Hughes Aircraft Company was a major aerospace and defense company founded by Howard Hughes. The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram is a modern Beyond Visual Range (BVR air-to-air Missile Howard Robard Hughes Jr (December 24 1905 – April 5 1976 was an American Aviator, Industrialist, Film producer / director, Philanthropist The group was based near Ballona Creek, in Culver City, California, USA, on the Pacific Coast. Culver City is a city in western Los Angeles County California. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States
Hughes Aircraft was acquired by General Motors in 1985. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. GM sold off the aerospace and defense operations during the late 1990s; Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon in 1997 and the Hughes Research Laboratories became jointly owned by Boeing, GM, and Raytheon. Raytheon Company ( is a major American Defense contractor and industrial corporation with core Manufacturing concentrations in Defense systems HRL redirects here For the US airport see Valley International Airport. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Raytheon Company ( is a major American Defense contractor and industrial corporation with core Manufacturing concentrations in Defense systems Raytheon has since sold its share to GM and Boeing, but remains a customer of Hughes Research Laboratories. Hughes Space and Communications Company was purchased by Boeing in 2000 and renamed Boeing Satellite Development Center. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E The Boeing Satellite Development Center is a major business unit of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. GM sold the remainder of Hughes Electronics to News Corporation which renamed the company DirecTV Group. News Corporation (often abbreviated to News Corp) (,,) is one of the world's largest media conglomerate companies by Market capitalisation The DIRECTV Group Inc ( is an American Direct broadcast satellite Television company formerly known as Hughes Electronics.
In 1932, Howard Hughes Jr. formed Hughes Aircraft Company operating out of Grand Central Airport in Glendale as a division of the Hughes Tool Company. Howard Robard Hughes Jr (December 24 1905 – April 5 1976 was an American Aviator, Industrialist, Film producer / director, Philanthropist Hughes Tool Company was established in 1909 as Sharp-Hughes Tool Company when Howard R  In 1935 Hughes, with his trusted friend and aviation engineer Glenn Odekirk, built the H-1 Racer, which included every streamlining concept then known, including retractable landing gear, a fully enclosed cockpit, and the first use of recessed rivets. Glenn Odekirk born at Waseca Minnesota, on 09 May 1905 a son of Edward John and Louise (Lewis Odekirk WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In Aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels that supports an Aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi The H-1 captured a number of speed records during the next few years, and made Hughes a household name.
During World War II the company designed and built several prototype aircraft including the famous Hughes H-4 Hercules, better known as the "Spruce Goose". WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout However the plant was used primarily as a branch plant for the construction of other companies' designs. Branch plant economy is a term used to describe the phenomenon of United States companies building factories (branch plants in Canada, primarily to sell products At the start of the war Hughes Aircraft had only four full-time employees — by the end the number was 80,000. 
Hughes Aircraft was one of many aerospace and defense companies which flourished in Southern California during and after World War II and was at one time the largest employer in the area. Southern California, or So Cal, is defined as the southern portion of the U World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
By the summer of 1947, certain politicians had become concerned about Hughes' mismanagement of the Spruce Goose and the XF-11 photo reconnaissance plane project. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout They formed a special committee to investigate Hughes which culminated in a much-followed Senate investigation, one of the first to be televised to the public. Despite a highly critical committee report, Hughes was cleared.
In 1948 Hughes created a new division of the company, the Aerospace Group. Two Hughes engineers, Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge, had new ideas on the packaging of electronics to make complete fire control systems. Simon Ramo (born May 13, 1913) is an American physicist engineer and business leader Dean Everett Wooldridge ( 30 May, 1913 in Chickasha Oklahoma – 20 September, 2006 in Santa Barbara California) was a Note the term " fire control " may also refer to means of stopping a fire such as sprinkler systems A fire-control system Their MA-1 system combined signals from the aircraft's radar with an analog computer to automatically guide the interceptor aircraft into the proper position for firing missiles. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English is a form of Computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical mechanical An interceptor aircraft (or simply interceptor) is a type of Fighter aircraft designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy Aircraft, particularly At the same time other teams were working with the newly formed US Air Force on air-to-air missiles, delivering the AIM-4 Falcon, then known as the F-98. The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided Air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force. The MA-1/Falcon package, with several upgrades, was the primary interceptor weapon system in the US for many years, lasting into the 1980s. Ramo and Wooldridge, having failed to reach an agreement with Howard Hughes regarding management problems, resigned in September 1953. They founded the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, later to join Thompson Products to form TRW, another aerospace company and a major competitor to Hughes Aircraft. TRW Incorporated was an American Corporation involved in a number of businesses mostly defense-related but including Automotive, Aerospace and TRW Incorporated was an American Corporation involved in a number of businesses mostly defense-related but including Automotive, Aerospace and
Howard Hughes donated Hughes Aircraft to the newly formed Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1953 allegedly as a way of avoiding taxes on its huge income. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI is a United States Non-profit medical Research institute based in Chevy Chase Maryland  The next year, L.A. "Pat" Hyland was hired as vice president and general manager of Hughes Aircraft; he would ultimately become company president and CEO after Howard Hughes' death in 1976. Lawrence A "Pat" Hyland ( August 26, 1897 - November 24, 1989) was an American Electrical engineer.
