See also: History of the Papacy
The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years. The History of the Papacy is the history of both the spiritual role and the temporal role over a timespan of almost 2000 years from the arrival of Peter in Rome to the present day As the oldest branch of Christianity, the history of the Catholic Church plays an integral part of the History of Christianity as a whole. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings In simple terms, the term Catholic Church as it is used in this article refers specifically to the Church founded in Jerusalem by Jesus of Nazareth (c. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) AD 33) and led by an unbroken apostolic succession through St. Peter the Apostle, ruled by the Bishop of Rome as successor of St. The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. Peter, now commonly known as the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
Over time, schisms have disrupted the unity of Christianity. The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" The major divisions occurred in 318 with Arianism, in 1054 the East-West Schism with the Eastern Orthodox Church and in 1517 with the Protestant Reformation. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Catholic Church has been the moving force in some of the major events of world history including the evangelization of Europe and Latin America, the spreading of literacy and the foundation of the Universities, hospitals, monasticism, the development of Art, Music and Architecture, the Inquisition, the Crusades, an analytical philosophical method, and the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
Ministry of Jesus and the Founding
Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator
The Catholic Church's institutional basis is the person and teachings of Jesus Christ (b. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) 6-4 B. C. Bethlehem, d. AD 33 Jerusalem) as described in the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel Content Authorship The gospel itself is anonymous but as early as Papias in the early 2nd century a text was attributed to Mark, a cousin The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the The Gospel of John (literally According to John; Greek, Κατὰ Ἰωάννην Kata Iōannēn) is the fourth Gospel in the canon The Gospels describe Jesus as an observant Jewish carpenter from the region of Galilee, who was both the promised Messiah or anointed one (Christos in Greek, giving rise to the title Jesus Christ) and Son of God, in fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Catholicism thus considers itself a successor religion to Judaism with the Christian God and the God of the Jews seen as one and the same. Supersessionism ( British English: supercessionism) and replacement theology are particular interpretations of New Testament claims viewing Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных See also Yahweh Tetragrammaton (from the Greek, meaning ' of four letters' (tetra "four" + gramma (gen The Catholic Church is the one same Church founded by Jesus Christ and this one same Church endures to the present by force of historical continuity through an unbroken apostolic succession reaching back to the leader of the apostles, Simon Peter and thus to Christ himself.
According to the four Gospels, when Jesus was about thirty years of age (Luke 3:23), he left the town of Nazareth and began a ministry of preaching and miraculous healing. In his preaching, he called for repentance (Mark 1:15), presenting God as a loving Father always ready to forgive. He also called on people to imitate the goodness and love of God towards all. He gained a following of people who saw him as a Rabbi and in some cases wondered if he could be the Messiah. Rabbi (pronunciation, although in English usually) in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’ or more literally ‘my great one’ when addressing any master He, however, aroused opposition from the Jewish religious leadership and authorities. They saw his teachings as dangerous to traditional Jewish doctrine and practice, and felt that his hints about his own personal identity were blasphemous. According to the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 16, thus:
13 When Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" 14 They replied, "Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets. " 15 He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" 16 Simon Peter said in reply, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God. " 17 Jesus said to him in reply, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father in Heaven. 18 And so I say unto you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it. 19 And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. " 20 Then he strictly ordered his disciples to tell no one that he was the Messiah.
The Gospels give a detailed account of Jesus' final days, when, probably in his mid-thirties, Jesus was arrested by the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem and was charged with blasphemy. The Sanhedrin (סנהדרין συνέδριον ''synedrion'', "sitting together" hence " assembly " or "council" was an assembly Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the During the trial by the Sanhedrin, he declared himself the Messiah. This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions The Sanhedrin then persuaded the authorities of the Roman Empire, who ruled the region as Iudaea Province, to sentence him to death; after which, he was scourged, beaten, and crucified. Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard The Passion of Christ as recounted in the Gospels, tells of the events of Good Friday through Easter, when, according to the New Testament account, Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples. This article describes the Christian Passion For other meanings see Passion. Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday ("Pascha" Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. By its own reckoning, the Church began on the first Pentecost when the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles and disciples in the Upper Room. Pentecost (πεντηκοστή, pentekostē, "the fiftieth day" is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian Liturgical year, celebrated the In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e
Jesus had earlier stated that he would entrust to Simon Peter the keys of the kingdom of Heaven after being singled out and revealed by God the Father that upon the "rock" (Latin Petrus, Greek Petros, and Aramaic Cepha) of Peter, Jesus would found his Church. Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond In many religions the supreme Deity ( God) is given the title and attributions of Father. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Aramaic is a Semitic language with Simon Peter was singled out again in the context of the Gospel of John, chapter 21 with the explicit verbal commands of "Feed my lambs", "Tend my sheep" and "Feed my sheep" in verses 15 to 17, thus:
15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you. " He said to him, "Feed my lambs. " 16 He then said to him a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you. " He said to him, "Tend my sheep. " 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, "Do you love me?" and he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you. " Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep. "
It is on these foundational bases of scripture that the Catholic Church believes the Pope as the successor of Saint Peter and the singular leader of the whole Church on earth. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The doctrines of Papal authority and Primacy of the Roman Pontiff continue to be sources of controversy between the Catholic Church and other Christian Churches. The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope ( Bishop of Rome) from the Holy See, over the several churches
c. 4 BC — 312 AD
- c. 4 BC: Nativity of Jesus. For depictions in painting and sculpture see Nativity of Jesus in art. According to the Gospel of Luke, his birth occurred in the town of Bethlehem during the reigns of King Herod the Great of Judaea and the Roman Emperor Augustus, and he was the son of the Virgin Mary, who conceived him by the power of the Holy Spirit. Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a Herod (הוֹרְדוֹס Horodos, Greek: Herōdes) also known as Herod I or Herod the Great (73 BC – 4 BC in Jericho Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance Christians see Him as the Divine Son of God incarnate. Son of God is a phrase found in the Hebrew Bible, various other Jewish texts and the New Testament. Incarnation which literally means embodied in flesh, refers to the conception and birth of a sentient creature (generally a human who is the
Although the calculations of Dionysius Exiguus put the birth of Jesus in the year that in consequence is called AD 1, history places his birth more likely some time between 6 and 4 BC. Dionysius Exiguus ( Dennis the Little or Dennis the Short, meaning humble (c
Jesus Christ dies on the cross
- c. 27: Jesus' baptism, start of ministry, and selection of the Apostles. The Gospel of Luke indicates that Christ was baptized during the 15th reign of Tiberius Caesar which is dated in 27 A. D (found in Luke 3:1,21,22). Christian Gospels strongly implicate Peter as leader and spokesman of the Apostles of Jesus being mentioned the most number of times in the Gospels. Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John, constitute the inner circle of the Apostles of Jesus being witnesses to specific important events of the life of Jesus. Major preachings of Jesus, such as the Sermon on the Mount. In the Gospel of St Matthew, the Sermon on the Mount is a compilation of Jesus' sayings epitomizing his moral teaching. Performance of miracles, such as raising the dead back to life, feeding five-thousand, walking on water, etc.
- c. 33: Peter declares and other followers believe Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah promised by Yahweh according to the Jewish Scriptures and the predictions of the Hebrew prophets. Entry into Jerusalem, start of Passion of Christ. Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius and Herod Antipas, after the Sandhedrin, under the High Priest Caiaphas, accuse Jesus of blasphemy. Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Judea or Judæa ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Yəhuda Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, "praised Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros (before 20 BC &ndash after AD 39) was a first century AD ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title The Sanhedrin (סנהדרין συνέδριον ''synedrion'', "sitting together" hence " assembly " or "council" was an assembly Yosef Bar Kayafa ( Hebrew יוסף בַּר קַיָּפָא joˑsef bar qayːɔfɔʔ (which translates as Joseph son of Caiaphas) also known simply as He was crucified by the Romans, however, under the political crime of sedition and rebellion as the titulus on his cross indicated his crime clearly as: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews". According to his followers, three days later, "God raised him from the dead", or, as they also express it, he "has risen. " Forty days after his resurrection (Ascension), the Christian Gospels narrate that Jesus instructed His disciples thus: "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Within the body of Christian beliefs the resurrection of Jesus is a core event on which much of Christian doctrine and theology depend The general and most common understanding of the Christian Doctrine of Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to Heaven in the presence Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of time. " (Matthew 28:18-20). Ten days later (Pentecost) Peter makes the first sermon converting 3,000 to be baptized. Pentecost (πεντηκοστή, pentekostē, "the fiftieth day" is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian Liturgical year, celebrated the From this point onwards, the teachings of Jesus are spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond forming into churches led by the Apostles. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Christian tradition records that the Christian Church in Rome was jointly founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and that Peter was its first bishop. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight
- c. 34: St. Stephen, a deacon and first Christian martyr, stoned to death in Jerusalem. Year 34 was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom
- c. 50: Council of Jerusalem
- c. Year 50 was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to 52: Traditional arrival of St. For the comic book see 52 (comic book. Year 52 was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Thomas, the Apostle in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
- c. 64: Christian persecution begins under Emperor Nero after the great fire of Rome. Year 64 was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year AD 64, among the shops clustered around the Persecution continues intermittently until 313 AD.
- c. 64-67?: Death of St. Peter and St. Paul in Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
- c. 70: Fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple. Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. A temple (from the Latin word Templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities such as prayer and sacrifice or analogous rites
- c. 72: Martyrdom of St. Thomas the Apostle at Mylapore. Year 72 was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Mylapore ( Tamil:மயிலாப்பூர் is the cultural hub, and a bustling neighborhood just south of Chennai (formerly Madras
- c. 96: Traditional date of First Epistle of Clement attributed to Pope Clement I written to the church of Corinth. Year 96 was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Epistles of Clement ( 1 Clement and 2 Clement) are two letters ascribed to Saint Clement, an Apostolic Father, and the fourth Pope Saint
- c. 100: St. John, the last of the Apostles, dies in Ephesus. 
- c. 110: Ignatius of Antioch uses the term Catholic Church in a letter to the Church at Smyrna, one of the letters of undisputed authenticity attributed to him. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John This article is on the Ancient Greek city of Smyrna principally in connection with the ruins remaining to this day In this and other genuine letters he insists on the importance of the bishops in the Church and speaks harshly about heretics. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief
- c. 150: Latin translations (the Vetus Latina) from the Greek texts of the Scriptures are circulated among non-Greek-speaking Christian communities. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jerome 's Vulgate Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
- c. 155: The teachings of Marcion, the gnostic Valentinus and pentecostal Montanists cause disruptions in the Roman community. Marcion (Μαρκίων (ca 110 - 160) was a Christian Theologian who was excommunicated by the Early Christian church Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Valentinus (also spelled Valentius) ( c 100 - c160 CE) was the best known and for a time most successful Early Christian gnostic Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire continues. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
- c. 180: Irenaeus's Adversus Haereses brings the concept of "heresy" further to the fore in the first systematic attempt to counter Gnostic and other aberrant teachings. Events By place Roman Empire The praetorian prefect Tarutenius Paternus achieved a decisive victory against the Quadi Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis ( commonly called Against Heresies (Latin Adversus haereses,) is a five-volume work Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems
- c. 195: Pope Victor I, first African Pope, excommunicated the Quartodecimans in an Easter controversy. Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Septimius Severus has the Senate deify Commodus in an attempt to gain favor with Pope See also Easter controversy, Easter Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima, meaning fourteen The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate the Christian festival of Easter. Some think he may have been the first pope to celebrate Mass in Latin instead of Greek. Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object 
- c. 200: Tertullian, first great Christian Latin writer, coined for Christian concepts Latin terms such as "Trinitas", "Tres Personae", "Una Substantia", "Sacramentum"
- January 20, 250: Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Events By Place World Human population reaches about 257 million Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных A persona, in the word's everyday usage is a social Role or a character played by an Actor. Homoousian (from the Greek όμοιοs meaning same and ουσία meaning essence or being is a technical theological term used in discussion of the A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Events By Place Roman Empire A group of Franks penetrate as far as Tarragona in Spain (approximate date Pope Fabian is martyred. Pope Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa. The Donatists (named for the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a Schism by the broader churches of the
- c. 250: Pope Fabian is said to have sent out seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturnin to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Austromoine to Clermont, and Martial to Limoges. Events By Place Roman Empire A group of Franks penetrate as far as Tarragona in Spain (approximate date Pope Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Gatianus ( Catianus Gatianus Gratianus; Cassien Gatien Gratien ( 3rd century CE was the founding Bishop of the See of Tours. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river According to Catholic lore, Saint Trophimus of Arles (also called Trophime) was the first Bishop of Arles, in today's southern France. Arles (aʁl̥ Provençal Occitan: Arles in both classical and Mistralian norms is a City in the south of France, Saint Paul of Narbonne (3rd century CE was one of the "apostles to the Gauls " sent out (probably under the direction of Pope Fabian, 236 - Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the Saint Saturnin of Toulouse (in Latin, Saturninus; Sernin in Modern French; in Galicia, Sadurninho; in Navarra Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest Saint Denis (also called Dionysius, Dennis, or Denys) is a Christian martyr and Saint. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Stremonius or Saint Austremonius or Saint Stramonius or Austromoine the "apostle of Auvergne," was the first Bishop of Saint Martial was the first Bishop of Limoges in today's France, according to a lost Vita of Saturnin, first Bishop of Toulouse
- October 28, 312: Emperor Constantine leads the forces of the Roman Empire to victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Events By Place Roman Empire October 28 — Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius and Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312, between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius Tradition has it that, the night before the battle, Constantine had a vision that he would achieve victory if he fought under the Symbol of Christ; accordingly, his soldiers bore on their shields the Chi-Rho sign composed of the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΌΣ). The Labarum (☧ was a military standard that displayed the first two Greek letters of the word " Christ " ( Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ or Χριστός After winning the battle, Constantine legalized Christianity. He himself was not baptized until shortly before death.
313 — 476
- 313: The Edict of Milan declares the Roman Empire neutral towards religious views, in effect ending the persecution of Christians. The Capitoline Museums ( Italian Musei Capitolini) are a group of art and archeological Museums in Piazza del Campidoglio Events By Place Roman Empire February — Conference at Milan Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, ending all persecution The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire.
- 318: Arius condemned and excommunicated by a council convened by Alexander, bishop of Alexandria. Events By Place Asia The Former Zhao state is proclaimed China loses its territories to the north of Yang-tsé-kiang Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death 
- 321: Granting the Church the right to hold property, Constantine donates the palace of the Laterani to Pope Miltiades. Events By Topic Roman Empire March 7 — Edict of Constantine I: The dies Solis Invicti (Sunday is proclaimed as Pope The Lateran Basilica (Basilica of Our Savior) becomes the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Rome.
- November 3, 324: Constantine lays the foundations of the new capital of the Roman Empire in Byzantium, later to be known as Constantinople. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Events By Place Roman Empire July 3 — Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, forcing him This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM
- 325: The Arian controversy erupts in Alexandria, causing widespread violence and disruptions among Christians. Events By Place Roman Empire Gladiatorial combat is outlawed in the Roman Empire Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea.
- May 20, 325: The First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, convened as a response to the Arian controversy, establishes the Nicene Creed, declaring the belief of orthodox Trinitarian Christians in the Holy Trinity. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Events By Place Roman Empire Gladiatorial combat is outlawed in the Roman Empire The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных The form of the Nicene Creed has undergone controversy over the Filioque clause but is still used by the Catholic Church to this day. Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
- November 18, 326: Pope Sylvester I consecrates the Basilica of St. Peter built by Constantine the Great over the tomb of the Apostle. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Events By Place Roman Empire Constantine I founds Constantinople and incorporates Byzantium into the new city The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St
- May 11, 330: Constantinople solemly inaugurated. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Events By Place Roman Empire May 11 — Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Constantine moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, renaming it New Rome.
- May 22, 337: Constantine the Great dies. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Events By Place Roman Empire September 9 — Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their Baptized as a Christian only shortly prior to his death.
- 360: Julian the Apostate becomes the last non-Christian Roman Emperor. This article is about the year 360 For other uses see 360 (number. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar
- February 27, 380: Emperor Theodosius issues an edict, De Fide Catolica, in Thessalonica, published in Constantinople, declaring Catholic Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Events By Place Roman Empire January / February – Emperor Theodosius I is baptized. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially 
- November 24, 380: Emperor Theodosius I is baptized a Christian. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Events By Place Roman Empire January / February – Emperor Theodosius I is baptized. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄
- 381: First Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. Events By Place Roman Empire A deputation from the Roman Senate delivers to Gratianus the robe of the Pontifex Maximus The Second Ecumenical Council the first held in Constantinople was called by Theodosius I in 381 which confirmed the Nicene Creed and dealt with other matters such
- 382: The Council of Rome under Pope Damasus I sets the Canon of the Bible, listing the accepted books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Events By Place Roman Empire October 3 — Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the The Council of Rome was a meeting of Western church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I. Pope Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. No others are to be considered scripture. See also Biblical Canon. A Biblical canon or canon of scripture is a list or Set of Biblical books considered to be authoritative as Scripture by a particular religious
- 391: The Theodosian decrees outlaw most Pagan rituals still practiced in Rome, thereby encouraging much of the population to convert to Christianity. Events By Place Roman Empire All non- Christian temples in the Empire are closed as Theodosius establishes Christianity Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world
- 400: Jerome's Vulgate Latin Bible translation is published. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Italy is first invaded by Alaric (probable date Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος The Vulgate is an early Fifth Century version of the Bible in Latin, and largely the result of the labours of Jerome, who was commissioned by This is a highly influential compilation of Old Testament and New Testament bible books that become the basis for the Bible which is known today. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon.
- 404: The monk Telemachus jumps into an arena trying to separate two gladiators; he is killed by the mob. Events By Place Western Roman Empire January 1 — The last Gladiatoral competition is held in Rome Saint Telemachus/Saint Tilemahos (Telemachus/Tilemahos from Homer's Odyssey meaningone who fights a battle without weapons/from far away - also' Almachus', intervened in The gladiatorial games are ended by the Emperor Honorius. Flavius Honorius ( September 9, 384 &ndash August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395 and then Western Roman Emperor
- August 24, 410: Sack of Rome. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Events By place Western Roman Empire Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Emperor. Alaric and his Visigoths burst in by the Porta Salaria on the northeast of the city Rome. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East
- 431: The Ecumenical Council of Ephesus declares that Jesus existed both as Man and God simultaneously, clarifying his status in the Holy Trinity. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Aëtius pushes the Franks back across the Somme. This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. The meaning of the Nicene Creed is also declared a permanent holy text of the church.
- October 8, 451: Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon opens. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of
- November 1, 451: The Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, closes. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Events By Place Western Roman Empire April 7 — The Huns sack Metz. The Chalcedonian Creed is issued, which re-asserts Jesus as True God and True Man and the dogma of the Virgin Mary as the Mother of God. The Confession of Chalcedon (also Definition or Creed of Chalcedon) also known as the "Doctrine of the Hypostatic Union" or the "2-Nature Doctrine" The council excommunicates Eutyches, leading to the schism with Oriental Orthodoxy. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Eutyches ( c 380— c 456 was a Presbyter and Archimandrite at Constantinople. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the
- 452: Pope Leo I (the Great) meets Attila the Hun, the Scourge of God, and dissuades him from sacking Rome. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Attila, king of the Huns, invades Italy. Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461.
- 455: Sack of Rome by the Vandals. Events By Place Western Roman Empire March 16 — Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius, in revenge The spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem previously taken by Titus are allegedly among the treasures taken to Carthage. Herod's Temple in Jerusalem was a massive expansion of the Temple Mount and construction of a completely new and much larger Jewish Temple by King Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Titus ( December 30 39 &ndash September 13 81) was a Roman Emperor who Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers
- September 4, 476: Emperor Romulus Augustus is deposed in Rome, marked by many as the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire Romulus Augustus (c 461/463 &ndash after 476 sometimes known as Romulus Augustulus ( Little Augustus) was the last Western Roman Emperor reigning from The focus of the early Church switches to expanding in the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Eventually the Church splits into Orthodox Christianity and Catholicism in the 11th Century. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
477 — 799
Justinian I depicted on a mosaic
in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
- 480: St Benedict begins his Monastic Rule, setting out regulations for the establishment of monasteries. Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic Events By Place Europe Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one
- 496: Clovis I pagan King of the Franks, converts to the Catholic faith. Events By Place Europe Battle of Tolbiac: Clovis I defeats the Alamanni, and is baptized into the Catholic Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group
- 502: Pope Symmachus ruled that laymen should no longer vote for the popes and that only higher clergy should be considered eligible. Area code of northern central Kentucky, including Louisville (see Area code 502) Events By Place Byzantine Empire Pope Saint Symmachus was Pope from 498 to 514 He was born on Sardinia, the son of Fortunatus
- 529: The Codex Justinianus (Code of Justinian) completed. Events By Place Byzantine Empire April 7 — The first draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in The Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law" is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in Jurisprudence, issued from 529 First part of Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law).
- January 2, 533: Mercurius becomes Pope John II. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Events By Place Byzantine Empire June 21 - Belisarius sails from Constantinople. Pope John II of Alexandria was the Coptic Pope from 505 to 516. He becomes the first pope to take a regnal name. John II obtains valuable gifts as well as a profession of orthodox faith from the Byzantine emperor Justinian. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or
- 533: The Digest, or Pandects, was issued; second part of Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law). Events By Place Byzantine Empire June 21 - Belisarius sails from Constantinople. The Institutes, third part of Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) comes into force of law.
- 536: Belisarius recaptures Rome. Events By Place Byzantine Empire April — Belisarius, a general in the service of Justinian I, lands in Italy Flavius Belisarius (Βελισάριος (505(? – 565 was one of the greatest Generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history
- 553: Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople condemned the errors of Origen, the Three Chapters, and confirmed the first four general councils. Events By Place Europe The Ostrogoth Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantines after the Battle of Mons Lactarius The Fifth Ecumenical Council (the Second Council of Constantinople was a Christian Ecumenical Council that was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June Origen ( Greek: Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, ca 185–ca The Three-Chapter Controversy was a phase in the Monophysite controversy was an attempt to reconcile the Christians of Syria and Egypt with
- 590: Pope Gregory the Great. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Summer - Maurice agrees to Khosrau's entreaties and agrees to restart the war with Persia Reforms ecclesiastical structure and administration. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the Establishes Gregorian Chant. History Gregorian chant was organized codified and notated mainly in the Frankish lands of western and central Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries with later additions
- 596: Saint Augustine of Canterbury sent by Pope Gregory to evangelize the pagan English. Events By Topic Religion King Ethelbert of Kent asks for missionaries to visit his kingdom Augustine of Canterbury OSB (born c first third of the 6th century - died 26 May 604 was a Benedictine Monk who became the first Archbishop England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
- 638: Christian Jerusalem and Syria conquered by Muslims. Events By Place Asia The Muslims capture Jerusalem, Antioch, Caesarea Maritima and Akko Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
- 642: Egypt falls to the Muslims, followed by the rest of North Africa. Events By Place Europe August 5 — In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda, king of Mercia defeats and This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.
- 664: The Synod of Whitby unites the Celtic Church in England with the Catholic Church. Events By Place Asia Arab armies conquer Kabul. Kuo Wu Tsung of Tang comes to Japan The Synod of Whitby was a seventh century Northumbrian Synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval
- 680: Third Ecumenical Council of Constantinople puts an end to Monothelitism. Events By Place Europe The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria. The Sixth Ecumenical Council met on November 7, 680 for its first session it ended its meetings said to have been eighteen in number on September 16 Monothelitism (a Greek Loanword meaning "one will" is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a
- 685: The Maradites used their power and importance to choose John Maron, one of their own, as Patriarch of Antioch and all the East. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as Emperor of the Byzantine Empire John Maron ( Arabic: يوحنا مارون, d 707 was the first Maronite Patriarch. John received the approval of Pope Sergius I, and became the first Maronite Patriarch. Pope Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac
- 698: St Willibrord commissioned by Pope Sergius I as bishop of the Frisians (Netherlands). Events By Place Byzantine Empire Tiberius III deposes Leontius and becomes Byzantine Emperor. Saint Willibrord (c 658 – November 7, 739) was a Northumbrian missionary known as the "Apostle to the Frisians " in the modern Pope The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Willibrord establishes a church in Utrecht.
- 711: Muslim armies invade Spain. Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
- 718: Saint Boniface, an Englishman, given commission by Pope Gregory II to evangelise the Germans. For the area code see Area code 718 Events By Place Europe Tervel 's reign as monarch of Saint Boniface ( Latin: Bonifacius c 672 – June 5, 754) the Apostle of the Germans, born Winfrid or Wynfrith at Pope Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
- 726: Iconoclasm begins in the eastern Empire. Events By place Europe Seismic activity in the Mediterranean: The volcanic island of Thera erupts while the city of Jerash Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments The destruction of images persists until 843. Events By Place Europe The Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian Empire between the 3 sons of Louis the
- 732: Muslim advance into Western Europe halted by Charles Martel at Poitiers, France. For the area code see Area code 732. Events By Place Europe October 10 — Battle of Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France.
- 751: Lombards abolish the Exarchate of Ravenna effectively ending last vestiges of Byzantine rule in central Italy and Rome. Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility marking the end of the
- 756: Popes granted independent rule of Rome by King Pepin the Short of the Franks, in the Donation of Pepin. Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short defeats the Lombards of northern Italy, who have threatened Pope Stephen Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended Birth of the Papal States. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa
- 787: Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea resolved Iconoclasm. Events By Place Europe Canual succeeds Talorgen as king of the Picts. Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking" is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious Icons and other symbols or monuments
- 793: Sacking of the monastery of Lindisfarne marks the beginning of Viking raids on Christian Europe. Events By Place Europe June 8 - Viking age: Vikings sack the Monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria Lindisfarne () (variant spelling Lindesfarne is a Tidal island off the north-east coast of England. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas
800 — 1453
- December 25, 800: King Charlemagne of the Franks is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in the West by Pope Leo III in St. Peter's Basilica. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Events By Place Europe September 15 - Oldest known mention of Monkey. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816 Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome he subsequently strengthened The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St
- 829: Ansgar begins missionary work in Sweden near Stockholm. Events By Place Europe Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. Saint Ansgar, Anskar or Oscar, ( September 8 ? 801 &ndash February 3, 865) was an Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the
- 863: Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius sent by the Patriarch of Constantinople to evangelise the Slavic peoples. Events By Place Europe Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland (or 862 Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. They translate the Bible into Slavonic. to make sure old Cyrillic letters are displayed properly (For example instead of just Ѣ write Ѣ
- 869: Fourth Ecumenical Council of Constantinople condemns Photius. Events By Place Asia The Zanj (Black slaves from East Africa) provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in the salt flats This council and succeeding general councils are denied by the Eastern Orthodox Churches.
- 910: Great Benedictine monastery of Cluny rejuvenates western monasticism. Events By Place Africa The caliphate of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah (of the Fatimid dynasty is established after he enters the Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in The town and commune of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one Monasteries spread throughout the isolated regions of Western Europe.
- 988: St. Vladimir I the Great is baptized; becomes the first Christian Grand Duke of Kiev. Events By Place Africa Al-Azhar University is founded in Cairo, Egypt (the second oldest university in the world Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great ( Old Russian: Володимеръ Святославичь, c
- 1012: Burchard of Worms completes his twenty-volume Decretum of Canon law. Burchard of Worms (c950 – August 20 1025) was the Roman Catholic Bishop of Worms in the Holy Roman Empire, and author of a Canon Law, the Ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system with all the necessary elements courts lawyers judges a fully articulated
- July 16, 1054: Liturgical, linguistic, and political divisions cause a permanent split between the Eastern and Western Churches, known as the East-West Schism or the Great Schism. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The three legates, Humbert of Mourmoutiers, Frederick of Lorraine, and Peter, archbishop of Amalfi, entered the Cathedral of the Hagia Sophia during mass on a Saturday afternoon and placed a papal Bull of Excommunication on the altar against the Patriarch Michael I Cerularius. Humbert of Mourmoutiers (c1015 &ndash 5 May 1061) was a French prelate Roman Catholic cardinal and Benedictine oblate Frederick of Lorraine (1371 &ndash October 25, 1415 in the Battle of Agincourt) was Count of Vaudemont Michael I Cerularius (c 1000-1059 also known as Michael Keroularios or Patriarch Michael I, was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059 The legates left for Rome two days later, leaving behind a city near riots.
- November 27, 1095: Pope Urban II preaches a sacrum bellum (holy war), a Crusade, to defend the eastern Christians, and pilgrims to the Holy Land, at the Council of Clermont. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Pope The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents A pilgrim is one who undertakes a Pilgrimage, literally 'far afield' The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש The Council of Clermont was a mixed Synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held on November 27 1095 at Clermont France
- 1098: Foundation of the reforming monastery of Citeaux, leads to the growth of the Cistercian order. Cîteaux Abbey (French Abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Roman Catholic Abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon,
- 1099: Recapture of Jerusalem by the 1st Crusade. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing
Notre-Dame Cathedral - designed in the Gothic architectural style.
- 1123: First Ecumenical Lateran Council. The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils by the Roman Catholic Church.
- 1139: Second Ecumenical Lateran Council. The Second Lateran and tenth Ecumenical council was held by Pope Innocent II in April 1139, and was attended by close to a thousand clerics
- 1144: The Saint Denis Basilica of Abbot Suger is the first major building in the style of Gothic architecture. The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French Suger (c 1081 &ndash 13 January 1151) was one of the last French abbot-statesmen a historian and the influential first patron of Gothic architecture See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period.
- 1150: Publication of Decretum Gratiani. The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum (in some manuscripts Concordantia discordantium canonum) is a collection of Canon law compiled
- 1179: Third Ecumenical Lateran Council. The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the 11th Ecumenical council.
- 1182: The Maronite Church reaffirms its unbroken communion with the Holy See. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic
- October 2, 1187: The Siege of Jerusalem. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Ayyubid forces led by Saladin captured Jerusalem, prompting the Third Crusade. Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin
- January 8, 1198: Lotario de' Conti di Segni elected Pope Innocent III. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January Pontificate considered height of temporal power of the papacy.
- April 13, 1204: Sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Beginning of Latin Empire of Constantinople. The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the
- 1205: Saint Francis of Assisi becomes a hermit, founding the Franciscan order of friars. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic A Friar is a member of one of the Mendicant orders. Friars and monks Friars differ from Monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service
- November 11, 1215: Fourth Ecumenical Lateran Council opened by Pope Innocent III. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Papal bull of April 19, 1213.
- November 30, 1215: Fourth Ecumenical Lateran Council is closed by Pope Innocent III. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Seventy decrees were approved, the definition of transubstantiation being among them. See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence.
- 1229: Inquisition founded in response to the Cathar Heresy, at the Council of Toulouse. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief
- 1231: Charter of the University of Paris granted by Pope Gregory IX. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August
- 1241: The death of Ögedei Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongols, prevented the Mongols from further advancing into Europe after their easy victories over the combined Christian armies in the Battle of Liegnitz (in present-day Poland) and Battle of Mohi (in present-day Hungary). Ögedei Khan, (Өгэдэй Ögedei; also Ogotai or Oktay, 窩闊臺 c The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main Battle between the Mongols and the Kingdom
- 1245: First Ecumenical Council of Lyons. The First Council of Lyon ( Lyons I) was the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council, as numbered by the Roman Catholic Church, taking place in 1245. Excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II.
- 1274: Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons. The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council took place in 1245 Catholic and Orthodox Churches temporarily reunited.
- 1295: Marco Polo arrives home in Venice. Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer
- February 22, 1300: Pope Boniface VIII published the Bull "Antiquorum fida relatio"; first recorded Holy Year of the Jubilee celebrated. Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne
- November 18, 1302: Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Unam sanctam. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull On November 18, 1302, Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam which historians consider one of the most extreme statements
- 1305: French influence causes the Pope to move from Rome to Avignon. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune
- August 12, 1308: Pope Clement V issues the Bull Regnans in coelis calling a general council to meet on October 1, 1310, at Vienne in France for the purpose "of making provision in regard to the Order of Knights Templar, both the individual members and its lands, and in regard to other things in reference to the Catholic Faith, the Holy Land, and the improvement of the Church and of ecclesiastical persons". Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
- August 17 - 20, 1308: The leaders of the Knights Templar are secretly absolved by Pope Clement V after their interrogation was carried out by papal agents to verify claims against the accused in the castle of Chinon in the diocese of Tours. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The Chinon Parchment is a Historical document, published by Étienne Baluze in Vitae Paparum Avenionensis ("Lives of the Popes of Avignon"
- October 16, 1311: The first formal session of the Ecumenical Council of Vienne begins under Pope Clement V. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western The Council of Vienne was the Fifteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne.
- March 22, 1312: Clement V promulgates the Bull Vox in excelsis suppressing the Knights Templar. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order
- May 6, 1312: The Ecumenical Council of Vienne is closed on the third formal session. Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance.
- May 26, 1328: William of Ockham flees Avignon. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place William of Ockham (also Occam, Hockham, or any of several other spellings ˈɒkəm (c Later, he was excommunicated by Pope John XXII, whom Ockham accused of heresy.
- 1370: Saint Catherine of Siena calls on the Pope to return to Rome. Saint Catherine of Siena, OP ( March 25 1347 – April 29 1380) was a Tertiary of the Dominican Order,
- 1378: Anti-pope Clement VII (Avignon) elected against Pope Urban VI (Rome) precipitating the Western Schism. The Great Schism of Western Christianity or Papal Schism (also known as the Western Schism) was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417
- 1387: Lithuanians were the last in Europe to accept the Catholic faith.
- 1440: Johannes Gutenberg completes his wooden printing press using moveable metal type revolutionizing the spread of knowledge by cheaper and faster means of reproduction. Results in the mass production of Bibles as well as other books.
- May 29, 1453: Fall of Constantinople. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar
1454 — 1632
Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
- 1492: Christopher Columbus discovers the New World. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer
- 1493: With the Inter caetera, Pope Alexander VI awards sole colonial rights over most of the New World to Spain. Inter caetera ("Among other " was a Papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on 4 May 1493, which granted to Spain Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere.
- January 22, 1506: Kaspar von Silenen and first contingent of Swiss mercenaries enter the Vatican during the reign of Pope Julius II. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Traditional date of founding of the Swiss Guards. Swiss Guards Swiss mercenary is the name given to those soldiers who have served as Bodyguards, ceremonial guards and palace guards at foreign European courts since
- April 18, 1506: Pope Julius II lays cornerstone of New Basilica of St. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Peter.
- 1508: Michaelangelo starts painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina is the best-known Chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City.
- October 31, 1517: Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses, protesting the sale of indulgences. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences, commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, were written by Martin Luther in 1517 An indulgence, in Roman Catholic Theology, is the full or partial Remission of temporal punishment due for Sins which have already been forgiven
- 1516: Saint Sir Thomas More publishes "Utopia" in Latin.
- 1519: Spanish conquest of Mexico by Hernando Cortes. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2,
- January 3, 1521: Martin Luther finally excommunicated by Pope Leo X in the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Not to be confused with Romanum decet pontificem. Decet Romanum Pontificem (1521 is the Papal bull excommunicating
- 1521: Baptism of the first Catholics in the Philippines, the first Christian nation in Southeast Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP This event is commemorated with the feast of the Sto. Niño. The Santo Niño de Cebú ("Holy Child of Cebu" is a Roman Catholic depiction of the Child Jesus, similar to the
- October 17, 1521: Pope Leo X confers the title Fidei Defensor to Tudor King Henry VIII of England for his defense of the seven sacraments and the supremacy of the pope in Assertio Septem Sacramentorum against Protestantism. Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost "Defender of the Faith" redirects here For the 1984 platinum album of British heavy metal group Judas Priest, see Defenders of the Faith Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book written by King Henry VIII of England in Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
- May 6, 1527: Sack of Rome. Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance.
- 1531: Our Lady of Guadalupe appears to Juan Diego in Mexico. Our Lady of Guadalupe, also called the Virgin of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe or Virgen de Guadalupe is a 16th century Roman Catholic Mexican Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (1474 – May 30, 1548) was an Indigenous Mexican who reported an apparition of the Virgin The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
- November 16, 1532: Francisco Pizzaro captures Atahualpa. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Francisco Pizarro González 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c 1471 or 1476 &ndash 26 June 1541 was a Spanish Conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire Atahualpa, Atahuallpa, Atabalipa, or Atawallpa ( Quito – Cajamarca, August 29, 1533) was the last sovereign Conquest of Incan Empire.
- August 15, 1534: Saint Ignatius of Loyola and six others, including Francis Xavier met in Montmartre outside Paris to found the missionary Jesuit Order. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order
- October 30, 1534: English Parliament passes Act of Supremacy making the King of England Supreme Head of the Church of England. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Anglican schism with Rome.
- 1535: Michaelangelo starts painting the Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel.
- 1536 To 1540: Dissolution of the Monasteries in England, Wales and Ireland. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded
- December 17, 1538: Pope Paul III excommunicates King Henry VIII of England. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila
- 1540: Pope Paul III confirmed the order of the Society of Jesus. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order
- July 21, 1542: Pope Paul III, with the Constitution Licet ab initio, established the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office,
- 1543: A full account of the heliocentric Copernican theory titled, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium) is published. Considered as the start of the Scientific Revolution.
- December 13, 1545: Ecumenical Council of Trent convened during the pontificate of Paul III, to prepare the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation. Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Its rulings set the tone of Catholic society for at least three centuries.
- December 4, 1563: Ecumenical Council of Trent closed. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The decrees were confirmed on January 26, 1564, by Pius IV in the Bull "Benedictus Deus". Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France.
- 1568: St. John Chrysostom, St. Basil, St. Gregory Nazianzus, St. Athanasius and St. Thomas Aquinas are made Doctors of the Church. This article refers to the Christian saint For other uses of the name see Chrysostomos. Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin Gregory of Nazianzus (329 – January 25 389) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop Doctor of the Church ( Latin doctor, teacher from Latin docere, to teach is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals
- July 14, 1570: Pope St. Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Pius V issues the Apostolic Constitution on the Tridentine Mass, Quo Primum. The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published
- October 7, 1571: Christian fleet of the Holy League defeats the Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Lepanto. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar)
- 1577: Teresa of Avila writes The Interior Castle, one of the classic works of Catholic mysticism. For other saints with similar names please see Saint Teresa. Saint Teresa of Ávila, known in religion as Saint Teresa of Jesus and Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity
- February 24, 1582: Pope Gregory XIII issues the Bull Inter gravissimas reforming the Julian Calendar. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Inter gravissimas was a Papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita
- October 4, 1582: The Gregorian Calendar is first adopted by Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. October 4 is followed by October 15 - ten days are removed.
- September 28, 1586: Domenico Fontana successfully finished re-erecting the Vatican Obelisk at its present site in St. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Peter's Square. Hailed as a great technical achievement of its time.
- 1593: Robert Bellarmine finishes his Disputationes de controversiis christianae fidei. Robert Bellarmine ( Roberto Francesco Romolo Cardinale Bellarmino) (4 October 1542 Montepulciano, Siena, Italy – 17 September 1621
- 1598: Papal role in Peace of Vervins. The Peace of Vervins was signed between the representatives of Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on 2 May 1598, at the small town of
- 1600: Pope Clement VIII sanctions use of coffee despite petition by priests to ban the Muslim drink as "the devil’s drink". The Pope tried a cup and declared it "so delicious that it would be a pity to let the infidels have exclusive use of it. We shall cheat Satan by baptizing it. "
- 1614: Tokugawa Ieyasu bans Christianity from Japan.  was the founder and first Shogun  of the Tokugawa shogunate For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
- April 19, 1622: Pope Gregory XV makes Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu a cardinal upon the nomination of King Louis XIII — becoming Cardinal Richelieu. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Pope Gregory XV ( January 9 or January 15, 1554 – July 8, 1623) born Alessandro Ludovisi, was pope from 1621 succeeding For the cognac see Louis XIII de Rémy Martin. Louis XIII ( September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643) This article is about a cardinal For information on the Russian also called The Red Eminence, see Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov. His influence and policies greatly impact the course of European art, culture, politics, religion and war.
- November 18, 1626: Pope Urban VIII solemnly dedicates the New Basilica of St. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Pope Peter 1,300 years after the first Constantinian basilica was consecrated by Pope Sylvester I.
1633 — 1800
- 1633: Trial of Galileo. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher
- 1638: Shimabara Rebellion leads to a further repression of Catholics, and all Christians, in Japan. The was an uprising largely involving Japanese Peasants, most of them Christians, in 1637–1638 during the Edo period.
- September 12, 1683: Battle of Vienna. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the The Battle of Vienna ( German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Polish: Bitwa pod Wiedniem or Odsiecz Wiedeńska, Turkish: İkinci Decisive victory of the army of the Holy League, under King John III Sobieski of Poland, over the Ottoman Turks, under Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha. The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers then joined into a Holy League Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa (Born 1634/1635 &ndash December 25, 1683) was an Ottoman military leader and Grand vizier who was a central character
- 1653: The Coonan Cross Oath was taken by a group of Saint Thomas Christians against the Portuguese. The Coonan Cross Oath was taken in 1653, by a group of Saint Thomas Christians, reacting to the persecution of their Church by the Portuguese colonials This article addresses the Saint Thomas Christians and the various churches and denominations that form the Nasrani people.
- 1685: Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes in hopes of currying Papal favor. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant the Calvinist Protestants of
- 1691: Pope Innocent XII declares against nepotism and simony. Pope Innocent XII ( March 13, 1615 &ndash September 27, 1700) born Antonio Pignatelli was Pope from 1691 to 1700 Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability Simony is the Ecclesiastical crime of paying for Holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church named after Simon Magus, who appears in the
- 1713: Encyclical Unigenitus condemns Jansenism. Year 1713 ( MDCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church Unigenitus may also refer to a papal bull issued by Pope Clement VI in 1343 Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent
- 1715: Clement XI rules against the Jesuits in the Chinese Rites controversy. Year 1715 ( MDCCXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Pope Clement XI ( July 23, 1649 &ndash March 19, 1721) born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 1700 until his death The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute within the Catholic Church from the 1630s to the early 18th century about whether Chinese folk religion rites and offerings
- 1721: Kangxi Emperor bans Christian missions in China. Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
- April 28, 1738: Pope Clement XII publishes the Bull In Eminenti forbidding Catholics from joining, aiding, socializing or otherwise helping in any way shape or form the organizations of Freemasonry and Freemasons under pain of excommunication. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1738 ( MDCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or
- 1738: Grey Nuns founded. Year 1738 ( MDCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or
- 1769: Passionist order granted full rights by Clement XIV. Year 1769 ( MDCCLXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Passionism is also an artistic movement Passionists are a Roman Catholic religious order that was founded by St Paul of Pope Clement XIV ( 31 October 1705 &ndash 22 September 1774) born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was Pope from
- 1769: Junípero Serra establishes Mission San Diego de Alcala, the first of the Spanish missions in California. Year 1769 ( MDCCLXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Fra Junípero Serra ( November 24, 1713 &ndash August 28, 1784) was a Spanish Franciscan Friar who founded Mission San Diego de Alcalá, also known as the San Diego Mission Church, was founded on July 16, 1769, the first in the twenty-one Alta California The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between
- 1773: Suppression of the Jesuits. Year 1773 ( MDCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result
- 1789: John Carroll becomes the Bishop of Baltimore, the first bishop in the United States. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common John Carroll, ( January 8 1735 &ndash December 3 1815) was the first Bishop and Archbishop in the United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
- 1793: French Revolution institutes anti-clerical measures. Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes Religious (generally Catholic institutional power and influence real or alleged in all aspects of public and political
- 1798: Pope Pius VI taken prisoner. Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Pope Pius VI (December 27 1717 &ndash August 29 1799 born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, Pope from 1775 to 1799 was born at Cesena.
- July 16, 1802: French Concordat of 1801. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the The Catholic Church re-established in France.
- December 2, 1804: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, in the presence of Pope Pius VII. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
- 1847: The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem resumes residence in Jerusalem. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the
- 1850: The Archdiocese of Westminster and twelve other dioceses are erected, reestablishing a hierarchy in the United Kingdom. For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
- 1852: The First Plenary Council of Baltimore was held in the United States. Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Plenary Councils of Baltimore refer to three national meetings of Roman Catholic Bishops in the 19th century in Baltimore Maryland.
- December 8, 1869: Pope Pius IX opens the First Ecumenical Council of the Vatican. Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
- July 18, 1870 - The Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ from the fourth session of Vatican I, "Pastor Aeternus", issues the dogma of papal infallibility among other issues before the fall of Rome in the Franco-Prussian War causes it to end prematurely and brings an end to the Papal States. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Papal infallibility is the Dogma in Catholic theology that by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Controversy over several issues leads to the formation of the Old Catholic Church. The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination originating with churches (many of them German -speaking that split from the Roman Catholic Church in This council was not formally closed until 1960 by Pope John XXIII in preparation for the Second Vatican Council.
- May 15, 1891: Pope Leo XIII issues encyclical Rerum Novarum (translation: Of New Things). Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
- November 30, 1894: Pope Leo XIII publishes the Apostolic Letter Orientalium Dignitas (On the Churches of the East) safeguarding the importance and continuance of the Eastern traditions for the whole Church. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
- 1898 - Secondo Pia takes the first photographs of the Shroud of Turin. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
- October 2, 1928: Saint Josemaría Escrivá founded Opus Dei, a worldwide organization of lay members of the Catholic Church. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Opus Dei, formally known as The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, is a part of the Roman Catholic Church that teaches the Catholic belief that everyone
- February 11, 1929: The Lateran treaty are signed by Benito Mussolini and Cardinal Gasparri establishing the independent State of the Vatican City and resolving the Roman Question between Italy and the Holy See since the seizure of the Papal States in 1870. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
- February 12, 1931: Vatican Radio is inaugurated. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Set up by Guglielmo Marconi and inaugurated by Pope Pius XI. First signal broadcast is in Morse code: In nomine Domini, amen.
- July 20, 1933: Concordat Between the Holy See and the German Reich signed by Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli and Franz von Papen on behalf of Pope Pius XI and President Paul von Hindenburg, respectively. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope (29 October 1879 2 May 1969 was a German nobleman Catholic monarchist Politician, General Staff officer and Diplomat Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2
- September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Start of the Second World War. The Vatican declares neutrality to avoid being drawn into the conflict and also to avoid occupation by the Italian military.
- 1944: The German Army occupies Rome. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Adolf Hitler proclaims he will respect Vatican neutrality; however several incidents, such as giving aid to downed Allied airmen, nearly cause Nazi Germany to invade the Vatican. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Rome is liberated by the Allies after only a few weeks of occupation.
- 1950: The Assumption of Mary is defined as dogma. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the theological concept For the works of art with this title see Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Art and Roman Catholic Marian art.
- January 20, 1961: John F. Kennedy is sworn in as the 35th president of the United States. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by He becomes the first Catholic and youngest president to be elected.
- October 11, 1962: Pope John XXIII opens the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope John (numberingBlessed The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic church emphasized the universal call to holiness and brought many changes in practices, including an increased emphasis on ecumenism; fewer rules on penances, fasting and other devotional practices; and initiating a revision of the services, which were to be slightly simplified and made supposedly more accessible by allowing the use of native languages instead of Latin. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. Universal Call to Holiness and Apostolate is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that all people are called to be holy. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Opposition to changes inspired by the Council gave rise to the movement of Traditionalist Catholics who disagree with changing the old forms of worship. Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or people who identify as Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical
- December 7, 1965: Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of His Holiness Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Mutual excommunication of the Great Schism of 1054 against Catholic and Orthodox is lifted by both parties.
- December 8, 1965: Pope Paul VI solemnly closes the Second Vatican Council. Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar.
- 1970: Revision of the Roman Missal, following on gradual introduction of vernacular languages in celebration of Mass. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the post-Vatican-II changes to the Mass for an explanation of the current structure of the Mass see Mass (Catholic Church. The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church.
- August 26, 1978: Pope John Paul I becomes the first pope to use a double regnal name. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Pope John Paul I ( Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP I, Italian: Giovanni Paolo I) born Albino Luciani, ( October 17 1912 He reigns for only 33 days.
- October 16, 1978: Pope John Paul II becomes the first Polish pope and first non-Italian pope elected in 450 years; influential in overthrowing communism in Europe. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Pope Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
- 1984: First World Youth Day instituted by Pope John Paul II celebrated in Rome. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) World Youth Day is a youth-oriented Roman Catholic Church event Celebrated between Rome and a different city in alternating sequence every year.
- June 30, 1988: Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX), consecrates four men as bishops at Ecône, Switzerland without the express permission of the Pope. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Marcel-François Lefebvre ( November 29 1905 – March 25 1991) better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Ecône is an area in the municipality of Riddes, district of Martigny, in the canton of Valais, in Switzerland Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Lefebvre et al. automatically incurs excommunication according to canon law. Traditionalist SSPX have been in schism ever since. 
- December 31, 1991: The Soviet Union is officially dissolved. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Persecuted Church re-emerges out of hiding.
- 1992: A Catechism of the Catholic Church is first printed in French. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and the twenty-two
- 1994: Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, an Apostolic Letter upholding a prohibition against ordination of women to the priesthood, is promulgated by Pope John Paul II. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Ordinatio Sacerdotalis ( Latin for On Ordination to the Priesthood) is a Roman Catholic document discussing the Roman Catholic Church's position In general religious use Ordination is the process by which a person is consecrated (set apart for the administration of various religious rites Pope
Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century
April 30, 2000 : Pope John Paul II canonized St. Faustina and designated the Sunday after Easter as Divine Mercy Sunday in the General Roman Calendar, with effect from the following year.
- January 1, 2001: The 21st century and the new millennium begin. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Church solemnizes the start of the third Christian millennium by extending into part of the year 2001 the jubilee year that it observes at 25-year intervals and that, in the case of the year 2000, it called the Great Jubilee.
- January 6, 2001: John Paul II issues Novo Millennio Ineunte, a program for the Church in the new millennium, wherein he placed sanctity through a training in prayer as the most important priority of the Catholic Church in consonance with its purpose. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Novo Millennio Ineunte ("At the beginning of the new millennium" is an Apostolic letter of Pope John Paul II, addressed to the Bishops Clergy
- January 18, 2002: Former priest John Geoghan is convicted of child molestation and sentenced to ten years in prison, as part of the ongoing sex abuse scandal. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. John J Geoghan ( c 1935 - August 23, 2003) was a key figure in the Roman Catholic sex abuse cases that rocked the Boston Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual acts by one person upon another Allegations of sexual abuse of children have been made against a variety of religious groups including but not exclusively Roman Catholic priests monks and nuns The Geoghan case was one of the worst scandals of the Catholic Church in modern times.
- April 2, 2005: Pope John Paul II dies at the age of 84. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His funeral is broadcast to every corner of the globe through the modern media. Millions of Catholic pilgrims journey to Rome to pay final respects.
- April 19, 2005: German-born Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger is elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI, thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st century and the 3rd millennium. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The College of Cardinals (verbose Sacred College of the Holy Roman Church, Sancta Romana Ecclesia, S Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger The third millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000, of the Gregorian calendar
- August 18, 2005: Pope Benedict XVI visits Cologne, Germany, his first outside Italy. Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Continues World Youth Day begun by his predecessor.
- September 12, 2006: Pope Benedict XVI delivers address "Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections" in University of Regensburg. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The University of Regensburg, situated in Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany, was founded on July 18 1962 by the Bavarian parliament Quoting Emperor Manuel II Paleologus: "Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached. Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος Manouēl II Palaiologos) ( June 27, 1350 " constituting a minimal part of the speech about faith and reason, the irrationality of violence, and the program of de-Hellenization sparks violent and deadly reactions among Muslims all over the world. 
- July 7, 2007: Motu proprio Summorum Pontificum is issued by Pope Benedict XVI explicitly liberating the Roman Missal of 1962 as the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. A motu proprio ( Latin "on his own impulse" is a document issued by the Pope on his own initiative and personally signed by him Summorum Pontificum (Of the Supreme Pontiffs is an Apostolic Letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued " Motu proprio " (i The Roman Missal ((Missale Romanum is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite The liturgical rite of the Church of Rome is called the Roman Rite. Hopes of healing the schism between the SSPX and the Catholic Church is implied in accompanying letter to the motu proprio. The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis
Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51613-4
- ^ The Eastern Orthodox and some other churches are also apostolic in origin -- i. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world e. , they also date their origins back to the founding of the Christian Church at the time of the Apostles
- ^ Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31-32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40-41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30-31, 1 Cor 6:14, 2 Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1 Pet 1:3, 1:21
- ^ Mark 16:9, Luke 24:7, Luke 24:46, John 20:9, Acts 10:41, Acts 17:3, Acts 1:22, Acts 2:31, Acts 4:33,
- ^ St. John the Evangelist, Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved Sep. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e 30, 2006
- ^ St. John the Evangelist, ewtn. com, retrieved Sep. 30, 2006
- ^ This statement is made in derivative websites such as Cultural Catholic (retrieved 28 September 2006) and Catholic Apologetics International (retrieved 28 September 2006); but liturgical scholars are doubtful: early-twentieth-century Adrian Fortescue merely says, in two Catholic Encyclopedia articles, Liturgy of the Mass 28 September 2006) and Church Latin 28 September 2006), that, on the basis of the uncertain attribution to him of a work found among the writings of Saint Cyprian, Pope Victor seems to have been the first Pope "to use Latin at Rome" (referring to writing, not to liturgy); and the later Josef Jungmann makes no mention of this theory about Pope Victor, and states that the burial inscriptions of the Popes, which begin to be in Latin only with Pope Cornelius (d. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. This page is about Cyprian bishop of Carthage For other Cyprians see Cyprian (disambiguation. Pope 253), indicate that the change occurred later, while he observes that both languages will have been used in Rome for some centuries, according to the languages of the various groups of Christians in the city (page 65 of volume I of his Missarum Sollemnia - Eine genetische Erklärung der römischen Messe (Vienna, 1949) - the English translation, also in two volumes, is titled "The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development", and has been referred to as a "classic work", which "may be the best text on this most important mystery of our faith").
- ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis - Constantine I, retrieved Feb. 23, 2007
- ^ Date is according to Catholic Encyclopedia but is not definitive.
- ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis - Constantine I, retrieved Feb. 23, 2007
- ^ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved Septembe 25, 2006
- ^ IMPERATORIS THEODOSIANI CODEX Liber Decimus Sextus, Emperor Theodosius, George Mason University retrieved September 25, 2006
- ^ Theodosian Code XVI. 1. 2:
from Henry Bettenson, ed. , Documents of the Christian Church, (London: Oxford University Press, 1943), p. 31 [Short extract used under fair-use provsions]
- It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation, should continue the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one Deity of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgement they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of divine condemnation and the second punishment of our authority, in accordance with the will of heaven shall decide to inflict.
- ^ Suave Molecules of Mocha Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization, New Partisan - A Journal of Culture, Arts and Politics, Mar. 7, 2005, retrieved Oct. 23, 2006
- ^ Schism of SSPX Pete Vere, My Journey out of the Lefebvre Schism: All Tradition Leads to Rome, Catholic Education Resource Center, retrieved Nov. 20, 2006
- ^ Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections from official Vatican website, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
- ^ "Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization" by Pope Benedict XVI, Zenit News Agency, retrieved Oct. For other uses see Zenit (disambiguation. ZENIT is a non-profit news agency that reports on the Catholic Church and issues 18, 2006
- ^ Pope Is Regretful That His Speech Angered Muslims, Sep. 17, 2006, L.A. Times, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
- ^ Al Qaeda threat over pope speech, Sep. 18, 2006, CNN.com retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
- ^ Qaeda-led group vows "jihad" over Pope's speech, Sep. 18, 2006, Reuters, retrieved Oct. 18, 2006
The History of the Papacy is the history of both the spiritual role and the temporal role over a timespan of almost 2000 years from the arrival of Peter in Rome to the present day The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era ( AD) to the present Ludwig Pastor, later Freiherr von Campersfelden ( January 31, 1854 – September 30, 1928) was a German historian and a diplomat
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