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Anthrozoology · Apiology
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of Anthrozoology is the study of human - Animal interaction ("animal" referring to all non-human animals also described as the science focusing on Arachnology (from Greek grc ἀράχνη arachnē, "spider" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Cetology (from Greek grc κῆτος kētos, "whale" and grc -λογία -logia) is the branch of Marine mammal Conchology is the scientific, semi-scientific or Amateur study of mollusk shells (in the UK spelled mollusc shells Entomology (from Greek grc ἔντομος entomos, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented" hence "insect" and grc -λογία Ethology ( from Greek ἦθος ethos, "character" and λόγος logos, "knowledge") is the scientific study of Animal Herpetology (from Greek: ἑρπετόν herpeton, "creeping animal" and λόγος logos, "knowledge" is the branch of Zoology Malacology is the branch of Invertebrate Zoology which deals with the study of Mollusks the second-largest Phylum of animals in terms of described In Zoology, mammalogy is the study of Mammals – a class of Vertebrates with characteristics such as Homeothermic Metabolism Myrmecology (from Greek μύρμεξ myrmex, "ant" and λόγος logos, "knowledge" is the scientific study of Ants Neuroethology ("neuro" Greek related to Nerve cells, "ethos" Greek habit or custom is an evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior Ornithology (from Greek ὄρνις ὄρνιθος ornis, ornithos, "bird" and λόγος logos, "knowledge" is the branch of Planktology is the study of Plankton, various Microorganisms that inhabit bodies of Water. Paleozoology, also spelled as palaeozoology ( Greek: παλαιον paleon = old and ζωον zoon = animal is the branch of Paleontology Primatology is the study of Primates It is a diverse Discipline and primatologists can be found in departments of Biology, Anthropology Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier ( August 23 1769 &ndash May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life William Kirby ( September 19, 1759 &ndash July 4, 1850) was an English Entomologist, an original member of the Linnean Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Konrad Zacharias Lorenz ( November 7, 1903 in Vienna &ndash February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian Thomas Say ( June 27, 1787 &ndash October 10, 1834) was an American naturalist, Entomologist, Malacologist Alfred Russel Wallace OM, FRS (8 January 1823 &ndash 7 November 1913 was an British naturalist, Explorer, Geographer This is a list of Zoologists by their surnames with abbreviated given names Timeline of zoology This article considers the history of Zoology before the theory of Evolution proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859 This article considers the history of Zoology in the years up to 1912 since the theory of Evolution by Natural selection proposed by Charles Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two This includes skeletal fish (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), and jawless fish (Agnatha). Osteichthyes (ˌɒstiːˈɪkθiːz also called bony fish, are a taxonomic Class of Fish that includes the ray-finned fish ( Actinopterygii Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fishes are jawed Fish with paired fins paired nostrils scales two-chambered hearts and skeletons made of Cartilage rather Agnatha ( Greek, "no jaws" is a Paraphyletic superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata An estimated 25,000 fish species exist, comprising a majority of vertebrates. While a majority of species have probably been discovered and described, approximately 250 new species are officially described by science each year.
The practice of ichthyology is associated with marine biology and limnology. Marine biology is the scientific study of living Organisms in the Ocean or other marine or Brackish bodies of water Limnology (from Greek Λίμνη limne, "lake" and λόγος logos, "knowledge" is the division of Hydrology that studies inland
The study of fishes dates from the Upper Paleolithic Revolution (with the advent of 'high culture'). The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa The science of ichthyology was developed in several interconnecting epochs, each with various significant advancements.
(38,000 BC–1500 BC)
The study of fish receives its origins from the human desire to feed, clothe, and equip themselves with useful implements. According to Michael Barton, a prominent ichthyologist and professor at Centre College, "The earliest ichthyologists were hunters and gatherers who had learned how to obtain the most useful fishes, where to obtain them in abundance, and at what times they might be the most available. This article is about the professor and ichthyologist For the murderer see Michael Barton (criminal Michael Barton is a prominent ichthyologist " These insights of early cultures were manifested in abstract and identifiable artistic expressions.
(1500 BC–40 AD)
Informal, scientific descriptions of fish are represented within the Judeo-Christian tradition. Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian, sometimes written as Judæo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held The kashrut forbade the consumption of fish without scales or appendages. Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, he כַּשְׁרוּת refers to Jewish dietary laws. Theologians and ichthyologists speculate that the apostle Peter and his contemporaries harvested the fish that are today sold in modern industry along the Sea of Galilee, presently known as Lake Kinneret. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The Sea of Galilee, also Sea of Genneseret, Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew ים כנרת) (Arabic بحيرة طبريا) The Sea of Galilee, also Sea of Genneseret, Lake Kinneret or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew ים כנרת) (Arabic بحيرة طبريا) These fish include cyprinids of the genus Barbus and Mirogrex, cichlids of the genus Sarotherodon, and Mugil cephalus of the family Mugilidae. The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek κυπρῖνος ( kuprīnos "carp" consists of the Carps A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Cichlids (ˈsɪklɪd are Fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. In Biological classification, family ( Latin There are other meanings of the word Mullet. There are other fishes called 'mullets' notably the Red mullets '
(335 BC–80 AD)
Aristotle incorporated ichthyology into formal scientific study. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Between 335 BC–322 BC, he provided the earliest taxonomic classification of fish, in which 117 species of Mediterranean fish were accurately described. Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification The word comes from the Greek, taxis (meaning 'order' 'arrangement' and, nomos Furthermore, Aristotle observed the anatomical and behavioral differences between fish and marine mammals. Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Marine mammals are a diverse group of roughly 120 species of Mammal that are primarily Ocean -dwelling or depend on the ocean for food Proceeding his death, some of his pupils continued his ichthyological research. Theophrastus, for example, composed a treatise on amphibious fish. Theophrastus ( Greek:; 371 – c 287 BC a Greek native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic A treatise is a formal lengthy systematic Discourse on some subject The Romans, although less devoted to the pursuit of science, wrote extensively about fish. Pliny the Elder, a notable Roman naturalist, compiled the ichthyological works of indigenous Greeks, including verifiable and ambiguous peculiarities such as the sawfish and mermaid respectively. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Sawfishes are a family of marine animals related to Sharks and rays. A mermaid is a Mythological aquatic creature that is half human half aquatic creature (e Pliny's documentation was the last significant contribution to ichthyology until the European Renaissance. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere
The writings of three sixteenth century scholars, Hippolyte Salviani, Pierre Belon, and Guillaume Rondelet, signify the conception of modern ichthyology. Pierre Belon (1517‑1564 was a French naturalist. He is sometimes known as Pierre Belon du Mans, or in Latin translations of his works as Petrus Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566 known also as Rondeletius was professor of Medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France. The investigations of these individuals were based upon actual research in comparison to ancient recitations. This property popularized and emphasized these discoveries. Despite their prominence, Rondelet's De Piscibus Marinum is regarded as the most influential, identifying 244 species of fish.
The incremental alterations in navigation and shipbuilding throughout the Renaissance marked the commencement of a new epoch in ichthyology. The Renaissance culminated with the era of exploration and colonization, and upon the cosmopolitan interest in navigation came the specialization in naturalism. Georg Marcgrave of Saxony composed the Naturalis Brasilae in 1648. Georg Marcgrave (1610-1648 (Surname also found in some sources as "Markgraf" The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen ˈzaksən Swobodny Stat Sakska is the easternmost federal state of Germany. This document contained a description of 100 species of fish indigenous to the Brazilian coastline. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld In 1686, John Ray and Francis Willughby collaboratively published Historia Piscium, a scientific manuscript containing 420 species of fish, 178 of these newly discovered. John Ray ( November 29, 1627 &ndash January 17, 1705) was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the Francis Willughby ( November 22, 1635 – July 3, 1672) was an English ornithologist and ichthyologist. The fish contained within this informative literature were arranged in a provisional system of classification.
