The field of industrial relations (also called labor relations) looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
Labor relations is an important factor in analyzing "varieties of capitalism", such as neocorporatism (or corporatism), social democracy, and neoliberalism (or liberalism). Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal
Labor relations can take place on many levels, such as the "shop-floor", the regional level, and the national level. The distribution of power amongst these levels can greatly shape the way an economy functions.
Another key question when considering systems of labor relations is their ability to adapt to change. This change can be technological (e. g. , "What do we do when an industry employing half the population becomes obsolete?"), economic (e. g. , "How do we respond to globalization?"), or political (e. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones g. , "How dependent is the system on a certain party or coalition holding power?").
Governments set the framework for labor relations through legislation and regulation. Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing This article is for the legal term For regulation of genes see Regulation of gene expression. Usually, employment law covers issues such as minimum wages and wrongful dismissal. Labour law (also known as employment or labor law is the body of Laws administrative rulings and precedents which address the legal rights of and restrictions A minimum wage is the lowest hourly daily or monthly Wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers Wrongful dismissal, also called wrongful termination or wrongful discharge, is an Idiom and legal phrase describing a situation in which an employee's
In Australia industrial relations is the commonly used term, though in recent years the term workplace relations has also become common. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. This was a prominent issue in the defeat of the centre-right Howard Liberal government at the 2007 federal election, who with a Senate majority had introduced the WorkChoices policy. The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think tanks whose views See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. Federal elections for the Parliament of Australia were held on Saturday 24 November 2007 after a 6-week campaign in which 13 The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. The Workplace Relations Act 1996 as amended by the Workplace Relations Amendment Act 2005, or WorkChoices, which came into effect in March 2006, was the most
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|Trade union federations|
|ITUC · WFTU · IWA|
|Chronological list of strikes|
|General strike · Sympathy strike|
|Sitdown strike · Work-to-rule|
|Joe Hill · Dita Indah Sari|
|Sonja Davies · Eugene V. Debs|
|A. J. Cook · Shirley Carr|
|Labor in economics|
|Labor history (discipline)|
When studying the theories of industrial relations, there are three major perspectives that contrast in their approach to the nature of workplace relations. The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Timeline of Organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (aka the Short-time movement) had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in Collective bargaining is the process whereby workers organize together to meet converse and compromise upon the work environment with their employers A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming This is a list of Trade unions and Union federations by country This is a list of federations of Trade unions. Those federations listed under each country are also known as National trade union centres and are organisations formed Unions have been compared across countries by growth and decline patterns by violence levels and by kinds of political activity Inaugural Congress The founding and first congress of the ITUC was held November 1 - 3 2006 in Vienna TemplateInfobox Union for usage -->The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU was established in the wake of the Second Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The International Workers' Association ( IWA) ( Spanish: Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions ( strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order ( General strikes A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country A sympathy strike is a Strike action that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry or profession A sit-down strike is a form of Civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers usually employed at a factory or other centralized location take possession of Work-to-rule is an Industrial action in which Employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace and follow safety or other regulations to Joe Hill, born Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, and also known as Joseph Hillström ( October 7, 1879 or 1882 – November 19, 1915 Dita Indah Sari is an Indonesian Trade union and Socialist activist For the Baseball player Walter Ruether see Dutch Ruether. Walter Philip Reuther ( September 1, 1907 – Sonja Davies ONZ ( November 11, 1923 &ndash June 12, 2005) was a New Zealand trade unionist peace campaigner and Member Eugene Victor Debs (November 5 1855 &ndash October 20 1926 was an American union leader one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Arthur James Cook (1883 - 1931 known as A J Cook, was a British Coal miner and Trade union leader Shirley GE Carr is a Canadian union leader who was the first woman president of Canada's largest labour organization the Canadian Labour Congress. Labor history (or labour history) is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the Labor movement and the Working class. Labour law (also known as employment or labor law is the body of Laws administrative rulings and precedents which address the legal rights of and restrictions The three views are generally described as the unitary, pluralist and Marxist perspectives. The Marxist perspective is sometimes referred to as the Conflict Model. Each offers a particular perception of workplace relations and will therefore interpret such events as workplace conflict, the role of trade unions and job regulation very differently.
In unitarism, the organisation is perceived as an integrated and harmonious whole with the ideal of "one happy family", where management and other members of the staff all share a common purpose, emphasising mutual cooperation. Furthermore, unitarism has a paternalistic approach where it demands loyalty of all employees, being predominantly managerial in its emphasis and application.
Consequently, trade unions are deemed as unnecessary since the loyalty between trade unions and organisations are considered mutually exclusive, where there can't be two sides of industry. Conflict is perceived as disruptive and the pathological result of agitators, interpersonal friction and communication breakdown.
In pluralism the organisation is perceived as being made up of powerful and divergent sub-groups, each with its own legitimate loyalties and with their own set of objectives and leaders. In particular, the two predominant sub-groups of in the pluralistic perspective are the management and trade unions.
Consequently, the role of management would lean less towards enforcing and controlling and more toward persuasion and co-ordination. Trade unions are deemed as legitimate representatives of employees, conflict is dealt by collective bargaining and is viewed not necessarily as a bad thing and if managed could in fact be channeled towards evolution and positive change.
This view of industrial relations looks at the nature of the capitalist society, where there is a fundamental division of interest between capital and labour, and sees workplace relations against this background. This perspective sees inequalities of power and economic wealth as having their roots in the nature of the capitalist economic system. Conflict is therefore seen as inevitable and trade unions are a natural response of workers to their exploitation by capital. Whilst there may be periods of acquiescence, the Marxist view would be that institutions of joint regulation would enhance rather than limit management's position as they presume the continuation of capitalism rather than challenge it. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Conclusion: The Radical/Marxist Perspective has important strengths but may exaggerate the depth and intensity of conflict.