The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and Social life. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually the world, a process that continues as industrialisation. is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. In the later part of the 1700s the manual labour-based economy of some parts of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by the manufacture by machinery. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human industries The oldest known Textiles date back to about 5000 B  The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The impact of this change on society was enormous. 
The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the eighteenth century merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the nineteenth century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. The Second Industrial Revolution, typically dated between 1870 and 1914 was a second phase of the Industrial Revolution, involving several developments within the chemical A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Electric power is defined as the rate at which Electrical energy is transferred by an Electric circuit.
The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobsbawm held that it 'broke out' in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. Thomas Southcliffe Ashton (1899-1968 was an Economic historian.  Some twentieth century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is not a true description of what took place. Sir John Harold Clapham CBE LittD FBA ( September 13 1873 - March 29 1946) was a British economic historian Nicholas F R Crafts (born March 9, 1949, Nottingham, England) is world-renowned Professor of Economics and Economic History at the University A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively This is still a subject of debate amongst historians. 
GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where  The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time 
The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate, with some historians feeling the Revolution as an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. As national border controls became more effective, the spread of disease was lessened, therefore preventing the epidemics common in previous times. The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce. The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factories. Enclosure or inclosure (the latter is used in Legal documents and Place names is the term used in England and Wales The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century which saw a massive increase in agricultural The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work It was also known as the workshop system. This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital are also cited as factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism In Economics, a financial market is a mechanism that allows people to easily buy and sell ( Trade) financial Securities (such as stocks and bonds In Economics, capital or capital Goods or real capital refers to items of extensive value The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published
Technological innovation was the heart of the Industrial Revolution and the key enabling technology was the invention and improvement of the steam engine. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. 
Historian Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the early Middle Ages, much earlier than most estimates. Lewis Mumford ( October 19, 1895 &ndash January 26, 1990) was an American Historian of Technology and Science He explains that the model for standardised mass production was the printing press and that "the archetypal model for the industrial era was the clock". Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image He also cites the monastic emphasis on order and time-keeping, as well as the fact that mediaeval cities had at their centre a church with bell ringing at regular intervals as being necessary precursors to a greater synchronisation necessary for later, more physical, manifestations such as the steam engine. Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one
The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important driver of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain. In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded amongst them. For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary 
Governments' grant of limited monopolies to inventors under a developing patent system (the Statute of Monopolies 1623) is considered an influential factor. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an England 's Statute of Monopolies of 1623 (21 Jac 1 c3 while generally condemning monopolies, provided the true and first Inventor of a given The effects of patents, both good and ill, on the development of industrialisation are clearly illustrated in the history of the steam engine, the key enabling technology. In return for publicly revealing the workings of an invention the patent system rewards inventors by allowing, e. g, James Watt to monopolise the production of the first steam engines, thereby enabling inventors and increasing the pace of technological development. James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes However, monopolies bring with them their own inefficiencies which may counterbalance, or even overbalance, the beneficial effects of publicising ingenuity and rewarding inventors.  Watt's monopoly may have prevented other inventors, such as Richard Trevithick, William Murdoch or Jonathan Hornblower, from introducing improved steam engines thereby retarding the industrial revolution by up to 20 years. Richard Trevithick ( April 13, 1771 &ndash April 22, 1833) was a British William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) ( August 21, 1754 - November 15, 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor This article is about steam engineer Jonathan Hornblower (1753-1815 
One question of active interest to historians is why the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East, or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean  Numerous factors have been suggested, including ecology, government, and culture.
Benjamin Elman argues that China was in a high level equilibrium trap in which the non-industrial methods were efficient enough to prevent use of industrial methods with high costs of capital. The high level equilibrium trap is a concept developed by Mark Elvin to explain why China never underwent an indigenous Industrial Revolution, despite its Kenneth Pomeranz, in the Great Divergence, argues that Europe and China were remarkably similar in 1700, and that the crucial differences which created the Industrial Revolution in Europe were sources of coal near manufacturing centres, and raw materials such as food and wood from the New World, which allowed Europe to expand economically in a way that China could not. Kenneth Pomeranz (born 1958 is a professor in the history department at the University of California Irvine in the US. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. 
However, most historians contest the assertion that Europe and China were roughly equal because modern estimates of per capita income on Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country Also, the average interest rate was about 5% in Britain and over 30% in China, which illustrates how capital was much more abundant in Britain; capital that was available for investment. Interest is a fee paid on borrowed capital Assets lent include Money, Shares, Consumer goods through Hire purchase, major assets
Some historians such as David Landes and Max Weber credit the different belief systems in China and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred. David S Landes (born New York 1924 is a Professor emeritus of Economics at Harvard University and retired professor of History at Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Judaeo-Christianity, and Greek thought. Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian, sometimes written as Judæo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held Conversely, Chinese society was founded on men like Confucius, Mencius, Han Feizi (Legalism), Lao Tzu (Taoism), and Buddha (Buddhism). Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher Life Mencius also known by his birth name Meng Ke or Ko, was born in the State of Zou (simp Han Fei (also Han Feizi) ( (ca 280&ndash233 BC was a Philosopher who along with Li Si, developed Xun Zi 's mutualism into the doctrine embodied In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other Laozi ( also Lao Tse, Lao-Tzu, Laotze, Lao Zi, Laocius, and other variations was a philosopher of ancient Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The key difference between these belief systems was that those from Europe focused on the individual, while Chinese beliefs centred around relationships between people. The family unit was more important than the individual for the large majority of Chinese history, and this may have played a role in why the Industrial Revolution took much longer to occur in China. There was the additional difference as to whether people looked backwards to a reputedly glorious past for answers to their questions or looked hopefully to the future. Furthermore, Western European peoples had experienced the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment; other parts of the world had not had a similar intellectual breakout, a condition that holds true even into the 21st century. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century 
Regarding India, the Marxist historian Rajani Palme Dutt said: "The capital to finance the Industrial Revolution in India instead went into financing the Industrial Revolution in England. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Rajani Palme Dutt (1896&ndash1974 was a leading figure in the Communist Party of Great Britain. " In contrast to China, India was split up into many competing kingdoms, with the three major ones being the Marathas, Sikhs and the Mughals. The Marāthās ( Marathi: mr मराठा also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu Warriors hailing mostly from the present-day Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and technical innovation was non-existent. The vast amounts of wealth were stored away in palace treasuries, and as such, were easily moved to Britain.