Under Hyland's guidance, the Aerospace Group continued to diversify and become massively profitable, and became a primary focus of the company. The company developed radar systems, electro-optical systems, the first working laser, aircraft computer systems, missile systems, ion-propulsion engines (for space travel), and many other advanced technologies. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. An ion thruster is a form of Electric propulsion used for Spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating Ions Ion thrusters are characterized The Electronic Properties Information Center (EPIC) of the United States was hosted at the Hughes Culver City library in the 1970s. EPIC published the multi-volume Handbook of Electronic Materials as public documents.
Nobel Laureates Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann had Hughes connections: Feynman would hold weekly seminars at Hughes Research Laboratories; Gell-Mann shared an office with Malcolm Currie, later a Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer at Hughes Aircraft. This is a list of Nobel Prize Laureates awarded for their outstanding contributions to Humanitarian causes for Peace, work in Literature Richard Phillips Feynman (ˈfaɪnmən May 11 1918 – February 15 1988 was an American Physicist known for the Path integral formulation of quantum Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American Physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work Greg Jarvis and Ronald McNair, two of the astronauts on the last flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger were Hughes alumni. Gregory Bruce Jarvis ( August 24, 1944 - January 28, 1986) was an American Engineer who died during the destruction Ronald Ervin McNair PhD ( October 21, 1950 &ndash January 28, 1986) was an American Physicist and NASA STS-51-L was the twenty-fifth flight of the American Space Shuttle program, which marked the first time a civilian had flown aboard the Space Shuttle Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service
Hughes Space and Communications Company was formed as a subsidiary of Hughes Aircraft in 1961 following the merger of the company's Space and Communications Group and the Hughes Space Systems Division. The Boeing Satellite Development Center is a major business unit of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems.  This division built the world's first geosynchronous communications satellite, Syncom, in 1963 and followed it closely with the first geosynchronous weather satellite, ATS-1, in 1966. A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial Satellite stationed in space for the purposes of Telecommunications. Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite" started as a 1961 NASA program for active Geosynchronous Communication satellites all of which Later that year their Surveyor 1 made the first soft landing on the Moon as part of the lead-up to the moon landings in Project Apollo. Surveyor 1 was the first lunar lander in the American Surveyor program that explored the Moon. Hughes also built Pioneer Venus in 1978, which performed the first extensive radar mapping of Venus, and the Galileo probe that flew to Jupiter in the 1990s. The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components launched separately The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University Galileo was an Unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the Planet Jupiter and its moons Named after the Astronomer  The company built nearly 40 percent of commercial satellites in service worldwide in 2000. 
In 1947, Howard Hughes redirected Hughes Aircraft's efforts from airplanes to helicopters. Hughes Helicopters was a major manufacturer of military and civil Helicopters from the 1950s to the 1980s The effort began in earnest in 1948 when helicopter manufacturer Kellett Aircraft Co. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. sold their latest design to Hughes for production. The XH-17 "Sky Crane" first flew in October 1952, but was commercially unsuccessful. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In 1955, Howard Hughes split the helicopter production unit from the Hughes Aircraft Company, and reconstituted it with Hughes Tool Company calling it Hughes Tool Company's Aircraft Division. The Aircraft Division had a focus on the production of light helicopters, mainly the Hughes 269/300 and the OH-6 Cayuse/Hughes 500. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Hughes left no will and following his death in 1976 there were numerous claims to his estate. A Hughes executive and a Hughes lawyer claimed they had the right to set up an "executive committee" to take over the running of the HHMI and its Hughes Aircraft subsidiary. The Attorney General of Delaware Richard R. The Attorney General of Delaware is a constitutional officer of the U Wier challenged this and filed suit in 1978. Charles M. Oberly continued the action when he became attorney general in 1983. Oberly stated he wished to see an independent board of trustees to ensure both that the institute fulfilled its charitable mission and that it did not continue to operate as a tax shelter. 
In January 1984 Judge Grover C. Brown ruled that the Chancery Court should appoint the trustees because Hughes had not left a succession plan. Brown asked for the both the executive committee and the attorney general’s office to submit a list of recommendations that he could approve. Brown approved a list in April 1984.  In January 1985 the new board of trustees of the HHMI announced they would sell Hughes Aircraft either by private sale or public stock offering. 
On June 5, 1985 General Motors was announced as the winner of a secretive five month, sealed-bid auction. The Space Shuttle Explorer is a full-scale replica of a Space Shuttle. STS-49 was the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. Other bidders included Ford Motor Company and Boeing. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E  The purchase was completed on December 20, 1985 for an estimated $5. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) 2 billion, $2. 7 billion in cash and the rest in 50 million shares of GM Class H stock. 
On December 31, 1985 General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its Delco Electronics unit to form Hughes Electronics Corporation, an independent subsidiary. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Delco Electronics Corporation was the automotive Electronics design and manufacturing subsidiary of General Motors based in Kokomo Indiana. The group then consisted of: Delco Electronics Corporation, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems, and DirecTV.
In August of 1992 Hughes Aircraft completed its purchase of General Dynamics' missile businesses for $450 million. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1992: Events The European Commission approves three new regulations to liberalize air General Dynamics Corporation ( is a defense conglomerate formed by Mergers and Divestitures and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest Defense contractor  This brought the Tomahawk Cruise Missile, Advanced Cruise Missile, Standard missile, Stinger missile, the Phalanx Close-in weapon system and the Rolling Airframe Missile into Hughes' portfolio. The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM is a long-range all-weather subsonic cruise missile The Raytheon AGM-129 ACM (Advanced Cruise Missile is a low observable sub-sonic turbo-fan powered air-launched Cruise missile built by Raytheon Missile The FIM-92 Stinger is a personal portable Infrared homing Surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the U A Close-in weapon system (CIWS is a naval shipboard Point-defense weapon for detecting and destroying incoming Anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft The RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM is a small lightweight Infrared homing Surface-to-air missile in use by the United States Navy, Turkish
In 1994 Hughes Electronics introduced DirecTV, the world's first high-powered DBS service. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1994: Events April April 14 - USAF F-15 Eagles shoot DirecTV (trademarked as "DIREC' TV' " is a Direct broadcast satellite (DBS service based in El Segundo California, USA, that was founded Direct broadcast satellite (DBS is a term used to refer to Satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception also referred to more broadly as direct-to-home In 1995 Hughes Electronic's Hughes Space and Communications division became the largest supplier of commercial satellites. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1995: Events January January 26 - Outbreak of the Cenepa War Hughes Aircraft Company was a major aerospace and defense company founded by Howard Hughes. Also in 1995 the group purchased Magnavox Electronic Systems from the Carlyle Group. Magnavox ( Latin for "great voice" is an American Electronics company founded by Edwin Pridham and Peter L The Carlyle Group is a global Private equity investment firm based in Washington D In 1996 Hughes Electronics and PanAmSat agree to merge their fixed satellite services into a new publicly held company, also called PanAmSat with Hughes Electronics as majority shareholder. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1996: Events February February 6 - Turkish charter company The former PanAmSat Corporation founded in 1984 by Reynold (Rene Anselmo, was a satellite service provider headquartered in Wilton Connecticut.
In 1997 GM transferred Delco Electronics to its Delphi Automotive Systems business. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1997: Events British Airways adopts a new livery which consists of a revised Delphi is an Automotive parts company headquartered in Troy Michigan, USA. Later that year the assets of Hughes Aircraft were sold to Raytheon for $9. Raytheon Company ( is a major American Defense contractor and industrial corporation with core Manufacturing concentrations in Defense systems 5 billion.  The remaining companies remained under the Hughes Electronics name and within GM.
Hughes Space and Communications Company was purchased by Boeing in 2000 and became Boeing Satellite Development Center. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E The Boeing Satellite Development Center is a major business unit of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. In 2003 the remaining parts of Hughes Electronics: DirecTV, DirecTV Latin America, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems were purchased by NewsCorp from GM and renamed The DirecTV Group. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. News Corporation (often abbreviated to News Corp) (,,) is one of the world's largest media conglomerate companies by Market capitalisation
The amazing range of science and technology spawned by the workers at Hughes Aircraft never included medical applications, because the company was a property of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, which exists to this day. This restriction was imposed to avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest. Ironically, medical applications may well become Hughes' greatest legacy.