|Born||December 17, 1891|
|Died||February 24, 1962 (aged 70)|
|Literary movement||liberalism, skepticism|
Hu Shi (traditional Chinese: 胡適; simplified Chinese: 胡适; pinyin: Hú Shì, 17 December 1891 — 24 February 1962), born Hu Hongxing (胡洪騂), was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. This is a list of modern literary movements: that is movements after the Renaissance. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal In ordinary usage skepticism or scepticism ( Greek 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to look about to consider see also spelling differences Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Chinese philosophy is Philosophy written in the Chinese tradition of thought This article is an abbreviated list of Essayists - individuals notable for writing essays on various topics His courtesy name was Shizhi (適之). A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life Hu is widely recognized today as a key contributor to Chinese liberalism and language reform in his advocacy for the use of vernacular Chinese. China liberalism resulted from the introduction of Classical liberalism into China during the period of Western domination towards the end of the Qing Dynasty Language reform is a type of Language planning by massive change to a Language. Vernacular Chinese is a style or register of the Written Chinese Language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with He was also an influential Redology scholar. Redology ( is the study of the novel Dream of the Red Chamber, one of the Four Classics of China
Hu was born in Shanghai to Hu Chuan (胡傳，胡传) and Feng Shundi (馮順弟，冯顺弟). Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million His ancestors were from Jixi, Anhui. Jixi County ( Simplified Chinese: 绩溪县 Pinyin: Jìxī Xiàn is a county in Anhui under the jurisdiction of Xuancheng. In January 1904, his family established an arranged marriage for Hu with Jiang Dongxiu (江冬秀), an illiterate girl with bound feet who was one year older than he was. The marriage took place in December 1917. Hu received his fundamental education in Jixi and Shanghai. Jixi (鸡西 is a city with a population of 421000 in the east of Heilongjiang district in the People's Republic of China. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million
Hu became a "national scholar" through funds appropriated from the Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship Program. The Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship Program ( was a Scholarship program funded by Boxer Rebellion Indemnity money paid to the United States On 16 August 1910, he was sent to study agriculture at Cornell University in the United States. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In 1912 he changed his major to philosophy and literature. After receiving his undergraduate degree, he went to Columbia University to study philosophy. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. At Columbia he was greatly influenced by his professor, John Dewey, and Hu became Dewey's translator and a lifelong advocate of pragmatic evolutionary change. John Dewey (October 20 1859 &ndash June 1 1952 was an American Philosopher, Psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have He returned to lecture in Peking University. Peking University ( of Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大 Běidà) is the first formally established university and the first During his tenure there, he received support from Chen Duxiu, editor of the influential journal New Youth, quickly gaining much attention and influence. Chronology October 9 1879 Birth in Anqing, Anhui. 1879 to 1901 Early life and education in China La Jeunesse, or New Youth ( was an influential Chinese revolutionary Magazine in the 1920s that played an important Hu soon became one of the leading and influential intellectuals during the May Fourth Movement and later the New Culture Movement. The May Fourth Movement ( was an anti- imperialist, cultural and political movement in early modern China. The New Culture Movement ( refers to the period between 1917 and 1923 in China, which was marked by student and intellectual ferment and protests against the warlord government
He quit New Youth in the 1920s and published several political newspapers and journals with his friends. La Jeunesse, or New Youth ( was an influential Chinese revolutionary Magazine in the 1920s that played an important His most important contribution was the promotion of vernacular Chinese in literature to replace Classical Chinese, which ideally made it easier for the ordinary person to read. Vernacular Chinese is a style or register of the Written Chinese Language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of Written Chinese based on the Grammar and Vocabulary of ancient Chinese  The significance of this for Chinese culture was great -- as John Fairbank put it, "the tyranny of the classics had been broken". 
Hu was ambassador from the Republic of China to the United States of America between 1938 and 1941, chancellor of Peking University between 1946 and 1948, and later (1958) president of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan, where he remained until his death by heart attack in Nangang at the age of 71. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Peking University ( of Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大 Běidà) is the first formally established university and the first The Academia Sinica ( "Chinese Academy" in Latin) headquartered in the Nangang District of Taipei, is the National academy Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply Nangang District is a southeastern District of Taipei. It is the seat of the Academia Sinica, Taipei World Trade Center Nangang Exhibition Hall He was chief executive of the Free China Journal, which was eventually shut down for criticizing Chiang Kai-shek. Free China Journal ( Chinese: 自由中國半月刊 Pinyin: Zìyóu Zhōnggúo Bànyùekān was a Periodical that was published by the Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash
Hu Shi's work fell into disrepute in China until a 1986 article, written by Ji Xianlin , "A Few Words for Hu Shi", advocated acknowledging not only Hu Shi's mistakes, but also his contributions to modern Chinese literature. Ji Xianlin (季羡林 born August 6, 1911) is a Chinese Linguist, Paleographer, Historian, and Writer His article was sufficiently convincing to many scholars that it caused a re-evaluation of the development of modern Chinese literature and the role of Hu Shi. 
Unlike other figures of the Warlord Era in the Republic of China, Hu was a staunch supporter of just one main current of thought: pragmatism. Pragmatism generally considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Peirce, who first stated the Pragmatic maxim. Many of his writings used these ideas to advocate changes in China.
Hu was well known as the primary advocate for the literary revolution of the era, a movement which aimed to replace scholarly classical Chinese in writing with the vernacular spoken language, and to cultivate and stimulate new forms of literature. In an article originally published in New Youth in January 1917 titled "A Preliminary Discussion of Literature Reform", Hu originally emphasized eight guidelines that all Chinese writers should take to heart in writing:
In April of 1918, Hu published a second article in New Youth, this one titled "Constructive Literary Revolution - A Literature of National Speech". Events Robert Graves marries Nancy Nicholson. Wedding guests include Wilfred Owen (see deaths In it, he simplified the original eight points into just four:
- "Don't You Forget"
- (English translation of a poem by Hu, published in New Youth magazine, China 1915-1926, vol. La Jeunesse, or New Youth ( was an influential Chinese revolutionary Magazine in the 1920s that played an important 5 no. 3. )
- Over twenty years I taught you to love this country,
- But God tell me how!
- Don't you forget:
- It's our country's soldiers,
- That made your Aunt suicide in shame,
- And did the same to Ah Shing,
- And to your wife,
- And shot Gao Sheng to death!
- Don't you forget:
- Who cut off your finger,
- Who beat your father to a mess like this!
- Who burned this village?
- Shit! The fire is coming!
- Go, for your own sake! Don't die with me!
- Original poem: "你莫忘記/你莫忘记"
|China's Ambassador to the United States|