The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World It has been pointed out, however, that slavery provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution. 
Alternatively, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia. Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and possessing the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets having been destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy). The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods. The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe. This was further aided by Britain's geographical position — an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe.
Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed. It had a dense population for its small geographical size. Enclosure of common land and the related Agricultural Revolution made a supply of this labour readily available. Enclosure or inclosure (the latter is used in Legal documents and Place names is the term used in England and Wales The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century which saw a massive increase in agricultural There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands. Northern England, The North, The North of England or (less commonly The North Country refers to the parts of England north of an ill-defined line This article is mainly about the English Midlands For other uses see Midlands (disambiguation. South Wales (De Cymru is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south and Mid Wales and West Wales The Scottish Lowlands ( a' Ghalldachd, meaning roughly 'the non-Gaelic region' in Gaelic, and called Lawlands or Lallans in Scots Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry. Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry.
The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688, and British society's greater receptiveness to change (compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution. In large part due to the Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialisation, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism.  (This point is also made in Hilaire Belloc's The Servile State. Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 1870 &ndash 16 July 1953 was a French -born Writer who became a Naturalised British subject The Servile State is a book written by Hilaire Belloc in 1912 about Economics. )
Another theory is that the British advance was due to the presence of an entrepreneurial class which believed in progress, technology and hard work. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome  The existence of this class is often linked to the Protestant work ethic (see Max Weber) and the particular status of the Baptists and the dissenting Protestant sects, such as the Quakers and Presbyterians that had flourished with the English Civil War. The Protestant work ethic, sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a sociological theoretical concept Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (maks 'veːbɐ (21 April 1864 &ndash 14 June 1920 was a German political economist and sociologist who was considered Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Reinforcement of confidence in the rule of law, which followed establishment of the prototype of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the emergence of a stable financial market there based on the management of the national debt by the Bank of England, contributed to the capacity for, and interest in, private financial investment in industrial ventures. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is a state-owned institution and the Central bank of the United Kingdom
Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England's only two universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland's four universities). English Dissenters were Christians who separated from the Church of England. The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities that continue to exist until the present day When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican Church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches The Test Acts were a series of English Penal laws that served as a Religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman The Unitarians, in particular, were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and schools such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences —areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies. Unitarianism as a theology is the belief in the single personality of God in contrast to the doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God
Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved. While members of these sects were excluded from certain circles of the government, they were considered fellow Protestants, to a limited extent, by many in the middle class, such as traditional financiers or other businessmen. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Given this relative tolerance and the supply of capital, the natural outlet for the more enterprising members of these sects would be to seek new opportunities in the technologies created in the wake of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published
The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, made in the second half of the 18th century:
These represent three 'leading sectors', in which there were key innovations, which allowed the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined. This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Without some earlier ones, such as spinning jenny and flying shuttle in the textile industry and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible. The spinning jenny is a multi- Spool Spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay ( 1704 - 1764) In 1733 he invented one of the key developments in Weaving that helped Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialisation of Britain. A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing Richard Trevithick ( April 13, 1771 &ndash April 22, 1833) was a British A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. The application of steam engines to powering cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a mill. A cotton mill is a Factory housing spinning and Weaving Machinery Cotton was a leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as cotton
In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organisation of human labour in factories, epitomised by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton mills, factories and administration offices based in Manchester. Cottonopolis is a name given to the city of Manchester, in England. A cotton mill is a Factory housing spinning and Weaving Machinery Cotton was a leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as cotton A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries. With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it moved along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly.
Also important was the 1756 rediscovery of concrete (based on hydraulic lime mortar) by the British engineer John Smeaton, which had been lost for 13 centuries. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Lime mortar is a type of mortar. It was used in the construction of the vast majority of brick and stone buildings worldwide from ancient times until the widespread adoption This article is about the 18th century civil engineer For the baggage handler involved in the 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack, see John Smeaton (baggage 
Knowledge of new innovation was spread by several means. Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached. A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could. During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and France, even trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods. Study tours were common then, as now, as was the keeping of travel diaries. Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods.
Another means for the spread of innovation was by the network of informal philosophical societies, like the Lunar Society of Birmingham, in which members met to discuss 'natural philosophy' (i. The Lunar Society was a dinner club and informal Learned society of prominent Industrialists natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um e. science) and often its application to manufacturing. The Lunar Society flourished from 1765 to 1809, and it has been said of them, "They were, if you like, the revolutionary committee of that most far reaching of all the eighteenth century revolutions, the Industrial Revolution".  Other such societies published volumes of proceedings and transactions. For example, the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions. The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce ( RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution based in London.
There were publications describing technology. Encyclopaedias such as Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704) and Dr Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia (1802-1819) contain much of value. An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge Lexicon Technicum Or An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences Explaining not only the Terms of Art but the Arts Themselves was in some respects the first alphabetical Cyclopaedia or A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences ( folio, 2 vols Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings. Foreign printed sources such as the Descriptions des Arts et Métiers and Diderot's Encyclopédie explained foreign methods with fine engraved plates. Descriptions des Arts et Métiers faites ou approuvées par messieurs de l'Académie Royale des Sciences was published by the Académie Royale des Sciences of Paris Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences des arts et des métiers (Encyclopedia or a systematic dictionary of the sciences arts and crafts was a general
Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the 18th century, and many regularly included notice of the latest patents. Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.
