A hone is a machine tool used in the manufacture of precision bores to improve the geometry, surface finish and dimensional control of the finished part. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal For the ficitonal character see Drill Bit (Transformers. Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes This process is called honing.
Typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for internal combustion engines, air bearing spindles and in gear manufacturing. A cylinder is the central working part of a Reciprocating engine, the space in which a Piston travels The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Fluid bearings are bearings which solely support the bearing's loads on a thin layer of liquid or gas Gear manufacturing refers to the making of Gears. Materials The majority of gears are composed of carbon and low-alloy steels including carburised steels Types of hone are many and various but all consist of one or more abrasive stones that are held under pressure against the surface they are working on. An abrasive is a material often a Mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface
The hone is usually turned in the bore while being moved in and out. Special cutting fluids are used to give a smooth cutting action and to remove the material that has been abraded. Cutting fluids are various fluids that are used in Machining to cool and lubricate the cutting tool Machines can be portable, simple manual machines, or fully automatic with gauging depending on the application. In Engineering, a gauge or gage, is used to make Measurements Various types of gauges include
Modern advances in abrasives have made it possible to remove much larger amount of material than was previously possible. This has displaced grinding in many applications where "through machining" is possible. External hones perform the same function on shafts.
A "cross-hatch" pattern is used to retain oil or grease to ensure proper lubrication and ring seal of pistons in cylinders. A smooth glazed cylinder wall can cause piston ring and cylinder scuffing. The "cross-hatch" pattern is used on brake rotors, and flywheels.
Other similar processes are lapping and superfinishing. Lapping is a Machining operation in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an Abrasive between them by hand movement or by way of a machine Superfinishing is a Metalworking Process which produces a very fine Mirror -smooth finish