Bulgarian revolutionary and poet
|Born||January 6, 1848|
Kalofer, Ottoman Empire
|Died||June 2, 1876 (aged 28)|
near Vola Peak, Vratsa Mountain (part of the Stara Planina Range), Ottoman Empire
|Occupation||poet, journalist, revolutionary|
Hristo Botev (Bulgarian: Христо Ботев, also transliterated as Hristo Botyov) (January 6, 1848 – June 2, 1876), born Hristo Botyov Petkov (Bulgarian: Христо Ботйов Петков), was a Bulgarian poet and national revolutionary. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Kalofer (Калофер is a town in southern Bulgaria between the Balkan Mountains to the north and the Sredna Gora to the south part of Plovdiv Province The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Враца is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the The Balkan Mountain range ( Bulgarian and Стара планина Stara planina, "Old Mountain" The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends A revolutionary when used as a noun is a person who either actively engages in some kind of Revolution, or advocates the revolution with recognition from some government or Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A revolutionary when used as a noun is a person who either actively engages in some kind of Revolution, or advocates the revolution with recognition from some government or Botev is widely considered by Bulgarians to be a symbolic historical figure and national hero.
Botev was born in Kalofer. Kalofer (Калофер is a town in southern Bulgaria between the Balkan Mountains to the north and the Sredna Gora to the south part of Plovdiv Province Kalofer (Калофер is a town in southern Bulgaria between the Balkan Mountains to the north and the Sredna Gora to the south part of Plovdiv Province His father, Botyo Petkov (1815–1869), was a teacher and one of the most significant figures of the late period of the Bulgarian National Revival towards the end of the Ottoman rule. The Bulgarian National Revival (Българско национално възраждане Balgarsko natsionalno vazrazhdane or simply Възраждане Vazrazhdane The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish  He had a strong influence on his son during the latter's youth.
In 1863, after completing his elementary education in Kalofer, Botev was sent by his father to a high school in Odessa. ODESSA which stands for the German phrase O rganisation d er e hemaligen SS - A ngehörigen which in turn translates  While there, he was deeply impressed by the work of the liberal Russian poets of the day. He left high school in 1865 and spent the next two years teaching in Odessa and Bessarabia. ODESSA which stands for the German phrase O rganisation d er e hemaligen SS - A ngehörigen which in turn translates Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian In the meantime he began creating his first poetic works and also established strong connections with the Russian and Polish revolutionary movement. His political views soon started to take shape.
Botev returned to Kalofer at the beginning of 1867, where he temporarily replaced his ill father as a teacher.  In May, during the festivities celebrating St. Cyril and Methodius (it was his father who first organised at the end of the school year such festivities which today correspond to Bulgaria's national holiday on 24 May), he made a public speech against the Ottoman authorities and the wealthy Bulgarians (whom he alleged were collaborating with the Ottomans). Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Botev was pressed into leaving the town as a result. He initially decided he would return to Russia, but due to lack of money instead opted for Romania, at the time an asylum for many Bulgarian exiles. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania
Greatly influenced by the Bulgarian revolutionaries who lived in Romania, Botev led a life typical for any revolutionary. He was constantly deprived of means and even home. For some time he lived in an abandoned mill near Bucharest with Vasil Levski, the eventual leader of the Bulgarian insurgency, and the two of them initially became close friends. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Vasil Levski (Васил Левски also transliterated as Vassil Levski) born Vasil Ivanov Kountchev (Васил Иванов Кунчев ( Karlovo Later he would describe this period in his works.
From 1869 to 1871 Botev worked again as a teacher in Bessarabia, keeping close relations with the Bulgarian revolutionary movement and its leaders. Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian In June 1871 he became editor of the revolutionary emigrant newspaper "Word of the Bulgarian Emigrants" (Duma na bulgarskite emigranti), where he began publishing his early poetic works. Imprisoned for some months, due to his close collaboration with the Russian revolutionaries, Botev started working for the "Liberty" (Svoboda) newspaper, edited by the eminent Bulgarian writer and revolutionary Lyuben Karavelov. Lyuben Stoychev Karavelov (Любен Каравелов (c 1834 - 21 January 1879) was a Bulgarian writer and an important figure of the Bulgarian National In 1873 he also edited the satiric newspaper "Alarm clock" (Budilnik), where he published a number of feuilletons, aimed at those wealthy Bulgarians, who did not take part in the revolutionary movement. Feuilleton (a Diminutive of French feuillet, the leaf of a book was originally a kind of supplement attached to the political portion of
The whole Bulgarian revolutionary movement was put in danger with the capture of Vasil Levski by Ottoman authorities at the end ot 1872. Vasil Levski (Васил Левски also transliterated as Vassil Levski) born Vasil Ivanov Kountchev (Васил Иванов Кунчев ( Karlovo At the time Levski was the indisputable leader of the Bulgarian insurgency. He had established an enormous net of revolutionary committees, supervised by the Bulgarian Central Revolutionary Committee (BCRC; In Bulgarian: БРЦК) located in Romania, which had the task of preparing the Bulgarian revolutionaries for the future general uprising against the Ottoman rule. Levski was brought to trial, sentenced to death by hanging and executed on 19 February 1873. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common His death was a serious blow to the morale of the revolutionary movement.