In the early 18th century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. This system is called a cottage industry. The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work It was also known as the workshop system. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the pre-processing needed, and thus goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output. Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp
Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry, but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century. A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or Yarn from natural or Synthetic Fibers History Technology in World Civilization A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham. Lewis Paul (d 1759 was the original inventor of roller spinning the basis of the Water frame for spinning Cotton in a Cotton mill. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate. In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This article is about Northampton in England for other places of the same name see Northampton (disambiguation Northampton ( is a large Market This operated until about 1764. A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down. Leominster ( IPA /ˈlemstə/ or Lemster; is a Market town at in Herefordshire, England. Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in 1748. Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed Fibers to prepare them as Textiles A large variety of fibers can be carded anything from Dog hair, to Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill. A cotton mill is a Factory housing spinning and Weaving Machinery Cotton was a leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as cotton Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. Sir Richard Arkwright ( Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August The water frame is the name given to the Spinning frame, when water power was used to drive it Samuel Crompton ( December 3, 1753 &ndash June 26, 1827) was an English Inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry spinning mule was created in 1779 by Samuel Crompton. It was a combination of the water frame (created by Thomas Highs, initially falsely attributed to
Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling) so that the supply of yarn increased greatly, which fed a weaving industry that was advancing with improvements to shuttles and the loom or 'frame'. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. A shuttle is a tool designed to neatly and compactly store Weft yarn while Weaving. The output of an individual labourer increased dramatically, with the effect that the new machines were seen as a threat to employment, and early innovators were attacked and their inventions destroyed.
To capitalise upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs, of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome Sir Richard Arkwright ( Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines. Thomas Highs (1718 – 1803 was a talented English reed-maker and Inventor known for his creation of the Spinning jenny, the throstle (a machine John Kay was a Clockmaker from Warrington, Lancashire, England. He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power — which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry. A cotton mill is a Factory housing spinning and Weaving Machinery Cotton was a leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as cotton Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. The Watt steam engine was the first type of Steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum
The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels based on wood with fossil fuel based on coal. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas. Sir Clement Clerke 1st Baronet (d 1693 was an important (but financially unsuccessful English Entrepreneur, whose greatest achievement was the application of the A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process Furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the Fuel, but not from contact These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide, playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur) in the coal do not migrate into the metal. This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. The foundry cupola is a different (and later) innovation.
This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709. Abraham Darby ( April 14, 1678 &ndash May 5, 1717) was the first and most famous of three generations with that name in an A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. Coalbrookdale is a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods such as pots and kettles. Pig iron is the intermediate product of Smelting Iron ore with coke, usually with Limestone as a flux He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces (not far from Coalbrookdale). Abraham Darby II (1711 &ndash 1763 was the second Abraham Darby in three generations of an English Quaker family that played a role in the Industrial Revolution Horsehay is a village on the western outskirts of Dawley, which along with several other towns and villages now forms part of the New town of Telford Ketley is a suburb of the new town of Telford in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and Ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. By then, coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron.
Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron. Iron tapped from the Blast furnace is Pig iron, and contains significant amounts of Carbon and Silicon. However, new processes were adopted in the ensuing years. The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process. Henry Cort (1740 &ndash May 23 1800) was an English Ironmaster. Puddling was an Industrial Revolution means of making iron and Steel. From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began. The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources. Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation
Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies. This came principally from Sweden from the mid 17th century and later also from Russia from the end of the 1720s. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron.
Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III. Abraham Darby III (1750 &ndash 1791 was an English Ironmaster and Quaker.
An improvement was made in the production of steel, which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s. Benjamin Huntsman ( 4 June 1704 – 20 June 1776) was an English inventor and manufacturer of Crucible steel. Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making Steel Alloy by slowly heating and cooling pure Iron and Carbon (typically The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process. The cementation process is an obsolete technique for making Steel by Carburization of Iron.
The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided the development of boilers and steam engines, and eventually railways. Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal
Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early. Large-scale coal mining developed during the Industrial Revolution, and coal provided the main source of Primary energy The Economy of Wales. In 2004 according to ONS provisional data headline Gross value added (GVA in Wales was £39243m making the Welsh economy the Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining and open-cut mining and strip mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or Minerals A bell pit is a primitive method of Mining Coal where the coal lies near the surface on flat land In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill. An adit is a type of entrance to an Underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal Drift mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material such as Coal, by cutting into the side of the earth rather than tunneling straight downwards (see Shaft Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water. Shaft mining or Shaft sinking refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down where there is initially no access to the bottom It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough (a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine). A Sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity. The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted. These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of James Watt's more efficient steam engine from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable. Coal mining was very dangerous owing to the presence of firedamp in many coal seams. Firedamp is a Flammable Gas found in coal mines. It is actually the name given to a number of flammable gases including Methane. Some degree of safety was provided by the safety lamp which was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphrey Davy and independently by George Stephenson. A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp, which are designed to be safe to use in Coal mines These lamps are designed to operate in air that may contain Sir Humphry Davy 1st Baronet FRS MRIA (17 December 1778 &ndash 29 May 1829 was a British Chemist and inventor George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer However, conditions of work were very poor, with a casualty rate from rock falls and explosions.
The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines. Stationary steam engines are fixed Steam engines used for pumping or driving mills and factories and for power generation
The first real attempt at industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in 1698. Thomas Savery (c 1650 - 1715 was an English Inventor, born at Shilstone a Manor house near Modbury, Devon, England. He constructed and patented in London a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower (hp) and was used as in numerous water works and tried in a few mines (hence its "brand name", The miner's Friend), but it was not a success since it was limited in pumping height and prone to boiler explosions.
