See also History of the Catholic Church
The History of the Papacy is the history of both the spiritual role and the temporal role over a timespan of almost 2,000 years from the arrival of Peter in Rome to the present day. The History of the Catholic Church from apostolic times covers a period of nearly 2000 years making it the world's oldest and largest institution The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and In addition to his spiritual role as head of the Catholic Church, the Pope also has a temporal role as Head of State of the independent sovereign State of the Vatican City, a city-state and nation entirely enclaved by the city of Rome. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
The history of the Papacy's temporal role can be divided into three major time periods. Early Christianity, the Pope had no temporal power and served only as the spiritual head of the Christian church in Rome. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c Even in that spiritual role, it was contested whether the patriarchs of the other churches were subordinate to the bishop of Rome.
The second major time period runs roughly from the 4th Century until Rome and Latium were annexed by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870. During this time period, the Pope exerted varying amounts of temporal and spiritual power until the Papal states were slowly taken away from the Papacy in the 19th century. During this same period, the role of the Pope as spiritual leader of the Christian church was successfully challenged by the East-West Schism and the Protestant Reformation. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time
The third major time period runs from the end of the Pope's temporal power in the 19th century until the present day. During this period, the Papacy has asserted its spiritual role as leader of the Catholic Church.
The origin of the Papacy is unclear. It is generally accepted amongst most Catholic and non-Catholic historians that the institution of the papacy as it exists today developed through the centuries. St. Peter the apostle arrived in Rome c. 50. During the first century of the Christian Church, the Roman capital became recognized as a Christian center of exceptional note since the church of Rome was reputed to be founded by the apostles St. Paul and St. Peter, the "prince of the apostles". Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Despite the special status of the church of Rome, there are only a few 1st century references to the recognition of the Primacy of the Roman Pontiff of the Holy See outside of Rome. The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope ( Bishop of Rome) from the Holy See, over the several churches The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic The fact that Clement of Rome's letter to the Corinthians (written c. Saint 96) adopted a pastoral tone, and also the fact that St. Ignatius of Antioch once spoke of the church of Rome "presiding in love" in his letter to the Romans (written c. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John 105) are seen by some historians to present proof of the existence of a certain early Papal primacy. Others argue that these documents refer only to a primacy of honor. The doctrines of Papal authority and Primacy of the Roman Pontiff continue to be sources of controversy between the Catholic Church and other Christian Churches. The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope ( Bishop of Rome) from the Holy See, over the several churches The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope ( Bishop of Rome) from the Holy See, over the several churches
The dogma and tradition of the Catholic Church teach that the institution of the papacy was mandated by Jesus in the Biblical passages:
The name "Peter" (Πέτρος in Greek) translates as rock. The "keys of the kingdom of heaven" that Jesus grants Peter are an indication of the papacy not as a personal honour (i. e. granted to Peter alone) but as an office with clear succession. This occurs several times in similar fashion in the Old Testament.
Regarding the Catholic interpretation of Matthew 16:18-19, Jaroslav Pelikan writes, "As Catholic scholars now concede, the ancient Christian father Cyprian used it to prove the authority of the bishop—not merely of the Roman bishop, but of every bishop," referring to Maurice Bevenot's work on St. Jaroslav Jan Pelikan ( 17 December 1923 – 13 May 2006) was one of the world's leading scholars in the History of Christianity and Cyprian. 
Before a strict hierarchy was in place, an increasing number of people had conflicting views over what they felt was true about Christianity. The position of bishop came about as a part of efforts to establish what Christianity was believed to be, and to ensure that it was preserved. By the end of the first century AD, single bishops were appearing in major cities; these bishops were supported by colleges of "elders. "
All available evidence points to committees of priests (presbyteroi / πρεσβυτεροι) or Bishops (episkopoi / επίσκoποι). This was standard in Christian communities all over the Roman empire. 
Not until a couple of decades into the second century do letters from Ignatius of Antioch describe churches led by a single bishop who was merely assisted by the presbyters and deacons. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John Even when a single bishop can definitively be identified as "the bishop of Rome," his powers were nothing like the powers of the pope today. In the early days of the church, the bishop of Rome didn’t call councils, didn’t issue encyclicals, and wasn’t sought after to resolve disputes about the nature of Christian faith.
According to James L. Barker, the position of the bishop of Rome was not regarded as significantly different from the bishops of Antioch or Jerusalem . He contends that, insofar as the bishop of Rome was accorded any special status, it was more as a mediator than as a ruler; and that people appealed to the bishop of Rome to help mediate disputes arising over issues like Gnosticism, not to deliver a definitive statement of Christian orthodoxy. Perhaps one reason for this is that, whereas the Eastern church was a hotbed of heresy, no major heresy had ever been embraced by the Bishop of Rome. Though Marcionism and Valentinianism were heresies arising in or around Rome, their founders were excommunicated, not embraced. Marcionism is the dualist Belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. Valentinianism is a Gnostic movement that was founded by Valentinus in the second century CE.
In 42 A.D., Peter built a church in Rome while he was visiting Simon Magus. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Simon Magus ( Greek Σίμων ό μάγος also known as Simon the Sorcerer and Simon of Gitta, is the name used by early Christian writers Dogma and traditions of the Catholic Church maintain that he served as the bishop of Rome for 25 years until 67 A. Year 67 was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. D. when he was martyred by Nero (further information: Great Fire of Rome). The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year AD 64, among the shops clustered around the Roman Catholic tradition asserts that Jesus essentially appointed Peter as the first pope. 
In the early history of Christianity, five cities emerged as important centers of Christianity: Rome, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople. The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is the apostolic authority of the Pope ( Bishop of Rome) from the Holy See, over the several churches Although the Roman church was always highly respected, the churches in the East generally had more numbers and more authority than those of the West.
Irenaeus compiled a list of apostolic succession, including the immediate successors of Peter and Paul: Linus, Anacleutus, Clement, Evaristus, Alexander, and Sixtus. Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France Saint Linus (d ca79 was the first bishop of Rome according to Irenaeus, Jerome, Eusebius Pope Pope  The Catholic Church currently considers these the successors of Peter, whom they consider the first pope, and through whom following popes would claim authority. 
In the second century (AD 189), the assertion of the primacy of the Church of Rome may be indicated in St. Irenaeus of Lyon's Against Heresies (3:3:2): "With [the Church of Rome], because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree. Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis ( commonly called Against Heresies (Latin Adversus haereses,) is a five-volume work . . and it is in her that the faithful everywhere have maintained the apostolic tradition. " Although this may be the first clear instance of the church in Rome asserting its primacy (depending on how one reads this passage), there is no historical evidence to show that such a claim was ever accepted by the eastern churches, particularly since the seat of government of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople soon after the First Council of Nicaea. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine
The first bishop to claim primacy in writing was Pope Stephen I (254-257). Pope The timing of the claim is significant, for it was made during the worst of the tumults of the third century. Several persecutions during this century attacked the Church of Rome vigorously.
Pope Damasus I (366-384) was first to claim that Rome's primacy rested solely on Peter, and was the first pope to refer to the Roman church as "the Apostolic See". Pope The prestige of the city itself was no longer sufficient; but in the doctrine of apostolic succession the popes had an unassailable position.
The First Council of Constantinople (AD 381) suggested strongly that Roman primacy was already asserted. The Second Ecumenical Council the first held in Constantinople was called by Theodosius I in 381 which confirmed the Nicene Creed and dealt with other matters such However, it should be noted that, because of the controversy of this claim, the Pope did not personally attend this ecumencial council that was held in the capital of the eastern empire, rather than at Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 It was not until 440 that Leo the Great more clearly articulated the extension of papal authority as doctrine, promulgating in edicts and in councils his right to exert "the full range of apostolic powers that Jesus had first bestowed on the apostle Peter". Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. It was at the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 that Leo I (through his emissaries) stated that he was "speaking with the voice of Peter". The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of At this same Council, an attempt at compromise was made when the bishop of Constantinople was given a primacy of honour only second to that of the Bishop of Rome, because "Constantinople is the New Rome. " Ironically, Roman papal authorities rejected this language since it did not clearly recognize Rome's claim to juridical authority over the other churches. 
The power of the Bishop of Rome increased as the imperial power of the Emperor declined. Edicts of the Emperor Theodosius II and of Valentinian III proclaimed the Roman bishop "as Rector of the whole Church. " The Emperor Justinian, who was living in the East in Constantinople, in the sixth century published a similar decree. These proclamations did not create the office of the Pope but from the sixth century onward the Bishop of Rome's power and prestige increased so dramatically that the title of "Pope" began to fit the Bishop of Rome best. 
Many popes in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Several suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution. Most of them engaged in intense theological arguments with other bishops.
Christianity managed not only to survive Diocletian's attempts to crush it by persecution but to continue to grow in spite of his efforts. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Christianity was legalized by Galerius, who was the first emperor to issue an edict of toleration for all religious creeds including Christianity in April of 311. Galerius Maximianus ( ca. 260&ndashlate April or early May 311 formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311 
Constantine the Great was the first Roman Emperor to embrace Christianity, although he may have continued in his pre-Christian beliefs. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings He and the co-Emperor Licinius in the East were the first to bestow imperial favor on Christianity through the Edict of Milan promulgated in 313. For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire.
After the Edict of Milan, the church adopted the same governmental structure as the Empire: geographical provinces ruled by bishops. These bishops of important cities therefore rose in power over the bishops of lesser cities.
Rome was not the only city that could claim a special role in the Church. Jerusalem had the prestige of being the city of Christ's death and resurrection, and an important church council was held there in the first century, the Council of Jerusalem. Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to Antioch was the place where Jesus' followers were first called "Christians" and, with Alexandria, was an important early center of Christian thought. Constantinople became highly important after Constantine moved his capital there in 330 AD. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
The brief pontificate of Pope Miltiades (311-314) marked a transition to a very different role for the papacy. Pope The Lateran Basilica (Basilica of Our Savior) became the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Rome. In 313, Miltiades held the Lateran synod openly in Rome, at the behest of the emperor. The Lateran councils were ecclesiastical councils or Synods of the Catholic Church held at Rome in the Lateran Palace next to the Lateran This event inaugurated a link between the papacy and temporal power which would last for over a millennium.
In 321, Constantine granted the Church the right to hold property and donated the palace of the Laterani to Pope Miltiades. Events By Topic Roman Empire March 7 — Edict of Constantine I: The dies Solis Invicti (Sunday is proclaimed as Pope
By the fifth century, the bishop of Rome began to claim his supremacy over all other bishops, and some church fathers also made this claim for him.
In 502, Pope Symmachus ruled that laymen should no longer vote for the popes and that only higher clergy should be considered eligible. Area code of northern central Kentucky, including Louisville (see Area code 502) Events By Place Byzantine Empire Pope Saint Symmachus was Pope from 498 to 514 He was born on Sardinia, the son of Fortunatus
The Lombard kingdom reached its height in the 7th and 8th century. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Paganism and Arianism were at first prevalent among the Lombards but were gradually supplanted by Catholicism. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Roman culture and Latin speech were gradually adopted and the Catholic bishops emerged as chief magistrates in the cities. Lombard law combined Germanic and Roman traditions.
