Fossil range: Late Pleistocene
P. Brown et al. , 2004
Homo floresiensis ("Man of Flores", nicknamed Hobbit) is a possible species in the genus Homo, remarkable for its small body and brain, and survival until relatively recent times. Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an Island arc with an estimated area of 14300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia In J R R Tolkien 's legendarium, Hobbits are a diminutive race that inhabit the lands of Middle-earth. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain It was named after the Indonesian island of Flores on which the remains were found. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an Island arc with an estimated area of 14300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia  One largely complete subfossil skeleton (LB1) and a complete jawbone from a second individual (LB2), dated at 18,000 years old, were discovered in deposits in Liang Bua Cave on Flores in 2003. Subfossil refers to remains whose Fossilization process is not complete either for lack of time or because the condition in which they were buried were not optimal for fossilization The Liang Bua Cave is on the Island of Flores, in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia was the site of the 2003 discovery of a potentially new species Parts of seven other individuals (LB3 – LB9, the most complete being LB6), all diminutive, have been recovered as well as similarly small stone tools from horizons ranging from 94,000 to 13,000 years ago. A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. An archaeological horizon is a widely disseminated period of common art and artifacts at an Archaeological site or more usually over a larger geographic area and is a distinctive  The first of these remains was unearthed in 2003 and the publication date of the original description is October 2004. 
The discoverers, anthropologists Peter Brown, Michael Morwood and their colleagues have argued that a variety of features, both primitive and derived, identified the skeleton of LB1 as that of a new species of hominin, H. Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that comprises humans ( Homo) Chimpanzees ( Pan) and their Extinct ancestors floresiensis.  They argued that it was contemporaneous with modern humans (Homo sapiens) on Flores. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an Island arc with an estimated area of 14300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia
Doubts that the discoveries constitute a new species were soon voiced by the Indonesian anthropologist Teuku Jacob, who suggested that the skull of LB1 was a microcephalic modern human. Microcephaly is a Neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head A controversy developed, leading to the publication of a number of studies which supported or rejected claims for species status. In March 2005 scientists who published details of the brain of Flores Man in Science supported species status. Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific  Several researchers, including one scientist who worked on the initial study, have disputed the 2005 study, supporting the conclusion that the skull is microcephalic. Microcephaly is a Neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head  The original discoverers have argued against these interpretations and maintain that H. floresiensis is a distinct species.  This is supported by the most recent study that disputes possibility of microcephaly published by paleoneurologist Dean Falk comparing the H. Dean Falk (born June 25, 1944) is an American academic anthropologist who specializes in the evolution of the brain and cognition in higher primates floresiensis brain to ten microcephalic brains revealing distinct differences that have so far gone unanswered by critics. In addition, a 2007 study of carpal bones of H. In Tetrapods the carpus is the sole cluster of the Bones in the Wrist between the radius and Ulna and the Metacarpus floresiensis found similarities to those of a chimpanzee or early hominid such as Australopithecus and were significantly different from the bones of modern humans. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan. A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the "great apes" including the extinct and extant Humans Chimpanzees The Genus Australopithecus ( Latin australis "of the south" Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape"  Studies of the bones and joints of the arm and shoulder have also suggested that H. floresiensis was more similar to early humans and apes than modern humans.  However, critics of the claim to species status continue to suggest alternative explanations. The most recent hypothesis put forward is that the skeletons found were from cretinous individuals who suffered from iodine deficiencies in the womb. This article is about the medical term For the Marxist political concept see Parliamentary cretinism.  This idea has been dismissed by members of the original discovery team as based on a misinterpretation of the data. To date, the only complete cranium is that of LB1.
The first specimens were discovered by a joint Australian-Indonesian team of paleoanthropologists and archaeologists looking on Flores for evidence of the original human migration of H. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of Paleontology and Physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in Fossil hominid Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an Island arc with an estimated area of 14300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or sapiens from Asia into Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.  They were not expecting to find a new species, and were quite surprised at the recovery of the nearly complete skeleton of a hominid they dubbed LB1 (for the first skeleton recovered at the Liang Bua Cave). The Liang Bua Cave is on the Island of Flores, in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia was the site of the 2003 discovery of a potentially new species Subsequent excavations recovered seven additional skeletons, dating from 38,000 to 13,000 years old, from Liang Bua limestone cave on Flores. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3  An arm bone, provisionally assigned to H. floresiensis, is about 74,000 years old. Also widely present in this cave are sophisticated stone implements of a size considered appropriate to the 1 m tall human: these are at horizons from 95,000 to 13,000 years and are associated with juvenile Stegodon, presumably the prey of LB1. Stegodon is a Genus of the Extinct Subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea. 
The specimens are not fossilized, but were described in a Nature news article as having "the consistency of wet blotting paper" (once exposed, the bones had to be left to dry before they could be dug up). FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. Blotting paper is a Type of Paper or other Material which is used to absorb an excess of substance (such as Ink or Oil) from Researchers hope to find preserved mitochondrial DNA to compare with samples from similarly unfossilised specimens of Homo neanderthalensis and H. Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from sapiens. It is unlikely that useful DNA specimens exist in the available sample, as DNA degrades rapidly in warm tropical environments, sometimes in as little as a few dozen years. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Also, contamination from the surrounding environment seems highly possible given the moist environment in which the specimens were found.
The most important and obvious identifying features of H. floresiensis are its small body and small cranial capacity. Brown and Morwood also identified a number of additional, less obvious features, that might distinguish LB1 from modern H. sapiens, including the form of the teeth, the absence of a chin, and the unusually low twist in the forearm bones. In the Human anatomy, the chin is the lowermost part of the Face. Each of these putative distinguishing features has been heavily scrutinized by the scientific community, with different independent research groups reaching differing conclusions whether these features support the original designation of a new species, or whether they identify LB1 as a severely pathological H. sapiens.  The discovery of additional partial skeletons has verified the existence of some features found in LB1, such as the lack of a chin, but Jacob and other research teams argue that these features do not distinguish LB1 from local H. sapiens morphology. 
The type specimen for the proposed species is a fairly complete skeleton and near-complete skull proposed to be that of a 30-year-old female (LB1), nicknamed Little Lady of Flores or Flo, about 1. A holotype is one of several possible Biological types A type is what fixes a name to a Taxon. The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual Bones supported and supplemented by Ligaments Tendons Muscles and Cartilage Female (♀ is the Sex of an Organism, or a part of an organism which produces ova (egg cells 06 m (3 ft 6 in) in height.  This short stature is also supported by the height estimates derived from the tibia of a second skeleton (LB8), on the basis of which Morwood and colleagues suggest that LB8 might have stood 1. The tibia, shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two Bones in the Leg below the Knee in vertebrates and connects 09 m (3 ft 7 in) high.  These estimates are outside the range of normal modern human height and is considerably shorter than the average adult height of even the physically smallest populations of modern humans, such as the African Pygmies (< 1. Human height varies according to both "nature" and "nurture". Pygmies (singular Pygmy) refers to a member of any human group whose adult males grow to less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches in average height or less than 155 cm 5 m, or 4 ft 11 in), Twa, Semang (1. The Twa, also known as Batwa, are a Pygmy people who were the oldest recorded inhabitants of the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa The Semang are a Negrito ethnic group of the Malay Peninsula. 37 m, or 4 ft 6 in for adult women), or Andamanese (1. The Andamanese is a collective term to describe the peoples who are the aboriginal inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal 37 m, or 4 ft 6 in for adult women). Mass is generally considered more biophysically significant than a one-dimensional measure of length, and by that measure, due to effects of scaling, differences are even greater. Biophysics (also biological physics) is an Interdisciplinary Science that employs and develops theories and methods of the Physical sciences for LB1 has been estimated as perhaps about 25 kg (55 lb). The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass This is smaller than not only modern H. sapiens, but also than H. erectus, which Brown and colleagues have suggested is the immediate ancestor of H. Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin floresiensis. LB1 and LB8 are also somewhat smaller than the three million years older ancestor australopithecines, not previously thought to have expanded beyond Africa. The Genus Australopithecus ( Latin australis "of the south" Greek πίθηκος pithekos "ape" Thus, LB1 and LB8 may be the shortest and smallest members of the extended human family discovered thus far.
Despite the size difference, the specimens seem otherwise to resemble in their features H. erectus, known to be living in Southeast Asia at times coinciding with earlier finds purported to be of H. floresiensis.  These observed similarities form the basis for the establishment of the suggested phylogenetic relationship. In Evolutionary biology, homology has come to mean any similarity between characters that is due to their shared ancestry. Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of Species based on evolutionary ancestry Despite a controversial reported finding by the same team of alleged material evidence, stone tools, of a H. A controversy or dispute is a commencement of a conflict between statements of accepted fact and a new or unaccepted proposal that disagrees with argues against erectus occupation 840,000 years ago, actual remains of H. erectus itself have not been found on Flores, much less transitional forms. Transitional fossils are the Fossilized remains of transitional forms of life that illustrate an evolutionary transition
To explain the small stature of H. floresiensis, Brown and colleagues have suggested that in the limited food environment on Flores H. erectus underwent strong insular dwarfism, a form of speciation also seen on Flores in several species, including a dwarf Stegodon (a group of proboscideans that was widespread throughout Asia during the Quaternary), as well as being observed on other small islands. Insular dwarfism is the process and condition of the reduction in size of large animals – almost always Mammals – when their gene pool is limited to a very small environment Speciation is the Evolutionary process by which new biological Species arise Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals Elephantidae the Elephants with three living Species ( African Bush Overview The term Quaternary ("fourth" was proposed by Giovanni Arduino in 1759 for alluvial deposits in the Po river valley in northern However, the "island dwarfing" theory has been subjected to some criticism from Teuku Jacob and colleagues who argue that LB1 is similar to local Rampasasa H. sapiens populations, and who point out that size can vary substantially in pygmy populations.
In addition to a small body size, H. floresiensis had a remarkably small brain. The human brain controls the Central nervous system (CNS by way of the Cranial nerves and Spinal cord, the Peripheral nervous system (PNS The type specimen, at 380 cm³ (23 in³), is at the lower range of chimpanzees or the ancient australopithecines. A cubic inch (plural cubic inches) is a non- SI unit of Volume, equal to the volume of a Cube with sides of one Inch. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan.  The brain is reduced considerably relative to this species' presumed immediate ancestor H. erectus, which at 980 cm³ (60 in³) had more than double the brain volume of its descendant species.  Nonetheless, the estimated brain to body mass ratio of LB1 lies between that of Homo erectus and the great apes. Brain to body mass ratio (also known as the Encephalization Quotient or EQ) is a rough estimate of the possible intelligence 
Indeed, the discoverers have associated H. floresiensis with advanced behaviors. For the Björk song see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of Behaviors exhibited by Human beings and influenced by There is evidence of the use of fire for cooking in Liang Bua cave, and evidence of cut marks on the Stegodon bones associated with the finds.  The species has also been associated with stone tools of the sophisticated Upper Paleolithic tradition typically associated with modern humans, who at 1310–1475 cm³ (80–90 in³) nearly quadruple the brain volume of H. A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa floresiensis (with body mass increased by a factor of 2. 6). Some of these tools were apparently used in the necessarily cooperative hunting of local dwarf Stegodon by this small human species. Distinguish from Corporation. Cooperation, co-operation, or coöperation is the process of working or acting together Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. Stegodon is a Genus of the Extinct Subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea. 
An indicator of intelligence is the size of region 10 of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which is associated with self-awareness and is about the same size as that of modern humans, despite the much smaller overall size of the brain. Self-awareness is the concept that one exists as an individual separate from other people with private Thoughts. 
Additional features used to argue that the finds come from a population of previously unidentified hominins include the absence of a chin, the relatively low twist of the arm bones, and the width of the leg bones relative to their length.  The presence of each of these features has been confirmed by independent investigators but their significance has been disputed. For example, Jacob and colleagues argue that each of these unusual features indicates some form of pathology in the LB1 skeleton.
In September of 2007, Matthew W. Tocheri, of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, announced that Homo floresiensis was indeed a separate branch on the human evolutionary chain. The Smithsonian Institution (smɪθsoʊnɪən is an educational and research institute and associated Museum complex administered and funded by the Government of The National Museum of Natural History is a Natural history Museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National He and his team found the bones in the Homo floresiensis wrist to be "indistinguishable from an African ape or early hominin-like wrist and nothing at all like that seen in modern humans and Neanderthals". He goes on to explain how while there are pathologies that can affect the wrist, there are none that can effectively turn a modern human wrist into that of an extinct proto-human or a modern day African ape. Once confirmed, this would mean that Neanderthal was not the last homo species to share this planet with Homo sapiens, as Homo floresiensis only died out around 18,000 years ago, or 12,000 years after the last Homo neanderthalensis. 
The species is thought to have survived on Flores until at least as recently as 12,000 years ago making it the longest-lasting non-modern human, surviving long past the Neanderthals (H. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from neanderthalensis) which became extinct about 24,000 years ago. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. 
Due to a deep neighboring strait, Flores remained isolated during the Wisconsin glaciation (the most recent glacial period), despite the low sea levels that united much of the rest of Sundaland. A strait is a narrow navigable Channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water "Last glacial" redirects here For the period of maximum glacier extent during this time see Last Glacial Maximum The last glacial period Sea-level rise is an increase in Sea level. Multiple complex factors may influence this change Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia that comprises the Malay Peninsula and the Malay Archipelago islands of Sumatra This has led the discoverers of H. floresiensis to conclude the species, or its ancestors, could only have reached the isolated island by water transport, perhaps arriving in bamboo rafts around 100,000 years ago (or, if they are H. Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily A raft is any flat floating structure for travel over water It is the most basic of Boat design characterized by the absence of a hull. erectus, then about 1 million years ago). This idea of Flores using advanced technology and cooperation on a modern human level has prompted the discoverers to hypothesize that H. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible floresiensis almost certainly had language. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them  These suggestions have been some of the most controversial of the discoverers' findings, despite the probable high intelligence of H. floresiensis.
Local geology suggests that a volcanic eruption on Flores approximately 12,000 years was responsible for the demise of H. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the floresiensis, along with other local fauna, including the dwarf elephant Stegodon. Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. Stegodon is a Genus of the Extinct Subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea.  The discoverers suspect, however, that this species may have survived longer in other parts of Flores to become the source of the Ebu Gogo stories told among the local people. Ebu Gogo is a human-like Creature (or race of creatures that appears in the Mythology of the people of the Island of Flores, The Ebu Gogo are said to have been small, hairy, language-poor cave dwellers on the scale of H. floresiensis. Believed to be present at the time of the arrival of the first Portuguese ships during the 16th century, these strange creatures have been reported as recently as the late 19th century. 
Gerd van den Bergh, a paleontologist working with the fossils, reported hearing of the Ebu Gogo a decade before the fossil discovery. Ebu Gogo is a human-like Creature (or race of creatures that appears in the Mythology of the people of the Island of Flores, 
Similarly, on the island of Sumatra, there are reports of a 1–1. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two 5 m tall humanoid, the Orang Pendek, which a few professional scholars, such as Debbie Martyr and Jeremy Holden, take seriously. Orang Pendek ( Indonesian for "short person" is the most common name given to a Cryptid, or unconfirmed animal that reportedly inhabits remote mountainous  Some scientists, including noted paleontologist Henry Gee, have speculated that H. Henry Gee was also the name a Mayor of Chester in the 1500s Henry Gee (b floresiensis might explain the Orang Pendak.
Whether the specimens represent a new species is a controversial issue within the scientific community. Professor Teuku Jacob, chief paleontologist of the Indonesian Gadjah Mada University and other scientists reportedly disagree with the placement of the new finds into a new species of Homo, stating instead, "It is a sub-species of Homo sapiens classified under the Austrolomelanesid race". Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. The Gadjah Mada University (Indonesian Universitas Gadjah Mada or UGM) is the largest university in Indonesia in terms of student population A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices In Zoology, as in other branches of Biology, subspecies is the Taxonomic rank immediately subordinate to a Species. The Australoid race is a broad racial classification. The concept's existence is based on the typological method of racial classification. He contends that the find is from a 25–30 year-old omnivorous subspecies of H. Omnivores (from Latin omne all everything vorare to devour are species that eat both Plants and Animals as their primary sapiens, and not a 30-year-old female of a new species. He is convinced that the small skull is that of a mentally defective modern human, probably a Pygmy, suffering from the genetic disorder microcephaly, which produces a small brain and skull. A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in Genes or Chromosomes While some diseases such as Cancer, are due to genetic abnormalities acquired Microcephaly is a Neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head
In early December 2004, Professor Jacob removed most of the remains from Soejono's institution, Jakarta's National Research Centre of Archaeology, for his own research without the permission of the Centre's directors. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia.  Some expressed fears that, like the Dead Sea Scrolls, important scientific evidence would be sequestered by a small group of scientists who neither allowed access by other scientists nor published their own research. The Dead Sea Scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven Caves Jacob eventually returned the remains with portions severely damaged and missing two leg bones on 23 February 2005 to the worldwide consternation of his peers. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Reports noted the condition of the returned remains; "(including) long, deep cuts marking the lower edge of the Hobbit's jaw on both sides, said to be caused by a knife used to cut away the rubber mould"; "the chin of a second Hobbit jaw was snapped off and glued back together. Whoever was responsible misaligned the pieces and put them at an incorrect angle"; and, "The pelvis was smashed, destroying details that reveal body shape, gait and evolutionary history" and causing the discovery team leader Professor Morwood to remark "It's sickening, Jacob was greedy and acted totally irresponsibly. " Jacob, however, denied any wrongdoing. He stated that such damages occurred during transport from Yogyakarta back to Jakarta despite the physical evidence to the contrary that the jawbone had been broken while making a mold of the hobbit, and when trying to repair it "rammed the two halves together at the wrong angle, stuck bone fragments in the cracks, and hidden the mess with a thick coating of glue". 