The first safe and successful steam power plant was introduced by Thomas Newcomen from 1719. Thomas Newcomen (born shortly before 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an Ironmonger by trade and a Baptist Newcomen apparently conceived his machine quite independently of Savery, but as the latter had taken out a very wide-ranging patent, Newcomen and his associates were obliged to come to an arrangement with him, marketing the engine until 1733 under a joint patent.  Newcomen's engine appears to have been based on Papin's experiments carried out 30 years earlier, and employed a piston and cylinder, one end of which was open to the atmosphere above the piston. Denis Papin ( 22 August 1647 - c 1712 was a French Physicist, Mathematician and Inventor, best known for his pioneering Steam just above atmospheric pressure (all that the boiler could stand) was introduced into the lower half of the cylinder beneath the piston during the gravity-induced upstroke; the steam was then condensed by a jet of cold water injected into the steam space to produce a partial vacuum; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the vacuum on either side of the piston displaced it downwards into the cylinder, raising the opposite end of a rocking beam to which was attached a gang of gravity-actuated reciprocating force pumps housed in the mineshaft. The engine's downward power stroke raised the pump, priming it and preparing the pumping stroke. At first the phases were controlled by hand, but within ten years an escapement mechanism had been devised worked by of a vertical plug tree suspended from the rocking beam which rendered the engine self-acting.
A number of Newcomen engines were successfully put to use in Britain for draining hitherto unworkable deep mines, with the engine on the surface; these were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, and produced about 5 hp (3. 7 kW). They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper. Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century. By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread (first) to Hungary in 1722 ,Germany, Austria, and Sweden, France (after the revolution), A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. In the 1770s, the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements. This article is about the 18th century civil engineer For the baggage handler involved in the 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack, see John Smeaton (baggage A total of 1,454 engines had been built by 1800.
A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by James Watt. James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes With the close collaboration Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. Matthew Boulton ( September 3, 1728 &ndash 18 August 1809) was an English Manufacturer and Engineer. The Watt steam engine was the first type of Steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum All this meant that a more constant temperature could be maintained in the cylinder and that engine efficiency no longer varied according to atmospheric conditions. These improvements increased engine efficiency by a factor of about five, saving 75% on coal costs.
Nor could the atmospheric engine be easily adapted to drive a rotating wheel, although Wasborough and Pickard did succeed in doing so towards 1780. However by 1783 the more economical Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill. Both of Watt's basic engine types were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 driving reciprocating pumps, 24 serving blast furnaces, and 308 powering mill machinery; most of the engines generated from 5 to 10 hp (7. The firm of Boulton & Watt was initially a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt. A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. 5 kW).
The development of machine tools, such as the lathe, planing and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal
Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained portative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine. A beam engine is a design of Engine based on the principles of a first-class Lever. A table engine is a variety of Stationary steam engine where the cylinder is placed on top of a table-shaped base the legs of which stand on the baseplate which locates the Towards the turn of the 19th century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. Richard Trevithick ( April 13, 1771 &ndash April 22, 1833) was a British Oliver Evans ( 13 September, 1755 &ndash 15 April, 1819) was a United States Inventor. This allowed an engine and boiler to be combined into a single unit compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller
In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers.
The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The Thames Tunnel is an underwater tunnel built beneath the River Thames in London. The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watt's first partner) in 1746. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. The lead chamber process was an industrial process used to produce relatively strong concentrations of Sulfuric acid in large quantities This article is about the English inventor For the 19th century British politician see John Arthur Roebuck. He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Instead of a few pounds at a time, he was able to make a hundred pounds (45 kg) or so at a time in each of the chambers.
The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate. In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Nicolas Leblanc ( December 6 1742 &ndash January 16 1806) was a French Chemist and surgeon who discovered how Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid. The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash ( Sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century named after its inventor Nicolas Hydrochloric acid is the Solution of Hydrogen chloride ( H[[Chlorine Cl]] in water The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide. Sodium sulfate is the Sodium salt of Sulfuric acid Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3 Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. Calcium sulfide is the Chemical compound with the formula CaS Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulphide. The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulphide was a useless waste product). Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared to that from burning certain plants (barilla) or from kelp, which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash, and also to potash (potassium carbonate) derived from hardwood ashes. Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. Salsola soda|Salsola kali|Halogeton sativus|Glasswort|Soda ash Barilla refers to several species of salt-tolerant (" Halophyte " plants that until the 19th Kelp are large Seaweeds ( Algae) belonging to the Brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3) Carbonate of potash redirects here For one of potassium carbonate's impure forms see Potash.
These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes. Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries. Early uses for sulphuric acid included pickling (removing rust) iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth. A bleach is a Chemical that removes color or whitens often via Oxidation.
The development of bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk. Calcium hypochlorite is a Chemical compound with formula (2 It is widely used for Water treatment and as a Bleaching agent (bleaching Charles Tennant ( 3 May 1768 - 1 October 1838) Scottish Chemist and Industrialist. Claude Louis Berthollet ( December 9, 1748 &ndash November 6, 1822) was a Savoyard Chemist who "became vice president Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow, became the largest chemical plant in the world. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom
In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British brick layer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades. Joseph Aspdin (December? 1778 – 20 March 1855) was a British cement manufacturer who obtained the Patent for Portland cement on Portland cement is the most common type of Cement in general usage in many parts of the world as it is a basic ingredient of Concrete, mortar, Stucco This process involves sintering a mixture of clay and limestone to about 1400 °C, then grinding it into a fine powder which is then mixed with water, sand and gravel to produce concrete. Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, by heating the material (below its Melting point - solid state sintering until its particles adhere Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Portland cement was used by the famous English engineer Marc Isambard Brunel several years later when constructing the Thames Tunnel. Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, FRS ( 25 April 1769 &ndash 12 December 1849) was a French -born engineer who settled in the The Thames Tunnel is an underwater tunnel built beneath the River Thames in London.  Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system a generation later. The London sewerage system is part of the Water infrastructure serving London.