In the middle of the eighth century, a fraudulent attempt was made to legitimize the transfer of power and authority from the Emperor Constantine to the Bishop of Rome. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the The Donation of Constantine was purported to be the legal document in which the Emperor Constantine donated to Sylvester, the Bishop of Rome (314-335), much of his property and invested him with great spiritual power and authority. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the
The vastness and splendor of the inheritance allegedly given by Constantine to Sylvester in this document is seen in the following quotation from the manuscript,
This document was used by medieval popes to bolster their claims for territorial and secular power in Italy. It was widely accepted, though the Emperor Otto III denounced the document as a forgery. Otto III (980 &ndash January 23, 1002) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire. By the mid 15th-century, however, the Church had begun to realize that the document could not possibly be genuine. The Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla proved in 1440 that the Donation must be a fake by analyzing its language, and showing that while certain imperial-era formulas are used in the text, some of the Latin in the document could not have been written in the 4th century. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (c 1407 &ndash August 1, 1457) was an Italian humanist, Rhetorician and A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them
In 751, Aistulf, took Ravenna and threatened Rome. See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended Aistulf (749 - d756 was the Duke of Friuli from 744 king of Lombards from 749 and duke of Spoleto from 751 To respond to this threat, Pope Stephen II made an unusual journey north of the Alps to visit the Frankish king, Pepin III, to seek his help against the Lombards who have recently taken the city of Ravenna and who now pose a similar threat to Rome. In sources prior to the 1960s this pope is sometimes called Stephen III and Pope-elect Stephen is sometimes called Stephen II. Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was
The pope anointed Pepin at the abbey of St Denis, near Paris, together with Pepin's two young sons Charles and Carloman. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Pepin duly invaded northern Italy in 754, and again in 756. Pepin was able to drive the Lombards from the territory belonging to Ravenna but he does not restore it to its rightful owner, the Byzantine emperor. Instead, perhaps believing the fiction revealed in the forged Donation of Constantine, he handed over large areas of central Italy to the pope and his successors. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the
The land given to pope Stephen in 756, in the so-called Donation of Pepin, made the papacy a temporal power. See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended This territory would become the basis for the Papal States, over which the popes ruled until the Papal States were incorporated into the new Kingdom of Italy in 1870. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom For the next eleven centuries, the story of Rome will be almost synonymous with the story of the papacy.
After Aistulf's death King Desiderius renewed the attack on Rome. In 772, Pope Adrian I enlisted the support of Charlemagne, Pepin's successor, who intervened, and, after defeating the Lombards, added their kingdom to his own. Pope Adrian, or Hadrian I, (d December 25, 795) was Pope from February 9 772 to December 25 795 Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
After being physically attacked by his enemies in the streets of Rome, Pope Leo III made his way in 799 through the Alps to visit Charlemagne at Paderborn. Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816 Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
It is not known what was agreed between the two, but Charlemagne traveled to Rome in 800 to support the pope. In a ceremony in St Peter's Basilica, on Christmas Day, Leo was supposed to anoint Charlemagne's son as his heir. But unexpectedly (it is maintained), as Charlemagne rose from prayer, the pope placed a crown on his head and acclaimed him emperor. It is reported that Charlemagne expressed displeasure but nevertheless accepted the honour. The displeasure was probably diplomatic, for the legal emperor was supposed to be seated in Constantinople. Nevertheless this public alliance between the pope and the ruler of a confederation of Germanic tribes was a reflection of the reality of political power in the west. This coronation launched the concept of the new Holy Roman Empire which would play an important role throughout the Middle Ages. The Holy Roman Empire only became formally established in the next century. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in But the concept is implicit in the title adopted by Charlemagne in 800: 'Charles, most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman empire. '
Leo's action in crowning Charlemagne would serve as precedent for later popes who claimed the right and power to make (and unmake) emperors.
During the tenth century, the papacy came under the control of local Roman noble families, and is often considered to represent the apogee of papal corruption. Becoming Bishop of Rome was a matter of winning out in the feuds that raged among the various factions. Occasionally, German kings would come down and appoint good popes, but most of the time the Romans forced the election of extremely bad popes who were either incompetent or scandalously immoral and sacrilegious. Nevertheless, the Church currently accepts the legitimacy of these popes.
