Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human being, human cell, or human tissue. Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, although human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning part of the natural process of reproduction. Twins are Offspring resulting from the same Pregnancy, either of the same or opposite Sex.
Although genes influence behavior and cognition, "genetically identical" does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with nearly identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and personalities. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought Twins are Offspring resulting from the same Pregnancy, either of the same or opposite Sex. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known The relationship between an "original" and a clone is rather like that between identical triplets raised apart; they share nearly all of the same DNA, but little of the same environment. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known A lively scientific debate on this topic occurred in the journal Nature in 1997.  Ultimately, the question of how similar an original and a clone would be boils down to how much of personality is determined by genetics, an area still under active scientific investigation. (See nature versus nurture and cloning. The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature" i Cloning in Biology is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as Bacteria, Insects )
There are no documented cases of successful human cloning. However, the most successful common cloning technique in non-human mammals is the process by which Dolly the sheep was produced. Dolly was a ewe ( July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003) that was the first Animal to be cloned from an adult Dolly was one of 277 attempts. It is also the technique used by Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), the first company to successfully clone early human embryos that stopped at the six cell stage. Advanced Cell Technology (ACT a Biotechnology company formed in 1994 is involved with therapeutic cloning and the cloning of animals The process is as follows: an egg cell taken from a donor has its cytoplasm removed. An ovum (plural ova) is a Haploid Female reproductive cell or Gamete. The cytoplasm is the contents of a cell that is enclosed within the Plasma membrane. Another cell with the genetic material to be cloned is fused with the original egg cell. In theory, this process, known as somatic cell nuclear transfer, could be applied to human beings. Genetics and Developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer ( SCNT) is a Laboratory technique for creating an Ovum with a donor
ACT also reported its attempts to clone stem cell lines by parthenogenesis, where an unfertilized egg cell is induced to divide and grow as if it were fertilized, but only incomplete blastocysts resulted. Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin" + γένεσις genesis, "creation" is an asexual form Even if it were practical with mammals, this technique could work only with females. Discussion of human cloning generally assumes the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer, rather than parthenogenesis.
In January, 2008, Wood and Andrew French, Stemagen's chief scientific officer in California, announced that they successfully created the first 5 mature human embryos using DNA from adult skin cells, aiming to provide a less-controversial source of viable embryonic stem cells. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Stem cells are cells found in most if not all multi-cellular Organisms. Dr. Samuel Wood and a colleague donated skin cells, and DNA from those cells was transferred to human eggs. Samuel H Wood is a scientist noted for donating DNA that was used in Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT to produce mature human embryos that were clones of It is not clear if the embryos produced would have been capable of further development, but Dr. Wood stated that if that were possible, using the technology for reproductive cloning would be both unethical and illegal. The 5 cloned embryos, created in Stemagen Corporation lab, in La Jolla, were later destroyed. La Jolla (ləˈhɔɪə "luh-HOY-uh") is a wealthy Seaside resort community of up to 42808 residents within the city of San Diego, California 
In 1978 David Rorvik claimed in his book In His Image: The Cloning of a Man that he had personal knowledge of the creation of a human clone. David Rorvik (born 1944 in Circle Montana) is an American Journalist and Novelist who authored the 1978 book In His A court case followed. He failed to produce corroborating evidence to back up his claims; now regarded as a hoax.
Severino Antinori made claims in November, 2002 that a project to clone human beings had succeeded, with the first human clone due to be born in January 2003. His claims were received with skepticism from many observers. In ordinary usage skepticism or scepticism ( Greek 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to look about to consider see also spelling differences
In December 2002, Clonaid, the medical arm of a religion called Raëlism, who believe that aliens introduced human life on Earth, claimed to have successfully cloned a human being. Clonaid is a Human cloning company founded in 1997 It has philosophical ties with the Raëlian sect which sees cloning as the first step in achieving Immortality A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Raëlism or Raëlian Church consists of the practitioners of a UFO religion founded by a former French sports-car journalist and test driver named Claude Cloning in Biology is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as Bacteria, Insects They claim that aliens taught them how to perform cloning, even though the company has no record of having successfully cloned any previous animal. A spokesperson said an independent agency would prove that the baby, named Evá, is in fact an exact copy of her mother. Shortly thereafter, the testing was cancelled, with the spokesperson claiming the decision would ultimately be left up to Evá's parents.
On October 9, 2003, newspaper Le journal de Montréal published an article accusing Clonaid and the Raelian religion of maintaining an outright hoax in its claims regarding cloning a human baby.
In December 2004 Dr. Brigitte Boisselier, Clonaid's Chief Executive, claimed in a letter  to the UN that Clonaid has successfully cloned 13 children, however their identities cannot be revealed to the public in order to protect them.
Human cloning might produce many benefits. Human therapeutic cloning could provide genetically identical cells for regenerative medicine, and tissues and organs for transplantation. Genetics and Developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer ( SCNT) is a Laboratory technique for creating an Ovum with a donor Many Medical researchers believe that stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering Such cells, tissues, and organs would neither trigger an immune response nor require the use of immunosuppressive drugs. For a list of immunosuppressive drugs see the Transplant rejection page. Both basic research and therapeutic development for serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, as well as improvements in burn treatment and reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, are areas that might benefit from such new technology. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Plastic surgery is a medical specialty interested in the correction of form and function
Human reproductive cloning also would produce benefits. Cloning in Biology is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as Bacteria, Insects Antinori and Zavos hope to create a fertility treatment that allows parents who are both infertile to have children with at least some of their DNA in their offspring.
Some scientists, including Dr. Richard Seed, suggest that human cloning might obviate the human aging process. How this might work is not entirely clear since the brain or identity would have to be transferred to a cloned body. Dr. Preston Estep has suggested the terms "replacement cloning" to describe the generation of a clone of a previously living person, and "persistence cloning" to describe the production of a cloned body for the purpose of obviating aging, although he maintains that such procedures currently should be considered science fiction. Preston W Estep III (also known as Pete Estep is an American biologist and science and technology advocate
In Aubrey de Gray's proposed SENS (Strategy for Engineered negligible senescence) one of the considered options to repair the cell depletion related to cellular senescence is to grow replacement tissues from stem cells harvested from a cloned embryo. Senescence refers to the biological processes of a living Organism approaching an advanced age (i
On December 12, 2001 the United Nations General Assembly began elaborating an international convention against the reproductive cloning of human beings. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members Lawrence S. B. Goldstein, college professor of cellular and molecular medicine at the University of California at San Diego, claims that the United States, unable to pass a national law, forced Costa Rica to start this debate in the UN over the international cloning ban. Lawrence SB Goldstein (b 1956 is Professor of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at University of California San Diego and Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Unable to reach a consensus on a binding convention, in March 2005 a non-binding United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning was finally adopted. 
Australia had prohibited human cloning, though as of December 2006, a bill legalising therapeutic cloning and the creation of human embryos for stem cell research passed the House of Representatives. Within certain regulatory limits, and subject to the effect of state legislation, therapeutic cloning is now legal in Australia.
The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine prohibits human cloning in one of its additional protocols, but this protocol has been ratified only by Greece, Spain and Portugal. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union explicitly prohibits reproductive human cloning, though the Charter currently carries no legal standing. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing Human rights provisions ‘solemnly proclaimed’ by the European Parliament The proposed Treaty of Lisbon would, if ratified, make the charter legally binding for the institutions of the European Union. The Treaty of Lisbon (also known as the Reform Treaty) is a Treaty designed to streamline the workings of the European Union (EU with amendments to the The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
In 1998, 2001, and 2003 the U. S. House of Representatives voted whether to ban all human cloning, both reproductive and therapeutic. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Each time, divisions in the Senate over therapeutic cloning prevented either competing proposal (a ban on both forms or reproductive cloning only) from passing. Some American states ban both forms of cloning, while some others outlaw only reproductive cloning.
Current regulations prohibit federal funding for research into human cloning, which effectively prevents such research from occurring in public institutions and private institutions such as universities which receive federal funding. However, there are currently no federal laws in the United States which ban cloning completely, and any such laws would raise difficult Constitutional questions similar to the issues raised by abortion. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. An
The British government introduced legislation in order to allow licensed therapeutic cloning in a debate in January 14th, 2001 after an amendment to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at The 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embrylogy Act is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom However on November 15, 2001 a prolife group won a High Court legal challenge that effectively left cloning unregulated in the UK. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Their hope was that Parliament would fill this gap by passing prohibitive legislation.  The government was quick to pass legislation prohibiting reproductive cloning Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001. The remaining gap with regard to therapeutic cloning was closed when the appeals courts reversed the previous decision of the High Court. Currently therapeutic cloning is allowed under license from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. HFEA redirects here For the 1990 Act of Parliament, see Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 The Human Fertilisation and The first licence was granted on August 11, 2004 to researchers at the University of Newcastle to allow them to investigate treatments for diabetes, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Newcastle University is a leading research intensive University located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the north-east of England. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the Central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's Alzheimer's disease ( AD) also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of Dementia.