The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms. The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called 'clock work' because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated. The manufacture of textile machines drew craftsmen from these trades and is the origin of the modern engineering industry.
Machines were built by various craftsmen—carpenters made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts. A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, A good example of how machine tools changed manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in 1830. The invention of a new machine by William Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell and James Stephen Perry allowed mass manufacture of robust, cheap steel pen nibs; the process had been laborious and expensive. William Mitchell may refer to William Mitchell (Reverend (1803&ndash1870 an Anglican priest who established religious services in the Swan River Colony Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum. Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work loose) over time. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically. Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels. Small metal parts were readily made by this means, but for large machine parts, production was very laborious and costly.
Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines. A lathe (ˈleɪð is a Machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as Cutting, Sanding, Knurling The planing machine, the slotting machine and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the 19th century. Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until during the Second Industrial Revolution. A milling machine is a Machine tool used for the shaping of Metal and other Solid Materials.
Military production had a hand in the development of machine tools. Henry Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, as a young man where he would have seen the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring made and worked by the Verbruggans. Henry Maudslay ( August 22, 1771 – February 14 1831) was a British Machine tool innovator Tool and die maker See also Woolwich Arsenal railway station, Arsenal FC The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, originally known as the Woolwich Warren Woolwich (ˈwʊlɪtʃ or /ˈwʊlɪdʒ/ is a suburb in south-east London, England in the London Borough of Greenwich, on the south side of the River | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks, and soon after he began working on his own. Joseph Bramah ( 13 April 1748 – 9 December 1814) born Stainborough Lane Farm Wentworth, Yorkshire, England He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Portsmouth Block Mills form part of the Portsmouth Dockyard at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, and were built during the Napoleonic These were all metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components with a degree of interchangeability. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts, Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth. Richard Roberts ( 22 April 1789 &ndash 11 March 1864) was a British/ Welsh Engineer whose development of high-precision Machine Joseph Clement ( 1779 – 28 February 1844) was a British Engineer and Industrialist, chiefly remembered as the maker of Charles Sir Joseph Whitworth Baronet ( December 21, 1803 &ndash January 22, 1887) was an English Engineer and Entrepreneur
James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds. James Fox, (born 19 May 1939) is an English Actor. Biography Early life James Fox was born in London to Derby (pronounced "dar-bee" /dˈɑːbɪ/ is a city in the East Midlands of England. Matthew Murray (1765 &mdash 20 February 1826) was a Steam engine and Machine tool manufacturer who designed and built the first commercially Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement.
Another major industry of the later Industrial Revolution was gas lighting. Gas lighting refers to a technology used to produce light from gas usually methane but also including hydrogen and ethylene Gas lighting refers to a technology used to produce light from gas usually methane but also including hydrogen and ethylene Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers. William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) ( August 21, 1754 - November 15, 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor The firm of Boulton & Watt was initially a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The Watt steam engine was the first type of Steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum The process consisted of the large scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas (removal of sulphur, ammonium, and heavy hydrocarbons), and its storage and distribution. The first gaslighting utilities were established in London between 1812-20. They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK. Gaslighting had in impact on social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil. Its introduction allowed night life to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and street could be lighted on a larger scale than before.
A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process, was developed in Europe during the early 19th century. In 1832, this process was used by the Chance Brothers to create sheet glass. Chance Brothers and Company was a Glassworks in Spon Lane Smethwick, West Midlands (formerly in Staffordshire) England. They became the leading producers of window and plate glass. This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings. The crystal palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure.
In the mid nineteenth century John Fowler, an engineer and inventor, began to look at the possibility of using steam engines for ploughing and digging drainage channels. John Fowler ( 11 July 1826 – 4 December 1864) was an English agricultural engineer who was a pioneer in the use of steam The system that he invented involved either a single stationary engine at the corner of a field drawing a plough via sets of winches and pulleys, or two engines placed at either end of a field drawing the plough backwards and forwards between them by means of a cable attached to winches. Fowler's ploughing system vastly reduced the cost of ploughing farmland compared with horse-drawn ploughs. Also his ploughing system, when used for digging drainage channels, made possible the cultivation of previously unusable swampy land.
At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Transportation of raw materials to the factories and of the finished products from them was limited by the lack of transport costs where they had to go by road Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed. Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea.
The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.
Sailing vessels had long been used for moving goods round the British coast. The trade transporting coal to London from Newcastle had begun in mediaeval times. The major international seaports such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials such as cotton might be imported and finished goods exported. Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways at the end of the period.
All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution. This article is a list of the longest rivers in the United Kingdom. Some were anciently navigable, notably the Severn, Thames, and Trent. For other rivers named "Severn" see Severn River. The River Severn ( Welsh: Afon Hafren, Latin The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it.
The Severn, in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centres of production in Shropshire (such as iron goods from Coalbrookdale) and the Black Country. For other rivers named "Severn" see Severn River. The River Severn ( Welsh: Afon Hafren, Latin Shropshire (ˈʃrɒpʃɪə/ /-ʃə alternatively known as Salop or abbreviated in print only Shrops, is a county in the Coalbrookdale is a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England The Black Country is a loosely defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton Transport was by way of trows—small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river. A trow was a type of Cargo Boat found in the past on the River Severn in England and used to transport goods The trows could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports, such as Bridgwater and even as far as France. Bridgwater in Somerset, England, is a Market town, the administrative centre of the Sedgemoor district, and the leading industrial
Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centres in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing centre in the country. The British Canal system of Water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom 's Industrial Revolution at a time when Roads The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct ˌpɔntkəˈsʌɬtɛ (and approximately pronounced "pont-kuss-uth-tay" is a navigable Aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country. A single canal horse could pull a load dozens of times larger than a cart at a faster pace. By the 1820s, a national network was in existence. Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways. They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the 1840s on.
Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain.
Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. The Iron Bridge crosses the River Severn at the Ironbridge Gorge, by the village of Ironbridge, in Shropshire, England. A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust. Turnpike trusts in the United Kingdom were bodies set up by Act of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal highways New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Macadam. John Metcalf, or as he was more popularly known Blind Jack Metcalf ( August 15, 1717 &ndash April 26, 1810) was the first of Thomas Telford (9 August 1757 - 2 September 1834 was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. John Loudon McAdam ( September 21 1756 – November 26 1836) was a Scottish Engineer and Road -builder The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses. Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horse. A packhorse (UK or pack horse (USA refers generally to an Equid such as a Horse, Mule, Donkey or Pony used for carrying Stage coaches carried the rich, and the less wealthy could pay to ride on carriers carts. The un-sprung Cart was a simple sturdy one- Horse, two-wheeled Vehicle used by roadmen Farmers and the like for small loads of relatively dense
Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal. This article is part of the History of rail transport by country series For the West End theatre founded in 1806 see Adelphi Theatre Sans Pareil was a Steam locomotive built by Timothy The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways run in October of 1829 in Rainhill, Merseyside (between Liverpool These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline. The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast iron plates used). A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. Horse-drawn public railways did not begin until the early years of the 19th century. Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825 and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830. The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR which opened in 1825 was the world's first permanent Steam locomotive hauled public Railway. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR was the world's first inter-city passenger Railway in which all the trains were timetabled and were hauled for most of the distance The construction of major railways connecting the larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution.
After many of the workers had completed the railways, they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories.
Railways helped Britain's trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport.
In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power.
Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel—child labour, dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution. 
Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory. Cottonopolis is a name given to the city of Manchester, in England. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. John Lombe was a Silk spinner in 18th century Derby, England. The Derby Industrial Museum is housed in a former Silk Mill (the start of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site in Derby England. Derby (pronounced "dar-bee" /dˈɑːbɪ/ is a city in the East Midlands of England. However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised.
The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed "Cottonopolis", and arguably the world's first industrial city. Cottonopolis is a name given to the city of Manchester, in England. For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. The use of water power in Britain was at its peak just before the Industrial Revolution. Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler.
The transition to industrialisation was not without difficulty. For example, a group of English workers known as Luddites formed to protest against industrialisation and sometimes sabotaged factories. The Luddites were a Social movement of British Textile artisans in the early Nineteenth century who protested&mdashoften by destroying mechanized Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction
In other industries the transition to factory production was not so divisive. Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers. One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement. Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought
By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Warmley is a village in South Gloucestershire, England, to the east of Kingswood on the outskirts of Bristol. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system. Josiah Wedgwood ( July 12, 1730 - January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter credited Matthew Boulton ( September 3, 1728 &ndash 18 August 1809) was an English Manufacturer and Engineer.
The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase, but the chance of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the industrial revolution (although infant mortality rates were improved markedly).  There was still limited opportunity for education, and children were expected to work. Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new there were no experienced adult labourers. This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries.
Child labour had existed before the Industrial Revolution, but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour Before the passing of laws protecting children, many were forced to work in terrible conditions for much lower pay than their elders.
Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines and textile factories  and these helped to popularise the children's plight. The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare.
Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labour. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. The Factory Acts were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children first in the textile Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law. About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden. These laws decreased the number of child labourers; however, child labour remained in Europe up to the 20th century.
Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers. Cliffe Castle, Keighley, is a good example of how the newly rich chose to live. Keighley ( IPA /ˈkiːθli/ "Keeth-ly" is a town and Civil parish within the Metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford in This is a large home modelled loosely on a castle with towers and garden walls. The home is very large and was surrounded by a massive garden, the Cliffe Castle is now open to the public as a museum.
Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets. These homes would share toilet facilities, have open sewers and would be at risk of damp. Disease was spread through a contaminated water supply. Conditions did improve during the 19th century as public health acts were introduced covering things such as sewage, hygiene and making some boundaries upon the construction of homes. Not everybody lived in homes like these. The Industrial Revolution created a larger middle class of professionals such as lawyers and doctors. The conditions for the poor improved over the course of the 19th century because of government and local plans which led to cities becoming cleaner places, but life had not been easy for the poor before industrialisation. However, as a result of the Revolution, huge numbers of the working class died due to diseases spreading through the cramped living conditions. Chest diseases from the mines, cholera from polluted water and typhoid were also extremely common, as was smallpox. Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Accidents in factories with child and female workers were regular. Dickens' novels perhaps best illustrate this; even some government officials were horrified by what they saw. Strikes and riots by workers were also relatively common.
The rapid industrialisation of the English economy cost many craft workers their jobs. The Luddites were a Social movement of British Textile artisans in the early Nineteenth century who protested&mdashoften by destroying mechanized The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation. Hosiery is knitted coverings for the legs and feet Also referred to as legwear hosiery describes garments worn directly on the feet and Legs The term Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver. Many such unemployed workers, weavers and others, turned their animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure. Ned Ludd or Ned Lud (possibly born Ned Ludlam is the person from whom the Luddites took their name The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811. The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic measures using the militia or army to protect industry. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported for life. Transportation or penal transportation refers to the deporting of Convicted Criminals to a Penal colony, for example by France
Unrest continued in other sectors as they industrialised, such as agricultural labourers in the 1830s, when large parts of southern Britain were affected by the Captain Swing disturbances. Captain Swing was the name appended to some of the threatening letters during the rural English Swing Riots of 1830 Threshing machines were a particular target, and rick burning was a popular activity. The riots led however, to the first formation of trade unions, and further pressure for reform. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining.
The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. Many strikes were painful events for both sides, the unions and the management. In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. The Combination Act of 1799, titled An Act to prevent Unlawful Combinations of Workmen (short title 39 Geo Even after this, unions were still severely restricted.
In 1832, the year of the Reform Act which extended the vote in England but did not grant universal suffrage, six men from Tolpuddle in Dorset founded the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers to protest against the gradual lowering of wages in the 1830s. In the United Kingdom, Reform Act is a generic term used for legislation concerning electoral matters Tolpuddle is a small village in the southern English county of Dorset, situated in the Piddle valley, eight Miles east of Dorchester They refused to work for less than 10 shillings a week, although by this time wages had been reduced to seven shillings a week and were due to be further reduced to six shillings. In 1834 James Frampton, a local landowner, wrote to the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, to complain about the union, invoking an obscure law from 1797 prohibiting people from swearing oaths to each other, which the members of the Friendly Society had done. Viscount Melbourne, of Kilmore in the County of Cavan, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland held by the Lamb family James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, George's brother James Loveless, George's brother in-law Thomas Standfield, and Thomas's son John Standfield were arrested, found guilty, and transported to Australia. They became known as the Tolpuddle martyrs. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century British labourers who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organised working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice. For chartism in financial markets see Technical analysis, and for the British socialist journal see Chartist (magazine Chartism was Its Charter of reforms received over three million signatures but was rejected by Parliament without consideration.
Working people also formed friendly societies and co-operative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship. A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like Enlightened industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class. Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism
Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike. In 1842, a General Strike involving cotton workers and colliers was organised through the Chartist movement which stopped production across Great Britain. A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country For chartism in financial markets see Technical analysis, and for the British socialist journal see Chartist (magazine Chartism was 
Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British Labour Party. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the
The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press
As in Britain, the United States originally used water power to run its factories, with the consequence that industrialisation was essentially limited to New England and the rest of the Northeastern United States, where fast-moving rivers were located. The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States ' emergence as one of the largest nations in the world as well as the most technologically History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U However, the raw materials (cotton) came from the Southern United States. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive It was not until after the American Civil War in the 1860s that steam-powered manufacturing overtook water-powered manufacturing, allowing the industry to fully spread across the nation. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
Samuel Slater (1768–1835) is popularly known as the founder of the American cotton industry. Samuel Slater ( June 9 1768 &ndash April 21 1835) was an early American Industrialist popularly known as the "Founder As a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England he learnt of the new techniques in the textile industry and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge. Slater started Slater's mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 and went on to own thirteen textile mills. Pawtucket (pronounced Pa-TUCK-et is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States.  Daniel Day established a wool carding mill in the Blackstone Valley at Uxbridge, Massachusetts in 1810, the third woollen mill established in the U.S. Daniel Day ( 1767 in Massachusetts – 1848 at Uxbridge, Worcester County, Massachusetts at age 81 was an American pioneer The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Uxbridge was settled in 1662 and incorporated in 1727 at Suffolk, then Worcester Co The United States of America —commonly referred to as the (The first was in Hartford, CT, and the second at Watertown, MA). The Town of Watertown is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor retraces the history of "America's Hardest working River', the Blackstone. John Lester Hubbard Chafee (ˈtʃeɪ fiː CHAY-fee) ( October 22 1922 October 24 1999) was an American Politician The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The Blackstone River and its tributaries, which cover more than 45 miles (72 km) from Worcester to Providence, was the birthplace of America's Industrial Revolution. The Blackstone River is a River in the US states of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. At its peak over 1100 mills operated in this valley, including Slater's mill, and with it the earliest beginnings of America's Industrial and Technological Development. (see also Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor)
While on a trip to England in 1810, Newburyport, Massachusetts merchant Francis Cabot Lowell was allowed to tour the British textile factories, but not take notes. The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Newburyport is a small coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, 38 miles (61 km northeast of Boston. Francis Cabot Lowell ( April 7, 1775 - August 10, 1817) (Lowell 1899 pg 59 was the American Business man for Realising the War of 1812 had ruined his import business but that a market for domestic finished cloth was emerging in America, he memorised the design of textile machines, and on his return to the United States, he set up the Boston Manufacturing Company. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies The Boston Manufacturing Company was organized in 1813 by Francis Cabot Lowell, a wealthy Boston merchant in partnership a group of investors known as The Boston Lowell and his partners built America's first cotton-to-cloth textile mill at Waltham, Massachusetts. One of the early centers of the Industrial Revolution in northern America Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States After his death in 1817, his Associates built America's first planned factory town, which they named after him. This enterprise was capitalised in a public stock offering, one of the first uses of it in the United States. Initial public offering (IPO, also referred to simply as a "public offering" is when a company issues Common stock or shares to the public for the first Lowell, Massachusetts, utilising 5. Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA. As of the 2000 census the city had a total population of 105167 6 miles (9. 0 km) of canals and ten thousand horsepower delivered by the Merrimack River, is considered the 'Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution'. The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an earlier spelling that is sometimes still used is a -long river in the northeastern United States. The short-lived utopia-like Lowell System was formed, as a direct response to the poor working conditions in Britain. The Lowell System or Waltham -Lowell System, named after Francis Cabot Lowell, was a Paternalistic Textile factory system of the early However, by 1850, especially following the Irish Potato Famine, the system had been replaced by poor immigrant labour.
The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came later than in Great Britain. Lowell Massachusetts is considered the Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution, as it was the first large-scale factory town in America See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands In many industries, this involved the application of technology developed in Britain in new places. Often the technology was purchased from Britain or British engineers and entrepreneurs moved abroad in search of new opportunities. By 1809 part of the Ruhr Valley in Westphalia were being called Miniature England because of its similarities to the industrial areas of England. The Ruhr Area, ( German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott, Kohlenpott or Revier) is an Urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia The German, Russian and Belgian governments all provided state funding to the new industries.
In some cases (such as iron), the different availability of resources locally meant that only some aspects of the British technology were adopted. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26
In 1871 a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission toured Europe and the USA to learn western ways. The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan 's political and social structure The economic history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth after the Meiji Revolution to be the first non European Power and after the Second World War The Iwakura Mission or Iwakura Embassy (ja 岩倉使節団 Iwakura Shisetsudan was a Japanese diplomatic journey around the world initiated in 1871 by the oligarchs The result was a deliberate state led industrialisation policy to prevent Japan from falling behind. The Bank of Japan, founded in 1877, used taxes to fund model steel and textile factories. is the Central bank of Japan. History Like most modern Japanese institutions the Bank of Japan was born after the Meiji Restoration. Education was expanded and Japanese students were sent to study in the west.
The insatiable demand of the railways for more durable rail led to the development of the means to cheaply mass-produce steel. The Second Industrial Revolution, typically dated between 1870 and 1914 was a second phase of the Industrial Revolution, involving several developments within the chemical Steel is often cited as the first of several new areas for industrial mass-production, which are said to characterise a "Second Industrial Revolution", beginning around 1850, although a method for mass manufacture of steel was not invented until the 1860s, when Sir Henry Bessemer invented a new furnace which could make wrought iron and steel in large quantities. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Sir Henry Bessemer ( January 19, 1813 – March 15, 1898) English Engineer and Inventor. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron. However, it only became widely available in the 1870s. This second Industrial Revolution gradually grew to include the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries, and, in the twentieth century, the automotive industries, and was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany. The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The introduction of hydroelectric power generation in the Alps enabled the rapid industrialisation of coal-deprived northern Italy, beginning in the 1890s. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The increasing availability of economical petroleum products also reduced the importance of coal and further widened the potential for industrialisation.
Marshall McLuhan analysed the social and cultural impact of the electric age. While the previous age of mechanisation had spread the idea of splitting every process into a sequence, this was ended by the introduction of the instant speed of electricity that brought simultaneity. Mechanization or mechanisation ( BE) is providing human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work This imposed the cultural shift from the approach of focusing on "specialized segments of attention" (adopting one particular perspective), to the idea of "instant sensory awareness of the whole", an attention to the "total field", a "sense of the whole pattern". It made evident and prevalent the sense of "form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of structure and configuration". This had major impact in the disciplines of painting (with cubism), physics, poetry, communication and educational theory. Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European Education theory is the Theory or the Philosophy of the purpose application and interpretation of Education and Learning. 
By the 1890s, industrialisation in these areas had created the first giant industrial corporations with burgeoning global interests, as companies like U.S. Steel, General Electric, and Bayer AG joined the railroad companies on the world's stock markets. The United States Steel Corporation ( is an integrated Steel producer with major production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe For other uses see Bayer (disambiguation or Beyer or Buyer. Bayer AG (German ˈbaɪə () is a German A stock market, or (equity market is a private or public market for the trading of company Stock and derivatives of company
The advent of The Enlightenment provided an intellectual framework which welcomed the practical application of the growing body of scientific knowledge — a factor evidenced in the systematic development of the steam engine, guided by scientific analysis, and the development of the political and sociological analyses, culminating in Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the Magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. One of the main arguments for capitalism, presented for example in the book The Improving State of the World, is that industrialisation increases wealth for all, as evidenced by raised life expectancy, reduced working hours, and no work for children and the elderly. The Improving State of the World Why We're Living Longer Healthier More Comfortable Lives On a Cleaner Planet is a 2007 book by Indur M
Marxism is essentially a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  According to Karl Marx, industrialisation polarised society into the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production, the factories and the land) and the much larger proletariat (the working class who actually perform the labour necessary to extract something valuable from the means of production). Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian He saw the industrialisation process as the logical dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, necessary for the full development of capitalism, which he saw as in itself a necessary precursor to the development of socialism and eventually communism. In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based ;
During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialisation developed. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the This was known as the Romantic movement. Its major exponents in English included the artist and poet William Blake and poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley. William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker. Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 21 October 1772 &ndash 25 July 1834) was an English Poet, Critic and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4 1792 – July 8 1822 ˈpɝːsɪ ˈbɪʃ ˈʃɛlɪ was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among The movement stressed the importance of "nature" in art and language, in contrast to 'monstrous' machines and factories; the "Dark satanic mills" of Blake's poem And did those feet in ancient time. " And did those feet in ancient time " is a short Poem by William Blake from the preface to his epic Milton a Poem (1804 Mary Shelley's short story Frankenstein reflected concerns that scientific progress might be two-edged. Mary Shelley ( Née Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin; 30 August Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, generally known as Frankenstein, is a Novel written by the British author Mary Shelley
The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was common in the 1830s. Louis-Auguste Blanqui in 1837 spoke of la révolution industrielle. Louis Auguste Blanqui (born February 8, 1805 in Puget-Théniers, France, died January 1, 1881) was a French Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 is one of the best-known works of Friedrich Engels. "
In his book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for Industry: The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century. Keywords A Vocabulary of Culture and Society is a book written by the Welsh Marxist Academic Raymond Williams, and published in 1976 Raymond Henry Williams ( 31 August 1921 &ndash 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic Novelist and Critic. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Robert Southey ( August 12, 1774 &ndash March 21, 1843) was an English Poet of the Romantic school one Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker.
Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose lectures given in 1881 gave a detailed account of the process. This page is about the economic historian Arnold Toynbee for the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee see Arnold J