Immunity is a material term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of pathogens to stop infection by micro-organisms before they can cause disease. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor
Adaptive immunity is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Immune system|Passive immunity|Innate immune system The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent Pathogenic Natural immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificial immunity develops only through deliberate actions. Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial Both natural and artificial immunity can be further subdivided, depending on the amount of time the protection lasts. Passive immunity is short lived, and usually lasts only a few months, whereas protection via active immunity lasts much longer, and is sometimes life-long. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity.
A further subdivision of adaptive immunity is characterized by the cells involved; humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, whereas the protection provided by cell mediated immunity involves T-lymphocytes alone. The Humoral Immune Response (HIR is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted Antibodies (as opposed to Cell-mediated immunity which involves Cell-mediated immunity is an Immune response that does not involve Antibodies or complement but rather involves the activation of Macrophages Humoral immunity is active when the organism generates its own antibodies, and passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals. Similarly, cell mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ own T-cells are stimulated and passive when T cells come from another organism.
The concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that it was caused by supernatural forces, and that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for “bad deeds” or “evil thoughts” visited upon the soul by the gods or by one’s enemies. Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία) describes the practice of Rituals sometimes seen as magical in nature performed with the intention of  Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific method were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile or black bile). Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca Humorism, or humoralism, was a theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers  Also popular during this time was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air". The miasmatic theory of disease held that Diseases such as Cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language "pollution" Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia  If someone were exposed to the miasma, they could get the disease.
The modern word “immunity” derives from the latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens “the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's For no one was ever attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result”.  The term “immunes”, is also found in the epic poem “Pharsalia” written around 60 B. Pharsalia was also an ancient district in Greece in which Pharsalus was located C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe’s resistance to snake venom. Marcus Annaeus Lucanus ( November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman Snake venom is highly modified saliva that is produced by special glands of certain species of Snakes. 
The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah (A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles, translated 1848) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity (although he does not use this term).  However, it was with Louis Pasteur’s Germ theory of disease that the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, and how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further insults. Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and The germ theory, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a Theory that proposes that Microorganisms are the cause of many Diseases. Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical Science that covers the study of all aspects of the Immune system in all Organisms It deals with 
The birth of passive immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus, who sought to harden himself against poison, and took daily sub-lethal doses of poison to build tolerance. See Mithridates for people and concepts with the same name Mithridates VI (Μιθριδάτης 132&ndash63 BC also known as Mithridates Mithridates is also said to have fashioned a 'universal antidote' to protect him from all earthly poisons.  For nearly 2000 years, poisons were thought to be the proximate cause of disease, and a complicated mixture of ingredients, called Mithridate, was used to cure poisoning during the Renaissance. In Philosophy a proximate cause is an event which is closest, or immediately responsible for Causing some observed result This article is about the remedy Mithridate is also a play by Jean Racine. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere  An updated version of this cure, Theriacum Andromachi, was used well into the 19th century. Venice treacle, also called Andromachi Theriaca, Theriacum Andromachi' or treacle of Andromachus, in Pharmacy, was a Honey  In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin, and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of antitoxin based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus, the antitoxin became the first major success of modern therapeutic Immunology. Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b December 17, 1853, Confolens ( Charente) France, d Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin ( September 22, 1863 &ndash March 1, 1943) was a French Diphtheria toxin is an Exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the Pathogen bacterium that causes Diphtheria. Emil Adolf von Behring ( March 15, 1854 &ndash March 31, 1917) was a German Physiologist who received the 1901 was a Japanese Physician and bacteriologist. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the infectious agent of Bubonic plague in Hong Kong in Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of Skeletal muscle fibres An antitoxin is an Antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific Toxin. 
In Europe, the induction of active immunity emerged in an attempt to contain smallpox. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Immunization, however, had existed in various forms for at least a thousand years.  The earliest use of immunization is unknown, however, around 1000 A. D. , the Chinese began practicing a form of immunization by drying and inhaling powders derived from the crusts of smallpox lesions. The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong  Around the fifteenth century in India, the Ottoman Empire, and east Africa, the practice of variolation (poking the skin with powdered material derived from smallpox crusts) became quite common. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Inoculation is the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum Vaccine, or antigenic substance  Variolation was introduced to the west in the early 18th century by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( 26 May 1689 &ndash 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat and writer  In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of inoculation with the cowpox virus, a non-fatal virus that also induced immunity to smallpox. Edward Jenner, FRS, ( May 17 1749 – January 26 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley Inoculation is the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum Vaccine, or antigenic substance Cowpox is a Disease of the skin that is caused by a Virus known as the Cowpox virus. The success and general acceptance of Jenner's procedure would later drive the general nature of vaccination developed by Pasteur and others towards the end of the 19th century. Vaccination is the administration of Antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease 
Passive immunity is the transfer of active immunity, in the form of readymade antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity is the transfer of active Humoral immunity in the form of readymade antibodies from one individual to another Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to reduce the symptoms of ongoing or immunosuppressive diseases. Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or Efficacy of the Immune system.  Passive immunity provides immediate protection, but the body does not develop memory, therefore the patient is at risk of being infected by the same pathogen later. 
Maternal passive immunity is a type of naturally acquired passive immunity, and refers to antibody-mediated immunity conveyed to a fetus by its mother during pregnancy. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and Maternal antibodies (MatAb) are passed through the placenta to the fetus by an FcRn receptor on placental cells. The placenta is an Ephemeral organ present in placental Vertebrates, such as Eutherial Mammals and Sharks during Gestation The neonatal Fc receptor is a Fc receptor which is similar in structure to MHC class I. This occurs around the third month of gestation. Gestation is the carrying of an Embryo or Fetus inside a Female Viviparous Animal.  IgG is the only antibody isotype that can pass through the placenta. In Immunology, the "immunoglobulin isotype" refers to the genetic variations or differences in the constant regions of the heavy and light chains of the Ig (immunoglobulinsclasses  Passive immunity is also provided through the transfer of IgA antibodies found in breast milk that are transferred to the gut of the infant, protecting against bacterial infections, until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies. Immunoglobulin A ( IgA) is an Antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity Breast milk refers to the Milk produced by a mother to feed her baby 
see also: Temporarily-induced immunity
Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization induced by the transfer of antibodies, which can be administered in several forms; as human or animal blood plasma, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, and in the form of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is a blood product administered Intravenously It contains the pooled IgG Immunoglobulins ( Antibodies Monoclonal antibodies ( mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are identical because they are produced by one type of immune cell Passive transfer is used prophylactically in the case of immunodeficiency diseases, such as hypogammaglobulinemia. Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand) is any medical or Public health procedure whose purpose In Medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the Immune system 's ability to fight Infectious disease is compromised Hypogammaglobulinemia is a type of Immune disorder characterized by a reduction in all types of Gamma globulins It is distinguished from Dysgammaglobulinemia  It is also used in the treatment of several types of acute infection, and to treat poisoning. In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by  Immunity derived from passive immunization lasts for only a short period of time, and there is also a potential risk for hypersensitivity reactions, and serum sickness, especially from gamma globulin of non-human origin. Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction refers to undesirable (damaging discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal reactions produced by the normal immune system Serum sickness is a Reaction to proteins in Antiserum derived from an Animal source Gamma globulins, or Ig's are a class of Proteins in the blood identified by their position after Serum protein electrophoresis. 
The artificial induction of passive immunity has been used for over a century to treat infectious disease, and prior to the advent of antibiotics, was often the only specific treatment for certain infections. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Immunoglobulin therapy continued to be a first line therapy in the treatment of severe respiratory diseases until the 1930’s, even after sulfonamide antibiotics were introduced. Respiratory Disease is the term for Diseases of the Respiratory system. There are several sulfonamide-based groups of drugs The original antibacterial sulfonamides (sometimes called simply sulfa drugs are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide 
Passive or "adoptive transfer" of cell-mediated immunity, is conferred by the transfer of "sensitized" or activated T-cells from one individual into another. It is rarely used in humans because it requires histocompatible (matched) donors, which are often difficult to find. Histocompatibility is the property of having the same or mostly the same Alleles of a set of Genes called the Major histocompatibility complex. In unmatched donors this type of transfer carries severe risks of graft versus host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in which functional immune cells in the transplanted marrow recognize  It has, however, been used to treat certain diseases including some types of cancer and immunodeficiency. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled In Medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the Immune system 's ability to fight Infectious disease is compromised This type of transfer differs from a bone marrow transplant, in which (undifferentiated) hematopoietic stem cells are transferred. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are Stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types including Myeloid ( Monocytes and Macrophages, Neutrophils
When B cells and T cells are activated by a pathogen, memory B-cells and T- cells develop. B cells are Lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed by T cells belong to a group of White blood cells known as Lymphocytes, and play a central role in Cell-mediated immunity. Throughout the lifetime of an animal these memory cells will “remember” each specific pathogen encountered, and are able to mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again. This type of immunity is both active and adaptive because the body's immune system prepares itself for future challenges. Active immunity often involves both the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity as well as input from the innate immune system. Immune system|Adaptive immune systemThe innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms in a non-specific manner The innate system is present from birth and protects an individual from pathogens regardless of experiences, whereas adaptive immunity arises only after an infection or immunization and hence is "acquired" during life. Immune system|Passive immunity|Innate immune system The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent Pathogenic
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person is exposed to a live pathogen, and develops a primary immune response, which leads to immunological memory. An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor  This type of immunity is “natural” because it is not induced by man. Many disorders of immune system function can affect the formation of active immunity such as immunodeficiency (both acquired and congenital forms) and immunosuppression. In Medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the Immune system 's ability to fight Infectious disease is compromised Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or Efficacy of the Immune system.
Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial Vaccination is the administration of Antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease. The term vaccination was coined by Edward Jenner and adapted by Louis Pasteur for his pioneering work in vaccination. Edward Jenner, FRS, ( May 17 1749 – January 26 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and The method Pasteur used entailed treating the infectious agents for those diseases so they lost the ability to cause serious disease. Pasteur adopted the name vaccine as a generic term in honor of Jenner's discovery, which Pasteur's work built upon.
In 1807, the Bavarians became the first group to require that their military recruits be vaccinated against smallpox, as the spread of smallpox was linked to combat. The Bavarians are a German people from Bavaria, Germany. They are the inheritors of the Bavarii, which occupied modern-day Bavaria and its surroundings  Subsequently the practice of vaccination would increase with the spread of war.
Most vaccines are given by hypodermic injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the gut. A hypodermic needle is a hollow needle commonly used with a Syringe to inject substances into the body Live attenuated Polio and some Typhoid and Cholera vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based in the bowel. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Infectious disease spread from person to person primarily via Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium The mouth, buccal cavity, or oral cavity is the first portion of the Alimentary canal that receives food and begins digestion by mechanically breaking up In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists