A Holliday junction is a mobile junction between four strands of DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known The structure is named after Robin Holliday, who proposed it in 1964 to account for a particular type of exchange of genetic information in yeast known as homologous recombination. Robin Holliday proposed a mechanism of DNA-strand exchange that attempted to explain gene-conversion events that occur during meiosis in fungi Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described Homologous recombination is a type of Genetic recombination, a process of physical rearrangement occurring between two strands of DNA.
Because these junctions are between homologous sequences they can slide up and down the DNA. In bacteria, this sliding (or branch migration) is facilitated by the RuvABC complex or RecG protein, molecular motors that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to push the junction around. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have RuvABC is a complex of three Proteins that mediate Branch migration and resolve the Holliday junction created during Recombination repair. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate ( ATP) is a multifunctional Nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular Energy The junction must then be resolved, split up, to restore 2 linear duplexes. This can be done to either restore the parental configuration or to establish a crossed over configuration. Resolution can occur in either a horizontal or vertical fashion during homologous recombination, giving patch products (if in same orientation during double strand break repair) or splice products (if in different orientations during double strand break repair).
Holliday junctions are important in maintaining genomic integrity.