The classification used within the Historia Piscium was invented by Carolus Linnaeus, the "father of modern taxonomy". Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for His taxonomic approach became the systematic approach to the study of organisms, including fish. Linnaeus was a professor at the University of Uppsala and an eminent botanist; however, one of his colleagues, Peter Artedi, earned the title "father of ichthyology" through his indispensable advancements. Uppsala University ( Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a world-class research University in Uppsala, Sweden. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Peter Artedi or Petrus Arctaedius ( February 22, 1705 &ndash September 27, 1735) was a Swedish naturalist and Artedi contributed to Linnaeus's refinement of the principles of taxonomy. Furthermore, he recognized five additional orders of fish: Malacopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Branchiostegi, Chondropterygii, and Plagiuri. This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used Artedi developed standard methods for making counts and measurements of anatomical features that are modernly exploited. Another associate of Linnaeus, Albertus Seba, was a prosperous pharmacist from Amsterdam. Albertus Seba ( May 12 1665, Etzel near Friedeburg - May 2 1736, Amsterdam) was a Dutch pharmacist zoologist and collector Pharmacists are Health professionals who practice the art and science of Pharmacy. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Seba assembled a cabinet, or collection, of fish. He invited Artedi to utilize this assortment of fish; unfortunately, in 1735, Artedi fell into an Amsterdam canal and drowned at the age of 30.
Linnaeus posthumously published Artedi's manuscripts as Ichthyologia, sive Opera Omnia de Piscibus (1738). His refinement of taxonomy was culminated subsequent to the development of the binomial nomenclature which is in use by contemporary ichthyologists. Furthermore, he revised the orders introduced by Artedi, placing significance on pelvic fins. The Anatomy of Fish is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of Water, which is much denser than air holds a relatively small amount of dissolved Fish lacking this appendage were placed within the order Apodes; fish containing abdominal, thoracic, or jugular pelvic fins were termed Abdominales, Thoracici, and Jugulares respectively. However, these alterations were not grounded within the evolutionary theory. Therefore, it would take over a century until Charles Darwin would provide the intellectual foundation from which we would be permitted to perceive that the degree of similarity in taxonomic features was a consequence of phylogenetic relationship. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life
Close to the dawn of the nineteenth century, Marcus Elieser Bloch of Berlin and Georges Cuvier of Paris made an attempt to consolidate the knowledge of ichthyology. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Marcus Elieser Bloch (1723 - 1799 was a German Medical doctor and Naturalist. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier ( August 23 1769 &ndash May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Cuvier summarized all of the available information in his monumental Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons was a 22-volume study of Ichthyology written by Georges Cuvier and his student Achille Valenciennes in the 1830s This manuscript was published between 1828 and 1849 in a 22 volume series. This documentation contained 4,514 species of fish, 2,311 of these new to science. This piece of literature remains one of the most ambitious treatises of the modern world. The scientific exploration of the Americas progressed our knowledge of the remarkable diversity of fish. Charles Alexandre Lesueur was a student of Cuvier. Charles Alexandre Lesueur ( January 1, 1778 - December 12, 1846) was a French naturalist, Artist and He made a cabinet of fish dwelling within the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River regions. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway
Adventurous individuals such as John James Audubon and Constantine Samuel Rafinesque figure in the faunal documentation of North America. John James Audubon ( April 26 1785 – January 27 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, hunter Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, as he is known in Europe ( October 22 1783 - September 18 1840) was a nineteenth-century These persons often traveled with one another and composed Ichthyologia Ohiensis in 1820. In addition, Louis Agassiz of Switzerland established his reputation through the study of freshwater fish and organisms and the pioneering of paleoichthyology. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz ( May 28 1807 — December 14 1873) was a Swiss - American Zoologist, Glaciologist Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Agassiz eventually immigrated to the United States and taught at Harvard University in 1846. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Albert Günther published his Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum between 1859 and 1870, describing over 6,800 species and mentioning another 1,700. Albrecht Karl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther FRS (also Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Gunther) October 3, 1830 – February 1 Generally considered one of the most influential ichthyologists, David Starr Jordan wrote 650 articles and books on the subject as well as serving as president of Indiana University and Stanford University. David Starr Jordan PhD LLD ( January 19, 1851 &ndash September 19, 1931) was a leading eugenicist, Ichthyologist Indiana University is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in
|Publication||Frequency||Date of Publication||Affiliated Company|
|Copeia||Quarterly||27 December 1913||American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists|
|Journal of Applied Ichthyology||Bi-monthly||Unknown||Blackwell Publishing|
The names are followed by their fields of specialization and major contributions: