kobarid took place from 24 October Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Field Marshal General, in German Generalfeldmarschall ( (usually translated simply as Field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ( 15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) (also known as the " Desert Fox " Wüstenfuchs
The idea for infiltration tactics was first proposed by French Army captain Andre Laffargue.  Laffargue published a pamphlet "The attack in trench warfare" in 1915, based upon his experiences in combat that same year. He advocated that the first wave of an attack identify hard-to-defeat defenses but not attack them; subsequent waves would do this.
The French published his pamphlet "for information", but not implemented. The British did not even translate it. Germany captured copies of the pamphlet in 1916 and put its ideas into practice.
The Russian general Brusilov developed similar tactics and used them to great effect during the Brusilov Offensive of 1916. Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов ( – March 17, 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв was the Russian Empire 's greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the Most lethal
Infiltration attacks began with brief and violent bombardments of the enemy front lines, to suppress and demoralize the soldiers stationed there. A bombardment is an attack by Artillery fire directed against Fortifications, troops or towns and buildings Suppressive fire (also known as covering fire) is a term used in Military science for firing Weapons at or in the direction of enemy forces with the Unlike previous World War I bombardment strategies, the bombardment also targeted the enemy rear areas to destroy or disrupt roads, artillery, and command units. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine This was done to confuse the enemy, and reduce their capability to launch effective counterattacks from secondary defense lines. For maximum effect, the exact points of attack remained concealed until the last possible moment.
Light infantry led these attacks. Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a Skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of Infantry, harassing They would attempt to penetrate enemy weak points to bypass and isolate heavily-defended positions in the front line. Infantrymen with heavier weapons would then follow-up and have a great advantage when attacking the isolated enemy strong points. Other reinforcements would then enter these breaches, and the entire enemy line would shortly collapse. The attacks relied heavily on speed and surprise.
This tactic initially worked well and saw heavy use. However, because of this extensive implementation, the enemy quickly developed effective defenses. Also, as in the case of the more traditional mass attack, reserve troops following the assault units had to consolidate any gains against an enemy counterattack. One of the problems of World War I was that even when a breakthrough was made, the ground was so devastated that moving up reserves and material was difficult, allowing the enemy time to regroup. Thus, even with the new tactics and their relatively light use of artillery, attacks would tend to bog down sooner or later, and no massive breakthrough was possible. However, the new tactics, applied consistently over time, were much more effective than the old ones. It is interesting to note that the Russian General Brusilov and his staff anticipated several of these tactics during the successful Brusilov Offensive. The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв was the Russian Empire 's greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the Most lethal
Infiltration tactics led to the creation of the modern military formation of the fire team, a small group of soldiers with a certain degree of autonomy, capable of penetrating enemy territory on missions of sabotage and misdirection. A fireteam is a small Military unit of Infantry. It is the smallest unit in the militaries that use it and is the primary unit upon which infantry organization is Similar methods were used by other armies in the Second World War where they became standard infantry tactics. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
At the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Major Marcel Bigeard, commander of the French 6th Colonial Parachute Battalion (6th BPC), used infiltration tactics in an attempt to defend the besieged garrison against the Viet Minh trench warfare tactics. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ was the climactic battle of the First Indochina War between French Union Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February, 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria The 6th Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (6e Régiment Parachutiste d'Infanterie de Marine 6e RPIMa was a airborne unit of the French Army. Bigeard's parachute assault companies were supported by concentrated artillery and air support, and received help from tanks, allowing two companies (1st under Lieutenant René Le Page and 2nd under Lieutenant Hervé Trapp) numbering no more than 180 men to recapture the important hilltop position of Eliane 1 from a full Viet Minh battalion, on the early morning of 10 April 1954. Other parachute battalion and company commanders also used similar tactics during the battle.