However, prior to Jacob's removal of the fossils, a CT scan was taken of the skull and in 2005, a computer-generated model of the skull of H. floresiensis was undertaken, and analysed by a team headed by Dean Falk of Florida State University. Dean Falk (born June 25, 1944) is an American academic anthropologist who specializes in the evolution of the brain and cognition in higher primates Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU) is a public Research University located in Tallahassee The results were published in Science in Feb. 2005. The authors of the study claimed that brainpan was not that of a pygmy nor an individual with a malformed skull and brain, supporting the view that it is a new species.  However, in October 2005 Science published an additional study headed by Alfred Czarnetzki, Carsten M. Pusch and Jochen Weber. This disagreed with the findings of the February 2005 study and concluded that the skull of LB1 is consistent with microcephaly. 
The results of the Feb. 2005 study were also questioned in the May 19, 2006, issue of the journal Science, in which Robert D. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Martin of the Field Museum in Chicago and co-authors argued that the 2005 study had not compared the skull with a typical example of adult microcephaly. Martin and his co-authors concluded that the skull was probably microcephalic. Martin argued that the brain is far too small to be a separate dwarf species; if it were, he wrote, the 400-cubic-centimeter brain would indicate a creature only one foot in height, which would be one-third the size of the discovered skeleton.  In the September 5, 2006, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a group of scientists from Indonesia, Australia, and the United States came to the same conclusion as Dr. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United Martin by examining bone and skull structure. 
In response, Brown and Morwood have criticized these recent findings by claiming that the scientists came to incorrect conclusions about bone and skull structure and mistakenly attributed the height of Homo floresiensis to microcephaly.  They also pointed to studies by other scientists who rejected the argument that the individual was diseased. Falk's team replied to the critics of their Feb. 2005 study, standing by their results and insisting that the skull is very different from microcephalic specimens.  Bill Jungers, a morphologist from Stony Brook University, examined the skull and concluded that the skeleton displays "no trace of disease". State University of New York at Stony Brook, commonly known as Stony Brook University, is a public research university located in Stony Brook, New York However, Jochen Weber of the Leopoldina Hospital in Schweinfurt argues that "we can't rule out the possibility that he suffered from microcephaly. " Debbie Argue of the Australian National University has also published a study in the Journal of Human Evolution which rejects microcephaly and concludes that the finds are indeed a new species. The Australian National University, commonly abbreviated to ANU, is a public Research university situated in Canberra, Australia. 
On January 29, 2007, Falk published a new study supporting the claim to species status offering the most conclusive evidence to date that the claims of a microcephalic Homo sapiens were not credible. In this new study Falk examines 3-D computer generated models of an additional 9 microcephalic brains and 10 normal human brains, revealing the floresiensis skulls having shape more aligned with normal human brains, but also having unique features which is consistent with what one would expect in a new species. Comparing the frontal and temporal lobes, as well as the portion in the back of the skull revealed a brain highly developed, completely unlike the microcephalic brain, and advanced in ways different from human brains. This finding also answered past criticisms that the floresiensis brain was simply too small to be capable of the intelligence required to create the tools found in their proximity. Falk concludes the onus is now upon the critics that continue to claim microcephaly to produce a brain of a microcephalic that bears resemblance to the floresiensis brain.
On June 27, 2007, Hershkovitz et al. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. published a new paper arguing that the morphological features of H. floresiensis are essentially indistinguishable from those of Laron syndrome, casting the species claim once more into doubt. Laron syndrome, or Laron-type dwarfism, is an Autosomal Recessive disorder characterized by an insensitivity to Growth hormone (GH caused by 
The bone structure of H. floresiensis' shoulders, arms and wrists have been described as very different from modern humans, much closer to the bone structure of an early hominin or chimpanzees. This supports to the idea of the Hobbit being a separate species of early human rather than a modern human with a physical disorder.
Penny Van Oosterzee; Mike Morwood. A New Human: The Startling Discovery and Strange Story of the "Hobbits" of Flores, Indonesia. London: Collins. ISBN 0-06-089908-5.