With Levski's death the BCRC was divided in two factions: Botev and his supporters including Stefan Stambolov and Panayot Hitov backed the idea that preparations should be started for an immediate uprising, while the moderate revolutionaries, led by Lyuben Karavelov, thought that it was too early for such actions. Stefan Nikolov Stambolov (Стефан Николов Стамболов (January 31 1854 – July 6 1895 was a Bulgarian Revolutionary and Statesman, in Panayot Ivanov Hitov (Панайот Иванов Хитов (1830 &ndash 22 March 1918) was a Bulgarian Hajduk, national revolutionary  Botev intended to start an uprising in the first possible moment, to take advantage of the international situation (the mounting tension between the Ottoman empire on one side, and Serbia and Russia on the other), as well as the fact that the revolutionary net, established by Levski, was still relatively intact and could take an active part in the preparations. The Serbian Principality (Serbian Кнежевина Србија Kneževina Srbija) was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina of 1875 was another factor that inspired Botev and Stambolov that a rebellion should start in Bulgaria as well. The Herzegovinian Rebellion of 1875 ( Serbian and Croatian: Hercegovački ustanak, Cyrillic: Херцеговачки устанак They thought that the greater the turmoil in the Balkans was, the more attention they will attract among the Great powers. . In the beginning of August 1875 Karavelov already quite ill stepped down as president of BCRC and Botev was elected the new president. . Led by the thought that the Bulgarian people were ever ready for a rebellion he thought that no careful preparations were needed.  This resulted in the unsuccessful Stara Zagora Uprising of September 1875. Stara Zagora (Стара Загора is the sixth largest city in Bulgaria, and one of the nationally important economic centres
In the beginning of 1876 the Bulgarian revolutionary émigrés in Romania were convinced that a general armed uprising of Bulgarians against Ottoman occupation was imminent. The April Uprising (Априлско въстание Aprilsko vastanie) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year In April 1876 the émigré community in Bechet decided to organise an armed company to cross the Danube and take part in the expected uprising. Bechet is a city in Dolj County, Oltenia, Romania, on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian city of Oryahovo. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The organisers (known within the movement as “apostles”) of the planned insurgency in the 3rd Revolutionary District centred in Vratza, who had crossed into Romania to try and solicit additional support from the Bulgarian expat community, met with Botev and convinced him that the planned guerrilla company would be best employed in their area. Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Враца is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc While busily recruiting and arming fighters they were reached by the news that the insurgency had prematurely started.
The recruiters tried to secure an experienced Bulgarian guerrilla leader (known as voevoda) as commander, but the two who were approached refused for political reasons. A voivode or waywode is a Slavic title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force Thus, Botev himself, though lacking combat experience, took overall command of the company. Military expertise was provided by Nikola Voinovski (1849–1876) a Nikolaev Military Academy graduate, who had previously held the rank of lieutenant in the Russian army. Due to time restraints and the need for secrecy the company did not undergo any formal combat training as a unit and had to rely on the individual fighting skills and experience of its members. The news of the uprising brought new urgency to the preparations and on May 16, 1876 the 205-strong company was finally equipped and ready to deploy. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year
Botev devised an ingenious plan for crossing into the Empire without immediately alerting either the Romanian or the Ottoman authorities. The rebels disguised as gardeners embarked in groups the Austro-Hungarian passenger steamship Radetzky at several Romanian ports. A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller When the last group was taken onboard at Bechet the rebels retrieved their concealed weapons and seized control of the ship. Botev confronted the captain Dagobert Engländer, stated his intent to reach the Ottoman side of the Danube and explained the political motivation behind his actions. Engländer was so moved by Botev's empassioned speech that he rendered full support and even later refused to cooperate with the Ottoman authorities who requested the use of his ship to pursue the rebel company.
Botev disembarked near Kozloduy and together with every member of the company ritualistically kissed the Homeland. Kozloduy (Козлодуй is a town of 13871 inhabitants in northwestern Bulgaria, located in Vratsa Province, on the river Danube. As the rebels proceeded inland, they gradually realised, that despite previous misleadingly enthusiastic messages by the local “apostles”, the 3rd Revolutionary District had not risen. Furthermore, due to the violent suppression of the uprising proceeding elsewhere in the Bulgarian-populated territories, the entire Ottoman military machine, including regular army garrisons and irregular bashi-bazouks, was mobilised and thickly patrolling the area. A bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk ( Turkish başıbozuk, "damaged head" meaning "leaderless" "disorderly" was an Botev and his staff officers decided to press on to the comparative safety of the Vratza Mountains while trying to rouse the Bulgarian population on their way. The population intimidated by the overwhelming Ottoman military presence refused to be incited into any overt sign of rebellion.
The company almost immediately became the focus of incessant bashi-bazouk attacks. Voinovski displayed some excellent defensive tactics helped by the still excellent morale and discipline of the company. On May 18 the massing bashi-bazouks caught up with the company in force and Botev had to go to ground on the Milin Kamak Hill some 50 km from the Danube. Under Voinovski’s skilful command the rebels managed to hold off the numerically superior Ottoman irregulars without taking serious casualties until the arrival of two companies of regular troops. The regulars using two light artillery pieces and their superior rifles managed to inflict heavy casualties among the rebels from a safe distance, but their three attempts to follow up with frontal charges were repulsed by disciplined rebel fire. The company lost about 30 killed or wounded. According to their custom the Ottomans seized hostilities with nightfall and the rebels split into two groups and managed to slip through the enemy lines and continue their forced march towards the mountains.
The next day passed without sighting the enemy, but at this point it was obvious that no local reinforcements could be expected. In the morning of May 20, the sentries detected advancing bashi-bazouks and 5 companies of regular Ottoman troops. The men immediately took strong positions near mount Okoltchitza. The defence was divided into two sectors, one commanded by Voinovski and the other by Botev. Soon two battalions of enemy regulars led by Hassan Hairi Bey assaulted Voinovski, while the bashi-bazouks concentrated on Botev's position. Voinovski's men, with concentrated fire, inflicted heavy losses on the advancing enemy and countered their attempts at encirclement. In their turn Botev's men repelled several bashi-bazouk attacks and drove the enemy back with a counterattack. At dusk the fighting died down as the Ottomans again withdrew for the night. The rebels lost about 10 killed and many were wounded in the day’s fighting. It was at this point, at dusk on May 20 1876, that a single bullet most probably fired by concealed Ottoman sharpshooter hit Botev in the chest, killing him almost instantly. After the death of their leader and chief inspiration, the company suffered a serious drop in morale and began to disperse. Very few managed to evade capture or death. In all, 130 company members were killed and most of the others captured and imprisoned or executed.
Botev was survived by his wife, Veneta, daughter, Ivanka, and stepson, Dimitar.
In 1875 Botev published his poetic works in a book called "Songs and Poems", together with another Bulgarian revolutionary poet and future politician and statesman, Stefan Stambolov. Stefan Nikolov Stambolov (Стефан Николов Стамболов (January 31 1854 – July 6 1895 was a Bulgarian Revolutionary and Statesman, in Botev's poetry reflected the sentiments of the poor people, filled with revolutionary ideas, struggling for their freedom against both foreign and domestic tyrants. His poetry is influenced by the Russian revolutionary democrats and the figures of the Paris Commune. The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris was a Government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May Under this influence, Botev rose both as a poet and a revolutionary democrat. Many of his poems are imbued with revolutionary zeal and determination, such as My Prayer ("Moyata molitva"), At Farewell ("Na proshtavane"), Hajduks ("Haiduti"), In the Tavern ("V mehanata"), or Struggle ("Borba"). Hajduk (or haiduk, haiduc, hayduck, hayduk) is a term most commonly referring to Outlaws highwaymen or Freedom fighters Others are romantic, balladic (Hadzhi Dimitar, perhaps the greatest of his poems), even elegiac. Dimitar Nikolov Asenov (Димитър Николов Асенов ( 10 May 1840 – 18 July 1868) better known as Hadzhi Dimitar
|Майце си||Maytze si||To My Mother|
|Към брата си||Kam brata si||To My Brother|
|До моето първо либе||Do moeto parvo libe||To My First Love|
|На прощаване в 1868 г.||Na proshtavane v 1868||At Farewell in 1868|
|Защо не съм. . . ?||Zashto ne sam. . . ?||Why am I not. . . ?|
|Послание (на св. Търновски)||Poslanie (na sveti Tarnovski)||Epistle (to the Bishop of Turnovo)|
|Хаджи Димитър||Haji Dimitar|
|В механата||V mehanata||In the Tavern|
|Моята молитва||Moyata molitva||My Prayer|
|Зададе се облак темен||Zadade se oblak temen||A Dark Cloud Is Coming|
|Обесването на Васил Левски||Obesvaneto na Vasil Levski||The Hanging of Vasil Levski|
In 1885 a commemoration committee was founded on the date of Botev's death June 2. Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Враца is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks  A monument was presented on the main square of Vratsa in 1890 in the presence of King Ferdinand. Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Враца is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the Ferdinand I Tsar of Bulgaria (February 26 1861 - September 10 1948 born Prince Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was the Prince Regnant  Some of the most prominent Bulgarians in the new history of the country, such as Stefan Stambolov and Zahari Stoyanov, devoted a lot of attention to Botev and his deeds for Bulgaria. Stefan Nikolov Stambolov (Стефан Николов Стамболов (January 31 1854 – July 6 1895 was a Bulgarian Revolutionary and Statesman, in Zahari Stoyanov (Захари Стоянов archaic bg Захарий Стоянов (1850 – 2 September 1889) born Dzhendo Stoyanov Dzhendov  Soon Botev became a mythical figure in the Bulgarian National Revival, and is even today commemorated as one of the two greatest Bulgarian revolutionaries alongside Vasil Levski.
Every year at exactly 12:00 on June 2, air raid sirens throughout all of the country resonate for a minute to honour those who died for the freedom of Bulgaria. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks People everywhere stand still for 2 to 3 minutes until the sirens are stopped.
After Hristo Botev are named: