|East India Company|
|Fate||Dissolved and activities absorbed by Crown|
The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), most commonly referred to as the East India Trading Company, though often colloquially referred to as "John Company", and simply as the East India Company or the "Company Bahadur" in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). The Flag of England is the St George's Cross. The red cross appeared as an emblem of England during the Middle Ages and the Crusades and The St George's Cross (or the Cross of St George is a centred red cross on a white background The design and description of Flags typically uses specialised flag terminology' with precise and technical meanings and is hence a form of Jargon. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A joint stock company (JSC is a type of business entity it is a type of Corporation or Partnership. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian The company's main trade was in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea and also opium. It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. A Royal Charter is a Charter granted by the Sovereign on the advice of the Privy council to legitimize an incorporated body such as a city company Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created HEIC a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term often used to refer to the islands of SE Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India and other Asian colonies as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until the British Crown assumed direct rule in 1858 following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of Sepoys of British East India Company 's army on the 10th of May 1857 in the town of Meerut,
Based in London, the company presided over the later creation of the British Raj. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British In 1617, the Company was given trade rights by Jahangir the Mughal Emperor. Nuruddin Salim Jahangir (full title Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Khushru-i-Giti Panah Abu'l-Fath Nur ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi ''( September 20 The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century One hundred years later, it was granted the royal dictate from Emperor Farrukhsiyar exempting the Company from the payment of custom duties in Bengal, giving it a decided commercial advantage in the Indian trade. Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar ' (or Farrukhsiyar', August 20 1685 - April 19 1719 was the Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang A decisive victory by Sir Robert Clive against the Nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 established the Company as a military as well as a commercial power. Clive of India redirects here For the film see Clive of India (film. The Nawabs of Bengal were the hereditary nazim s or Subadars (provincial governors of the Subah (province of Bengal during The Battle of Plassey (পলাশীর যুদ্ধ Pôlashir Juddho) was a decisive British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal The reson for the war was precipitated by a number of disputes. The illegal use of Mughal Imperial export trade permits (dastaks) granted to the British in 1717 for engaging in internal trade within India. The British cited this permit as their excuse for not paying taxes to the Bengal Nawab. British interference in the Nawab's court, and particularly their support for one of his aunts, Ghaseti Begum. The son of Ghaseti's treasurer had sought refuge in Fort William, and Siraj demanded his return. Additional fortifications with mounted guns had been placed on Fort William without the consent of the Nawab; and The British East India Company's policy of favouring Hindu Marwari merchants such as the Jagat Seth. By 1760, the French were driven out of India, with the exception of a few trading posts on the coast, such as Pondicherry. Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a In Southeast Asia, the company would establish the first trading posts and exert its military dominance leading to the eventual establishment of British Malaya, Burma, Ceylon, Hong Kong and Singapore as British Crown Colonies. British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Singapore The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom
Bengal famine of 1770: Fault for the famine is now often ascribed to the British East India Company policies in Bengal. The Bengal famine of 1770 (Bengali ৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a catastrophic Famine between As a trading body, the first remit of the Company was to maximise its profits and with taxation rights the profits to be obtained from Bengal came from land tax as well as trade tariffs. As lands came under company control, the land tax was typically raised by 5 times what it had been – from 10% to up to 50% of the value of the agricultural produce.  In the first years of the rule of the British East India Company, the total land tax income was doubled and most of this revenue flowed out of the country. As the famine approached its height in April of 1770, the Company announced that the land tax for the following year was to be increased by a further 10%.
The company is also criticised for forbidding the "hoarding" of rice. This prevented traders and dealers from laying in reserves that in other times would have tided the population over lean periods, as well as ordering the farmers to plant indigo instead of rice.
By the time of the famine, monopolies in grain trading had been established by the Company and its agents. The Company had no plan for dealing with the grain shortage, and actions were only taken insofar as they affected the mercantile and trading classes. Land revenue decreased by 14% during the affected year, but recovered rapidly (Kumkum Chatterjee). According to McLane, the first governor-general of British India, Warren Hastings, acknowledged "violent" tax collecting after 1771: revenues earned by the Company were higher in 1771 than in 1768. Globally, the profit of the Company increased from 15 million rupees in 1765 to 30 million rupees in 1777.
The Company also had interests along the routes to India from Great Britain. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands As early as 1620, the company attempted to lay claim to the Table Mountain region in South Africa; later it occupied and ruled St Helena. Table Mountain is a flat-topped Mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa, and is featured in the The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Saint Helena (pronounced saint he-LEE-na) named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory Piracy was a severe problem for the Company. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering This problem reached its peak in 1695, when pirate Henry Avery captured the Great Mughal's treasure fleet. Henry Every or Avery or Avary (born c 1653 in Plymouth, disappeared from record 1696 was a Pirate / marooner whose aliases Aurangzeb ( (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I Padshah Ghazi) ( November 4, The Company was held responsible for that raid, because according to Indian popular opinion of the time, all pirates were by definition English. Later, the Company unsuccessfully employed Captain Kidd to combat piracy in the Indian Ocean; it also cultivated the production of tea in India. William " Captain " Kidd ( c 1645 &ndash May 23, 1701) was a Scottish sailor remembered for his Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Other notable events in the Company's history were that it held Napoleon captive on St Helena, and made the fortune of Elihu Yale. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Saint Helena (pronounced saint he-LEE-na) named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory Elihu Yale ( April 5, 1649, in Boston, Massachusetts - July 8, 1721, in London, England) was Its products were the basis of the Boston Tea Party in Colonial America. The Boston Tea Party was an act of Direct action protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of the land that would become the United States from the start of European settlement to the time of independence
Its shipyards provided the model for Saint Petersburg. Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships These can be Yachts military Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Elements of its administration, the Honourable East India Company Civil Service (HEICS), survive in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the successor to the Indian Civil Service (ICS). The Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, originated as the elite Civil service of the Indian Government under British colonial Its corporate structure was the most successful early example of a joint stock company. A joint stock company (JSC is a type of business entity it is a type of Corporation or Partnership. The demands of Company officers on the treasury of Bengal contributed tragically to the province's incapacity in the face of a famine, which killed millions of people in 1770-1773. The Bengal famine of 1770 (Bengali ৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a catastrophic Famine between
The company was an aggressive party and destroyed monasteries in Tibet. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European It helped cause the Opium wars as a promoter of opium smuggling. The Opium Wars ( also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 the climax of a trade dispute between China under the Qing With these actions, the company diminished the popularity of England and Europeans in Tibet and China.
The Company was founded as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies by a coterie of enterprising and influential businessmen, who obtained the Crown's charter for exclusive permission to trade in the East Indies for a period of fifteen years. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term often used to refer to the islands of SE Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago The Company had 125 shareholders, and a capital of £72,000. Initially, however, it made little impression on the Dutch control of the spice trade and at first it could not establish a lasting outpost in the East Indies. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of Spices and Herbs. Eventually, ships belonging to the company arrived in India, docking at Surat, which was established as a trade transit point in 1608. In the next two years, it managed to build its first factory (as the trading posts were known) in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Machilipatnam (మచిలిపట్నం is a city and a special grade Municipality in Krishna district in the Indian state of Andhra The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula The Bay of Bengal is a bay that forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India (presumably owing to a reduction in overhead costs affected by the transit points), initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James But, in 1609, he renewed the charter given to the Company for an indefinite period, including a clause which specified that the charter would cease to be in force if the trade turned unprofitable for three consecutive years.
The Company was led by one Governor and 24 directors who made up the Court of Directors. The following list of British East India Company directors is taken from the “Alphabetical List of Directors of the East India Company from 1758 to 1858” compiled by C They were appointed by, and reported to, the Court of Proprietors. The Court of Directors had ten committees reporting to it.
Traders were frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface A key event providing the Company with the favour of Mughal emperor Jahangir was their victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally in 1612. Nuruddin Salim Jahangir (full title Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Khushru-i-Giti Panah Abu'l-Fath Nur ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi ''( September 20 The naval Battle of Swally took place on 29 - 30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali (anglicised to Swally), a village near the city of Perhaps realizing the futility of waging trade wars in remote seas, the English decided to explore their options for gaining a foothold in mainland India, with official sanction of both countries, and requested the Crown to launch a diplomatic mission. In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe was instructed by James I to visit the Mughal emperor Jahangir (who ruled over most of the subcontinent, along with Afghanistan). Sir Thomas Roe (or Row) (c 1581 &ndash November 6, 1644) was an English Diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The purpose of this mission was to arrange for a commercial treaty which would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat and other areas. In return, the Company offered to provide to the emperor goods and rarities from the European market. This mission was highly successful and Jahangir sent a letter to James through Sir Thomas Roe. He wrote:
The company, under such obvious patronage, soon managed to eclipse the Portuguese Estado da India, which had established bases in Goa, Chittagong and Bombay (which was later ceded to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza). Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugal 's colonial holdings in India. Goa ( Konkani: गोंय /ɡɔ̃j/ is India 's smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage Catherine Henrietta of Braganza (25 November 1638 &ndash 31 December 1705 was a Portuguese Infanta and the Queen consort of Charles II of It managed to create strongholds in Surat (where a factory was built in 1612), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668) and Calcutta (1690). By 1647, the Company had 23 factories, each under the command of a factor or master merchant and governor if so chosen, and 90 employees in India. A factor, from the Latin "he who does" (parallel to agent, from Latin agens) is a person who professionally acts as the representative of another individual The major factories became the walled forts of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St George in Madras and the Bombay Castle. Fort William is a Fort built in Calcutta on the Eastern banks of the river Hooghly, the major distributary of river Ganges during the Fort St George (or historically White Town is the name of the first British fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras (modern Bombay Castle (also Casa da Orta) is one of the oldest defensive structures built in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal (and in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade). Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang The company's mainstay businesses were by now in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre and tea. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Indigo dye is Dye with a distinctive blue color (see Indigo) The chemical compound that constitutes the indigo dye is called indigotin Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market All the while, it was making inroads into the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade in the Malaccan straits, which the Dutch had acquired by ousting the Portuguese in 1640-41. The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra In 1711, the Company established a trading post in Canton (Guangzhou), China, to trade tea for silver. Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen In 1657, Oliver Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, and brought about minor changes in the holding of the Company. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known The status of the Company was further enhanced by the restoration of monarchy in England. By a series of five acts around 1670, King Charles II provisioned it with the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
The prosperity that the employees of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to their country and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power. Consequently, the Company developed for itself a lobby in the English parliament. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups However, under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the Company (pejoratively termed Interlopers by the Company), who wanted to establish private trading firms in India, a deregulating act was passed in 1694. This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that was in force for almost 100 years. By an act that was passed in 1698, a new "parallel" East India Company (officially titled the English Company Trading to the East Indies) was floated under a state-backed indemnity of £2 million. However, the powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body. The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade. However, it quickly became evident that, in practice, the original Company faced scarcely any measurable competition. Both companies finally merged in 1708, by a tripartite indenture involving them both as well as the state. Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. The amalgamated company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.
In the following decades there was a constant see-saw battle between the Company lobby and the Parliament. The Company sought a permanent establishment, while the Parliament would not willingly allow it greater autonomy, and so relinquish the opportunity to exploit the Company's profits. In 1712, another act renewed the status of the Company, though the debts were repaid. By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India, almost all passing through the Company, which reasserted the influence of the Company lobby. The license was prolonged until 1766 by yet another act in 1730.
At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals. Frequent skirmishes between them took place for control of colonial possessions. In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the British government agreed to extend the deadline for the licensed exclusive trade by the Company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million. The skirmishes did escalate to the feared war. Between 1756 and 1763, the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland before the 1707 Acts of Union created The war also took place on Indian soil, between the Company troops and the French forces. In 1757, the Law Officers of the Crown delivered the Pratt-Yorke opinion distinguishing overseas territories acquired by conquest from those acquired by private treaty. The Law Officers of the Crown are the chief legal advisors to the Crown, and advise and represent the various governments in the United Kingdom and the other Charles Pratt 1st Earl Camden ( baptised 21 March 1714 &ndash 18 April 1794) Lord Chancellor of Great Britain ConQuesT is an annual Science fiction convention held in the Kansas City Missouri, area by the Kansas City Science Fiction and Fantasy Society A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. The opinion asserted that, while the Crown of Great Britain enjoyed sovereignty over both, only the property of the former was vested in the Crown. 
With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, Britain surged ahead of its European rivals. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production. As home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living. Its spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand and production had a profound influence on overseas trade. The Company became the single largest player in the British global market. It reserved for itself an unassailable position in the decision-making process of the Government.
William Pyne notes in his book The Microcosm of London (1808) that
Sir John Banks, a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the King and the Company, began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy, an interest he kept up for most of his life. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format He knew Pepys and John Evelyn and founded a substantial fortune from the Levant and Indian trades. Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703 was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for John Evelyn ( 31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer gardener and diarist He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle' - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue. Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 The agreement also included with the price 'an allowance of interest which is to be expressed in tallies. ' This was something of a breakthrough in royal prerogative because previous requests for the King to buy at the Company's auctions had been turned down as 'not honourable or decent. ' Outstanding debts were also agreed and the Company permitted to export 250 tons of saltpetre. Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the King and the Company. So urgent was the need to supply the armed forces in the United Kingdom, America and elsewhere that the authorities sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales. One governor of the Company was even reported as saying in 1864 that he would rather have the saltpetre made than the tax on salt. 
The Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces and limited French imperial ambitions, also stunting the influence of the industrial revolution in French territories. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths Robert Clive, the Governor General, led the Company to an astounding victory against Joseph François Dupleix, the commander of the French forces in India, and recaptured Fort St George from the French. Clive of India redirects here For the film see Clive of India (film. Joseph François Dupleix ( January 1, 1697 – November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India The Company took this respite to seize Manila in 1762. The Battle of Manila was fought during the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the United States) from September 24 By the Treaty of Paris (1763), the French were allowed to maintain their trade posts only in small enclaves in Pondicherry, Mahe, Karikal, Yanam, and Chandernagar without any military presence. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a See also Caracal WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Karaikal (also Karikal or Karaikkal) is a city and a Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar (Chandernagor (চন্দননগর Chôndonnôgor) is a small city and former French Although these small outposts remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the Company. In contrast, the Company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers. The Carnatic coast is the region of South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel Coast, in the modern Indian states of Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang
The Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion. For usage see British rule in India Company rule in India (sometimes Company Raj, " raj," lit Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal. Mîrzâ Mohammad Sirâjud Dawla, more popularly known as Siraj ud-Daulah (1733 &ndash July 2, 1757) was the last independent Nawab of A Nawab or Nawaab ( Urdu: نواب Hindi: नवाब was originally the Subedar (provincial governor or viceroy of a Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. The Battle of Plassey (পলাশীর যুদ্ধ Pôlashir Juddho) was a decisive British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally. But the Mughal empire was already on the wane after the demise of Aurangzeb, and was breaking up into pieces and enclaves. Aurangzeb ( (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I Padshah Ghazi) ( November 4, After the Battle of Buxar, Shah Alam II, the ruling emperor, gave up the administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. The Battle of Buxar was fought in October 1764 between the forces under the command Shah Alam II (1728&ndash1806 also known as Ali Gauhar was a Mughal emperor of India. Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. Clive thus became the first British Governor of Bengal. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government
Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, the legendary rulers of Mysore (in Carnatic), gave a tough time to the British forces. Hyder Ali or Haidar 'Ali (c 1722 - 1782 was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Mysore (maɪˈsɔɚ in English; renamed to Mysuru|ಮೈಸೂರು) (ಮೈಸೂರು is the second largest city in the state of Karnataka, India Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Kingdom of Mysore/State of Mysore (ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ was both a Kingdom (1399-1799 CE and a Princely state (1799-1947 The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in India over the last three decades of the eighteenth-century between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the slaying of Tipu Sultan. The Kingdom of Mysore/State of Mysore (ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ was both a Kingdom (1399-1799 CE and a Princely state (1799-1947
With the gradual weakening of the Maratha empire in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars, the British also secured Bombay and the surrounding areas. The Maratha Empire ( Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta It was during these campaigns, both against Mysore and the Marathas, that Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington, first showed the abilities which would lead to victory in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo. Arthur Wellesley may refer to Dukes of Wellington and their relatives and heirs Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington ("the" Duke of The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is an hereditary title and the senior rank in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence pitted an alliance of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal against France In the Battle of Waterloo (Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo Belgium A particularly notable engagement involving forces under his command was the Battle of Assaye. The Battle of Assaye occurred September 23, 1803 near the village of Assaye in south-central India. Thus, the British had secured the entire region of Southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers), Western India and Eastern India.
The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh, Rajputana, and Punjab, where the Company's presence was ever increasing amidst the infighting and dubious offers of protection against each other. For the Oudh tree see Agarwood. Awadh ( Hindi: अवध Urdu: اودھ) also known in various British historical texts as Oudh Rājputāna, also called Rājwār was the name of present Rājasthān state the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area before its formation in 1949 CE Punjab ( ਪੰਜਾਬ پنجاب, पंजाब پنجاب also Panjab (پنجاب meaning "Land of the Five Rivers") (c Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it. The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 were a period of consolidation for the Company, which began to function more as a nation and less as a trading concern. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of Sepoys of British East India Company 's army on the 10th of May 1857 in the town of Meerut,
In the eighteenth century, England had a huge trade deficit with Qing Dynasty China and so in 1773, the Company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal. The Opium Wars ( also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 the climax of a trade dispute between China under the Qing Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang As opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China. Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China. 
Despite the Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799, it was smuggled into China from Bengal by traffickers and agency houses (such as Jardine, Matheson and Company and Company, Ltd.) averaging 900 tons a year. The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited (,) often called Jardines or Jardine's (怡和 is a Multinational corporation that is incorporated in The proceeds from drug-runners at Lintin were paid into the Company’s factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade. Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city In 1838, with opium smuggling approaching 1400 tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty on opium smuggling and sent a new governor, Lin Zexu to curb smuggling. Lin Zexu ( Styled: Yuanfu (元抚 ( August 30, 1785 &ndash November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during This finally resulted in the First Opium War, eventually leading to the British seizure of Hong Kong and the opening of the Chinese market to British drug traffickers. The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
Though the Company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was getting clearer day by day that the Company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories. The Bengal famine, in which one-third of the local population died, set the alarm bells ringing back home. The Bengal famine of 1770 (Bengali ৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a catastrophic Famine between Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity. At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe following the lull in the post-Industrial Revolution period. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The desperate directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help. This led to the passing of the Tea Act in 1773, which gave the Company greater autonomy in running its trade in America. The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (13 Geo III c Its monopolistic activities triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution. The Boston Tea Party was an act of Direct action protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony chartered October 7, 1691 in North America by William and Mary, the joint In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"
By this Act (13 Geo. III, c. 63), the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms and by doing so clearly established its sovereignty and ultimate control over the Company. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland The Act recognized the Company's political functions and clearly established that the "acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right. "
Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in parliament, and from the Company's shareholders, the Act was passed. It introduced substantial governmental control, and allowed the land to be formally under the control of the Crown, but leased to the Company at £40,000 for two years. Under this provision, the governor of Bengal Warren Hastings was promoted to the rank of Governor General, having administrative powers over all of British India. Warren Hastings ( December 6 1732 - August 22 1818) was the first Governor-General of Bengal, from 1773 to 1785 The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription It provided that his nomination, though made by a court of directors, should in future be subject to the approval of a Council of Four appointed by the Crown - namely Lt. General John Clavering, George Monson, Richard Barwell and Philip Francis. The Council of Four was established in 1773 to limit the influence of the Governor-General of India, Warren Hastings. Lieutenant General Sir John Clavering KB ( bapt 1722 - 30 August 1777) was an army officer and diplomat Sir Philip Francis ( 22 October 1740 &ndash 23 December 1818) English Politician and pamphleteer the probable author He was entrusted with the power of peace and war. British judicial personnel would also be sent to India to administer the British legal system. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Governor General and the council would have complete legislative powers. Thus, Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of India. The Governor-General of India (or from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) was the head of the British administration in India, and The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade, in exchange for the biennial sum and an obligation to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain. The costs of administration were also to be met by the company. These provisions, initially welcomed by the Company, backfired. The Company had an annual burden on its back, and its finances continued steadily to decline. 
The India Act of 1784 (24 Geo. Pitt's India Act of 1784 was the enactment of the British Parliament to bring the administration of the British East India Company under the control of the British Government III, s. 2, c. 25) had two key aspects:
Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it was immediately apparent that the boundaries between governmental control and the Company's powers were obscure and highly subject to interpretation. The government also felt obliged to answer humanitarian voices pleading for better treatment of natives in British occupied territories. Edmund Burke, a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, felt compelled to relieve the situation and introduced before parliament a new Regulating Bill in 1783. Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and The Bill was defeated due to intense lobbying by Company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the Bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors.
This Act (26 Geo. III c. 16) enacted the demand of Lord Cornwallis, that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility. Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis ( 31 December 1738 &ndash 5 October 1805) was a British military commander and colonial The Act also enabled the offices of the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief to be jointly held by the same official.
This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the Company. After this point, the Company functioned as a regularized subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation. Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the Company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions. By the middle of the 19th century, the Company's rule extended across most of India, Burma, Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong, and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century Singapore Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sind and Nepal. Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley 1st Marquess Wellesley KG PC ( 20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was Francis Rawdon-Hastings 1st Marquess of Hastings, ( 9 December 1754 – 28 November 1826) was a British politician and military officer who served The Indian Princes had become vassals of the Company. But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the Company’s finances to the breaking point. The Company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance. This was the background to the Charter Act of 1813 (53 Geo. III c. 155) which, among other things:
The Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to this act. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” The Act:
Meanwhile, British influence continued to expand; in 1845, the Danish colony of Tranquebar was sold to Great Britain. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tharangambadi (or Tranquebar) is a Panchayat town in Nagapattinam district in The Company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. It had solved its critical lack of the cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War with Britain. The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839
This Act provided that British India would remain under the administration of the Company in trust for the Crown until Parliament should decide otherwise.
The efforts of the company in administering India emerged as a model for the civil service system in Britain, especially during the 19th century. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of Sepoys of British East India Company 's army on the 10th of May 1857 in the town of Meerut, See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis Deprived of its trade monopoly in 1813, the company wound up as a trading enterprise.
Following the 1857 insurrection, known to the British as the "Great Mutiny" but to Indians as the "First War of Independence", the Company was nationalised by the Government in London to which it lost all its administrative functions and all of its Indian possessions - including its armed forces - were taken over by the Crown in the Government of India Act 1858. The Government of India Act 1858, actually entitled An Act for the Better Government of India, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 &
The Company was still managing the tea trade on behalf of the British government (and supplying Saint Helena). Saint Helena (pronounced saint he-LEE-na) named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory When the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect, the Company was dissolved on January 1, 1874. The East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act was an act of Parliament, passed in 1874 that formally dissolved the British East India Company. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Times reported, "It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other company ever attempted and as such is ever likely to attempt in the years to come. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. "
As late as 2007 a warehouse in Orissa, India still recorded as belonging to the British East India Company was erroneously sent an electricity bill in the name of the Company. Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal.
There are a number of companies with variants of "East India Company" in their name in Britain, and one of them may be at the root of the recent news that the East India Company was acquired with its intellectual property (including trademarks, designs, manuscripts, research material), tea and publishing businesses, by Indian Sanjiv Mehta. 
In 1987, coffee merchants Tony Wild and David Hutton created a public limited company called "The East India Company" and in 1990 registered versions of the Company's coat of arms as a trademark, although the Patent Office noted 'Registration of this mark shall give no right to the exclusive use of the words "The East India Company". A Public Limited Company ( PLC, plc or plc or p l c is a type of Limited company in the United Kingdom or the Republic of Ireland which is A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual  By December 1996, this company had a website. It sold St Helena coffee branded with the Company name and also produced a book on the history of the Company. This company has no legal continuity with the original Company, even though it claims on its website to have been founded in 1600.
The East India Company features in a number of fictional accounts of pirates and other related topics, including Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean film series, in which it is among the chief adversaries of the pirate protagonists and where it is referred to as the "East India Trading Company". Pirates of the Caribbean is a trilogy of Adventure films directed by Gore Verbinski, written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio and produced Within
On the eve of the demise of the East India Company, the East India Club in London was formed for officers of the East India Company and their servants. The East India Devonshire Sports and Public Schools' Club, usually known as the East India Club, is a Gentlemen's club founded in 1849 and situated at 16 St The Club still exists today and its club house is situated at 16 St. James's Square London. St James Square is the only square in the exclusive St James's district of the City of Westminster. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
National Geographic (1917)
Prior to the Acts of Union which created the Kingdom of Great Britain, the flag contained the St George's Cross in the canton representing the Kingdom of England. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The St George's Cross (or the Cross of St George is a centred red cross on a white background The design and description of Flags typically uses specialised flag terminology' with precise and technical meanings and is hence a form of Jargon. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally
The flag had a Union Flag in the canton after the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
After 1801 the flag contains the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the canton. A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927
The East India Company flag changed over time. From the period of 1600 to 1707 (Act of Union between England and Scotland) the flag consisted of a St George's cross in the canton and a number of alternating Red and White stripes. The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe The St George's Cross (or the Cross of St George is a centred red cross on a white background After 1707 the canton contained the original Union Flag consisting of a combined St George's cross and a St Andrew's cross. The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. St Andrew's Cross redirects here For the item of BDSM furniture see Saint Andrew's Cross (BDSM A saltire, Saint Andrew's Cross After the Act of Union 1800, that joined Ireland into the United Kingdom, the canton of the East India Company's flag was altered accordingly to include the new Union Flag with the additional St Patrick's cross. The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Acht an Aontais 1800 is used to describe two complementary Acts whose official United Kingdom titles are Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There has been much debate and discussion regarding the number of stripes on the flag and the order of the stripes. Historical documents and paintings show many variations from 9 to 13 stripes, with some images showing the top stripe being red and others showing the top stripe being white.
At the time of the American Revolution the East India Company flag would have been identical to the Grand Union Flag. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Grand Union Flag, also known as the Congress flag, the First Navy Ensign, the Cambridge Flag, and the Continental Colors, is considered The flag probably inspired the Stars and Stripes (as argued by Sir Charles Fawcett in 1937). Flags of the United States The Flag of the United States of America consists of 13 equal horizontal stripes of Red (top and bottom alternating Sir Charles Fawcett was a British historian. He served in the Indian Civil Service whilst India was a part of the British Empire.  Comparisons between the Stars and Stripes and the Company's flag from historical records present some convincing arguments. The John Company flag dates back to the 1600s whereas the United States adopted the Stars and Stripes in 1777. 
The stripes and gridlike appearance of the flag gave rise to several pieces of imperial slang. Most notably is the phrase 'riding the gridiron'; this referred to travelling on a ship flying the company flag to / from India.
A ship of the East India Company can also be called an East Indiaman. An East Indiaman was a Ship operating under charter or licence to the Honourable East India Company.
Unlike all other British Government records, the records from the East India Company (and its successor India Office) are not in The National Archives at Kew, London, but are stored by the British Library in London as part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collection. Archaeology In 2005 the Weymouth LUNAR Society received the Nautical Archaeology Society's Adopt-a-Wreck award for their Underwater archaeology work The Royal Captain was an East Indiaman under command of Captain Edward Berrow, belonging to the British East India Company. The National Archives (TNA is a British Governmental organisation created in April 2003 to maintain a National archive for " England, Wales The British Library ( BL) is the National library of the United Kingdom. The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues.  Many of The East India Company Records are freely available online under an agreement that FIBIS have with the British Library. The Families In British India Society (FIBIS is an organisation devoted to members with an interest in researching their ancestors and the background against which they led their lives