Ida Noddack (25 February 1896 - 1978), née Ida Tacke, was a German chemist and physicist. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning She was among the first physicists to propose nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may With her husband Walter Noddack she discovered element 75 Rhenium. Walter Noddack (* 17 August 1893 in Berlin, 7 December 1960 in Berlin) was a German chemist Rhenium (ˈriːniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Re and Atomic number 75
Ida Noddack was born in Wesel. Wesel (ˈveːzəl is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
She was one of the first women in Germany to study chemistry. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. She attained a doctorate in 1919 at the Technical University of Berlin "On higher aliphatic fatty acid anhydrides" and worked afterwards in the field being the first woman in the industry in Germany. The Technical University of Berlin ( Berlin Institute of Technology, TUB, TU Berlin, German Technische Universität Berlin) is located In Organic chemistry, compounds composed of Carbon and Hydrogen are divided into two classes Aromatic compounds which contain Benzene rings In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which An acid anhydride is an Organic compound that has two Acyl groups bound to the same Oxygen atom
Noddack correctly criticized Enrico Fermi's chemical proofs in his 1934 neutron bombardment experiments, from which he postulated that transuranic elements might have been produced, and which was widely accepted for a few years. In Chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the Chemical elements with Atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic Her paper, "On Element 93" suggested a number of possibilities, centering around Fermi's failure to chemically eliminate all lighter than uranium elements in his proofs, rather than only down to lead. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the The paper is considered historically significant today not simply because she correctly pointed out the flaw in Fermi's chemical proof but because she suggested the possibility that "it is conceivable that the nucleus breaks up into several large fragments, which would of course be isotopes of known elements but would not be neighbors of the irradiated element. " In so doing she presaged what would become known a few years later as nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may However Noddack offered no theoretical basis for this possibility, which defied the understanding at the time, and her suggestion that the nucleus breaks into several large fragments is not what occurs in nuclear fission. The paper was generally ignored.
Later experiments along a similar line to Fermi's, by Irene Joliot-Curie, and Pavel Savitch in 1938 raised what they called "interpretational difficulties" when the supposed transuranics exhibited the properties of rare earths rather than those of adjacent elements. Irène Joliot-Curie ( 12 September 1897 &ndash 17 March 1956) was a French scientist the Daughter of Marie Skłodowska-Curie Ultimately in 1939 Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, working in consultation with long term colleague Lise Meitner (who had been forced to flee Germany) provided chemical proof that the previously presumed transuranic elements were isotopes of Barium. Otto Hahn (8 March 1879 &ndash 28 July 1968 was a German Chemist who received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering Nuclear fission Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassman ( February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German chemist who with Lise Meitner (7 or 17 November 1878 &ndash 27 October 1968 was an Austrian born later Swedish physicist who studied Radioactivity and In Chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the Chemical elements with Atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic It remained for Meitner and her nephew Otto Frisch utilizing Fritz Kalckar and Neils Bohr's liquid drop hypothesis (first proposed by George Gamow in 1935) to provide a theoretical model and mathematical proof of what they dubbed nuclear fission ( Frisch also experimentally verified the fission reaction by means of a cloud chamber, confirming the massive energy release). Lise Meitner (7 or 17 November 1878 &ndash 27 October 1968 was an Austrian born later Swedish physicist who studied Radioactivity and Otto Robert Frisch ( 1 October 1904 &ndash 22 September 1979) Austrian British Physicist. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding George Gamow (pronounced as ˈgamof ( March 4, 1904 &ndash August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may          
Noddack and her husband looked for the then still unknown elements 43 and 75 at the Physical Institute for Realm. In 1925, they published a paper (Zwei neue Elemente der Mangangruppe, Chemischer Teil) claiming to have done so, and called the new elements Rhenium and Masurium. Rhenium (ˈriːniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Re and Atomic number 75 Technetium (tɛkˈniːʃɪəm is the lightest Chemical element with no Stable isotope. Only the discovery of the rhenium was confirmed. They were unable to isolate any element 43 and their results were not reproducible. Their choice of the term Masurium was also considered unacceptably nationalistic and may have contributed to a poor reputation amongst scientists of the day. Technetium (tɛkˈniːʃɪəm is the lightest Chemical element with no Stable isotope.
Artificially produced Element 43 was definitively isolated in 1937 by Emilio Segrè and Carlo Perrier from a discarded piece of molybdenum foil from a cyclotron which had undergone beta decay. Emilio Gino Segrè ( February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an Italian Physicist and Nobel laureate in It is called Technetium. Technetium (tɛkˈniːʃɪəm is the lightest Chemical element with no Stable isotope. No isotope of technetium has a half-life longer than 4. 2 million years and was presumed to have disappeared on earth in as a naturally occurring element. In 1961 of minute amounts of technetium in pitchblende produced from spontaneous 238U fission was discovered by B. T. Kenna and P. K. Kuroda.  Based on this discovery, Belgian physicist Pieter van Assche constructed an analysis of their data to show that the detection limit of Noddacks' analytical method could have been 1000 times lower than the 10-9 value reported in their paper, in order to show that the Noddacks could have been the first to find measurable amounts of element 43, as the ores they had analyzed contained uranium.  Using Van Assche's estimates of the Noddacks' residue compositions NIST scientist, John T. Armstrong, to simulated the original X-ray spectrum with a computer, and claimed that the results were "surprisingly close to their published spectrum!"  Gunter Herrmann from the University of Mainz examined van Assche's arguments, and concluded that they were developed ad hoc, and forced to a predetermined result.  According to Kenna and Kuroda 99technetium content expected in a typical pitchblende (50% uranium) is about 10 -10 g/kg of ore. F. Habashi pointed out that uranium was never more than about 5% in Noddacks' columbite samples, and the amount of element 43 could not exceed 3 × 10 -11 µg/kg of ore. Such a low quantity could not be weighed, nor give X-ray lines of element 43 that could be clearly distinguished from the background noise. The only way to detect its presence is to carry out radioactive measurements, a technique that the Noddacks did not use, but Segrè and Perrier did.     
Following on the Van Assche and Armstrong claims, an investigation was made into the works of Masataka Ogawa who had made a prior claim to the Noddacks. was a Japanese chemist known for the discovery of Nipponium. After graduating from the University of Tokyo, he studied under William Ramsay in London In 1908 he claimed to have isolated element 43 calling it Nipponium. Rhenium (ˈriːniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Re and Atomic number 75 Using an actual original plate (not a simulation) Kenji Yoshihara determined that Ogawa had not found the Period 5 Group 7 element 43 ( eka-manganese), but had successfully separated Period 6 Group 7 element 73 ( dvi-manganese) (Rhenium), preceding the Noddacks by 17 years. A period 5 element is one of the Chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. See also Professor Dmitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements A period 6 element is one of the Chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides See also Professor Dmitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements Rhenium (ˈriːniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Re and Atomic number 75   
Ida Noddack was nominated three times for Nobel Prize in Chemistry, once by Walter Nernst and K. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of Chemistry. L. Wagner for 1933; both Noddacks were nominated by W. J. Müller for 1935 and then by A. Skrabal for 1937.