An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa (Latin: 'for the sake of the honour') is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements (such as matriculation, residence, study and the passing of examinations). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing The degree itself is typically a doctorate or, less commonly, a master's degree, and may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the institution in question. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement
Usually the degree is conferred as a way of honoring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field, or to society in general. The university often derives benefits by association with the person in question.
The practice dates back to the middle ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for award of a degree.
The first recorded honorary degree was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford. Lionel Woodville (c 1446 &ndash 1484 was a Bishop of Salisbury. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the  He later became Bishop of Salisbury. The Bishop of Salisbury is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury.
In the latter part of the sixteenth century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common, especially on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the 
On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue (fifteen of whom were earls or barons) received the degree of Master of Arts, and the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges (such as voting rights in Convocation and Congregation). James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Earl was the Anglo-Saxon form and jarl the Scandinavian form of a title meaning " Chieftain " and referring especially to chieftains Baron is a specific Title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin (liber In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts or Master in Arts ( MA) is awarded to Bachelors 
Honorary degrees are usually awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are often invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which often forms the highlight of the ceremony. Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an Academic degree or the associated ceremony A faculty is a division within a University. The concept of a university with different faculties for different subjects dates back to Al-Azhar University, which had Generally universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees; these nominees usually go through several committees before receiving approval. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects A committee (some of which are titled instead as a "Commission" or other terms discussed below in) is a type of small Deliberative assembly that is usually intended Those who are nominated are generally not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; often it is perceived that the system is shrouded in secrecy, and occasionally seen as political and controversial.
The term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees, being awarded by a university under the terms of its charter, may be considered to have technically the same standing as 'real' degrees, except where explicitly stated to the contrary. Honorary degrees are often considered not to be of the same standing as substantive degrees, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify them for the award of a substantive degree.
An ad eundem or jure dignitatis degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has already achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship. For other degrees see Academic degree An ad eundem degree is a courtesy degree awarded by one University
Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc, are often awarded honoris causa, in many countries (notably the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand) it is possible formally to earn such a degree. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement This typically involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research, usually undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question. The university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. Usually, the applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing.
Some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree (often DUniv, or 'Doctor of the University') which is used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally-examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the power to award degrees. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the These 'Lambeth degrees' are sometimes, erroneously, thought to be honorary; however the Archbishop has for many centuries had the legal authority (originally as the representative of the Pope, later confirmed by a 1533 Act of Henry VIII), to award degrees, and regularly does so to individuals who have either passed an examination or are deemed to have satisfied the appropriate requirements. Lambeth degrees are Academic degrees conferred by the Archbishop of Canterbury under the authority of the Ecclesiastical Licences Act 1533 (25 Hen VIII c 21 (Eng History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of
Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, many universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor that are comparable to an earned degree. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as honorary degrees are awarded by universities, and for similar reasons.
Recipients of an honorary doctorate do not normally adopt the title of "doctor". In many countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, it is not usual for an honorary doctor to use the formal title of "doctor", regardless of the background circumstances for the award. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Notable exceptions to the commonly-accepted usage include:
In the United Kingdom the author and lexicographer Dr Samuel Johnson, who had some years earlier been unable (due to financial considerations) to complete his undergraduate studies at Pembroke College, Oxford, was awarded the degree of Master of Arts by diploma in 1755, in recognition of his scholarly achievements. Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located in Pembroke Square. In 1765, Trinity College, Dublin awarded him the degree of Doctor of Laws, and in 1775 Oxford bestowed upon him the degree of Doctor of Civil Law by diploma. Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Doctor of Laws ( Latin: Legum Doctor, LLD) is a Doctorate -level Academic degree in Law. Some universities such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL It is unclear how much these degrees count as "honorary", though, as they were bestowed in recognition of a specific, undoubtedly substantial and original scholarly work, and one that was arguably far more deserving than many other doctoral theses submitted at the time.
The recipient of an honorary degree may add the degree title postnominally, but it should always be made clear that the degree is honorary by adding "honorary" or "honoris causa" or "h. Post-nominal letters, also called " post-nominal initials " or " post-nominal titles " are letters placed after the name of a person to indicate that c. " in parenthesis after the degree title. In many countries, one who holds an honorary doctorate may use the title "doctor" prenominally, abbreviated Dr. Pre-nominal letters are a Title which is placed before the name of a person as distinct from a post-nominal title which is placed after the name h. c. or Dr. (h. c. ). Sometimes, they use "Hon" before the degree letters, for example, Hon DMus.
In recent years, some universities have adopted entirely separate post nominal titles for honorary degrees. This is in part due to the confusion that honorary degrees have caused. It is now common to use certain degrees, such as LL. D. or Hon. D. , as purely honorary. For instance, an honorary doctor of the Auckland University of Technology takes the special title Hon. The Auckland University of Technology (AUT (Te Wananga Aronui o Tāmaki Makau Rau is the newest University in New Zealand. D. instead of the usual Ph. D. Some universities, including the Open University grant Doctorates of the University (D. Open University is also the name of other institutions See Distance education or the Open Universities category for a list Univ. ) to selected nominees, while awarding Ph. D. or Ed. D. degrees to those who have fulfilled the academic requirements.
Many American universities award the LL. D. (Doctor of Laws), the Litt. Doctor of Laws ( Latin: Legum Doctor, LLD) is a Doctorate -level Academic degree in Law. D. (Doctor of Letters), the LH. Doctor of Letters ( Latin: Litterarum doctor; DLitt; or Litt D D. (Doctor of Humane Letters), the Sci. The degree of Doctor of Humane Letters ( Latin: Litterarum humanarum doctor; D D. (Doctor of Science), the Ped. DSc ScD SD, or DrSc are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiæ Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science. D. (Doctor of Pedagogy) and the D. D. (Doctor of Divinity) only as honorary degrees. An earned degree in law would be the J. S. D. (Doctor of Juridical Science); earned degrees in the liberal arts, humanities, or sciences are generally the Ph. Doctor of Laws ( Latin: Legum Doctor, LLD) is a Doctorate -level Academic degree in Law. D. (Doctor of Philosophy); the Ed. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. D. (Doctor of Education) or Ph. The Doctor of Education degree ( EdD or DEd) is a discipline-based doctorate that prepares the student for academic administrative clinical or research positions D. are education degrees; and the Ph. D. , Th. D. (Doctor of Theology), S.T.D. (Doctor of Sacred Theology) or D.Min. (Doctor of Ministry) are awarded in religion and theology depending on the particular program. Doctor of Theology (in Latin Theologiae Doctor, abbreviated Th "STD" redirects here For other uses see STD. The Doctor of Sacred Theology ( S "STD" redirects here For other uses see STD. The Doctor of Sacred Theology ( S The Doctor of Ministry ( DMin) degree is according to The Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (ATS a doctoral level degree oriented The Doctor of Ministry ( DMin) degree is according to The Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (ATS a doctoral level degree oriented American universities do not have the system of "higher doctorates" used in the UK and at other universities around the world.
Some universities and colleges also have the custom of awarding a master's degree to every scholar it appoints as a full professor who had never earned a degree there. For other degrees see Academic degree An ad eundem degree is a courtesy degree awarded by one University At the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge many senior staff are granted the degree of Master of Arts after three years of service, and at Amherst College all tenured professors are awarded a Master of Arts degree at academic convocation in the autumn even though the school only offers an earned Bachelor of Arts degree (Amherst awards honorary doctorates at commencement in the spring to notable scholars and other special invitees). The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts or Master in Arts ( MA) is awarded to Bachelors Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. Brown University also awards tenured faculty, who do not have a Brown degree, the A. M. ad eundem.
These ad eundem degrees are earned degrees, not honorary, because they recognize formal learning.
Similarly a jure dignitatis degree is one awarded to someone who has demonstrated their eminence and scholarship by being appointed to a particular office. Thus, for example, a DD might be conferred upon a bishop on the occasion of their consecration, or a judge created LL. D. or DCL upon their appointment to the bench. Some universities such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL These, also, are properly considered substantive rather than honorary degrees.
Some universities and colleges have been accused of granting honorary degrees in exchange for large donations. Honorary degree recipients, particularly those who have no prior academic qualifications, have sometimes been criticized if they insist on being called "Doctor" as a result of their award, as the honorific may mislead the general public about their qualifications. Doctor ( gen: doctoris) means teacher in Latin. The word is originally an Agentive noun of the verb docēre ('teach' An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person
The awarding of an honorary degree to political figures almost always prompts protests from faculty or students. In 2001, George W. Bush received an honorary degree from Yale University where he had earned his bachelor's degree in history in 1968. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Some students and faculty chose to boycott the university's 300th commencement. UNHGradjpg|thumb|right| George H W Bush and Bill Clinton speaking at the University of New Hampshire commencement
In 1985, as a deliberate snub, the University of Oxford voted to refuse Margaret Thatcher an honorary degree in protest against her cuts in funding for higher education. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925  This award had always previously been given to all Prime Ministers who had been educated at Oxford. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation.
In 2005 at the University of Western Ontario, Dr. The University of Western Ontario (known as Western, as well as UWO or Western Ontario) is a public research University located in London Henry Morgentaler, a gynecologist involved in a legal case decriminalizing abortion in Canada (R. v. Morgentaler), was made an honorary Doctor of Laws. Henry Morgentaler CM (born March 19, 1923, in Łódź, Poland) is a Canadian Physician and R v Morgentaler  1 SCR 30 was a decision of the Supreme Court of Canada wherein the Abortion provision in the Criminal Code of Over 12,000 signatures were acquired asking the UWO to reverse its decision to honor Dr. Morgentaler. Several protest rallies were held, including one on the day the honorary degree was bestowed (a counter petition to support Morgentaler's degree gained 10,000 signatures).
Few people object when an honorary degree is awarded in a field that the awardee is noted for. McGill University's decision to grant musician Joni Mitchell an honorary Doctor of Music in 2004 was unopposed, although it was timed to coincide with a symposium about Mitchell's career. Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7 1943) is a Canadian Musician, Songwriter, and The Doctor of Music degree ( DMus, MusD or MusDoc) like other Doctorates, is an Academic degree of the highest level 
In 1996 Southampton College at Long Island University (now a campus of SUNY Stony Brook) awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Amphibious Letters to Muppet Kermit the Frog. Stony Brook Southampton is a campus location of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, located in Southampton New York between the Shinnecock Long Island University ( LIU) is a private, Coeducational, Nonsectarian institution of Higher education in the State of New York State University of New York at Stony Brook, commonly known as Stony Brook University, is a public research university located in Stony Brook, New York Kermit the Frog is a Muppet, one of Puppeteer Jim Henson 's most famous and beloved creations first introduced in 1955 Although some students objected to awarding a degree to a puppet, Kermit delivered an enjoyable commencement address and the small college received considerable press coverage.  It should be noted, too, that the degree was conferred in recognition of efforts in the area of environmentalism. Said the university: "His theme song, 'It's Not Easy Bein' Green,' has become a rallying cry of the environmental movement. Kermit has used his celebrity to spread positive messages in public service announcements for the National Wildlife Federation, National Parks Service, the Better World Society, and others. "
Some universities, like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cornell University , Stanford, and the University of Virginia , do not award honorary degrees. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research MIT does, however, on rare occasions award honorary professorships; Winston Churchill was so honored in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist Similarly, the Stanford Alumni Association occasionally awards the Degree of Uncommon Man/Woman to individuals who have given "rare and exceptional service" to the university. 
The Philosophy faculty at Cambridge courted controversy amongst the academic community in the early 1990s over its initial refusal to award an honorary doctorate to Jacques Derrida, on the grounds that his work did not conform with accepted measures of academic rigor. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Although the faculty eventually passed the motion, the episode did more to draw attention to the continuing antipathy between the analytic (of which Cambridge's faculty is a leading exponent) and the post-Hegelian continental philosophical traditions (with which Derrida's work is more closely associated) rather than the official reasons given. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of Philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century Hegelianism is a Philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by Hegel's "the Rational alone is real" which means Continental philosophy, in contemporary usage refers to a set of traditions of 19th and 20th century philosophy from mainland Europe 
In 2007 protesters demanded that the University of Edinburgh revoke an honorary degree awarded to Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe in 1984. The University of Edinburgh (Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann founded in 1582 is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The University subsequently revealed plans to review its honorary degree policy and strip certain figures of their honorary degrees who did not deserve them. When considering revoking the honorary degree of a political figure, such reasons as human rights abuse or political corruption would be considered. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain As a result, it was announced that Mugabe had been stripped of his honorary degree. The University also planned to have a more rigorous selection procedure regarding potential recipients of honorary degrees, in an attempt to rectify the trend of awarding degrees to celebrities.  Students at the University of Massachusetts, Boston are also asking the university to revoke the honorary degree that was awarded to Mugabe over twenty years ago. The University of Massachusetts Boston is a major coeducational public research university located in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.