The eleventh century is often called the century of Saxon Popes: Pope Gregory VI (1045 - 1046), Pope Clement II (1046 - 1047), Pope Damasus II (1048), Pope Leo IX (1049 - 1054), Pope Victor II (1055 - 1057) and Pope Stephen IX (1057 - 1058). Clement II, né Suidger of Morsleben and Hornburg ( German Suidger von Morsleben und Hornburg) (1005 &ndash October 9, 1047) Damasus II (died August 9, 1048) born Poppo, Pope from July 17, 1048 to August 9, 1048, was Pope Victor II (c 1018&ndash July 28, 1057) born Gebhard Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg ( German Pope Stephen IX (c 1020 - March 29, 1058) was Pope from August 3, 1057 to March 1058
Three popes Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Gregory VI all claimed to be the rightful pope. Pope Benedict IX (c 1012 &ndash 1055 1065 or 1085 born Theophylactus, was Pope from 1032 to 1044 again in 1045 and finally from 1047 to 1048 the only Sylvester III, né Giovanni dei Crescenzi &ndash Ottaviani family (born in Rome; died before 1063 was Pope in 1045 Henry III deposed all three and held a synod where he declared no Roman priest fit for the title of pope. Henry III ( 29 October 1017 &ndash 5 October 1056) called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty He subsequently appointed Suidger of Bamberg who, after being duly acclaimed by the people and clergy, took the name Clement II. Clement II, né Suidger of Morsleben and Hornburg ( German Suidger von Morsleben und Hornburg) (1005 &ndash October 9, 1047)
Days later, Clement II then crowned Henry emperor. Clement II, né Suidger of Morsleben and Hornburg ( German Suidger von Morsleben und Hornburg) (1005 &ndash October 9, 1047) Over the next ten years, Henry personally selected four of the next five pontiffs. The ascendancy of these to the Papacy reflected the strength and power of the Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states However, Henry was the last emperor to dominate the papacy in this way because, after his death, the Pope quickly moved to change the system to prevent such secular involvement in the election of future popes.
A central feature of this period was the mortal struggle between the popes (notably Pope Gregory VII) and the emperors (notably Henry IV) for control of the church. Pope Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until The struggle between the temporal power of the emperors and the spiritual influence of the popes came to a head in the reigns of Pope Nicholas II (1059 - 1061) and Pope Gregory VII (1073 - 1085) in their opposition to Henry IV. Nicholas II (died July 27 1061 born Gérard de Bourgogne, Pope from 1059 to July 1061 was at the time of his election the Bishop of Florence. Pope Henry was ultimately driven by a revolt among the German nobles to make peace with the Pope and appeared before Gregory in January 1077 at Canossa. The Walk to Canossa (sometimes called the Way to Canossa; German, Gang nach Canossa; Italian, l'umiliazione di Canossa) refers to Dressed as a penitent, the emperor is said to have stood barefoot in the snow for three days and begged forgiveness until, in Gregory's words: "We loosed the chain of the anathema and at length received him into the favor of communion and into the lap of the Holy Mother Church". 
These tensions between emperors and pontiffs were to continue into the twelfth century and ultimately gave rise to the "distinctive separation of Church and State when the emperor signed the Concordat of Worms (1122) forfeiting any right to invest bishops with the ring and the staff symbolic of spiritual authority". The Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V  This separation of the secular from the ecclesiastical nevertheless did not end aspirations on the part of the emperors to influence the papacy, nor the aspirations of the popes to exercise the power of emperors.
These power struggles had already led to a clericalization of the Western Church under Gregory VII (1073-1085). The authority of Gregory VII and those that followed him demonstrated the secular and imperial nature of the pontifical office. With Gregory VII, we find the creation of a Christian commonwealth under papal control. In the Dictatus Papae, Gregory claimed:
During the reign of Pope Gregory VII, the title “pope” was officially restricted to the bishop of Rome. Pope Gregory VII was also responsible for greatly expanding the power of the papacy in worldly matters. One of the great reforming popes, Gregory is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, which pitted him against Emperor Henry IV. The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until
The Investiture Controversy also known as the Lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over The relationship between church and state during the Medieval period went through a number of developments roughly from the end of the Roman Empire through It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and the Gregorian Papacy concerning who would control appointments of church officials (investiture). The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Henry IV ( November 11, 1050 &ndash August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until Pope Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe' is a rather general term for the formal installation of an The controversy, undercutting the Imperial power established by the Salian Emperors, would eventually lead to nearly fifty years of civil war in Germany, the triumph of the great dukes and abbots, and the disintegration of the German empire, a condition from which it would not recover until the unification of Germany in the 19th century. See also Salian Franks, Salic law The Salian dynasty was a Dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024-1125 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The unification of Germany took place on January 18, 1871, when Prussian Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck managed to unify a number of independent
In 1046, Henry III deposed three rival popes. Henry III ( 29 October 1017 &ndash 5 October 1056) called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty Over the next ten years he personally selected four of the next five pontiffs. But after the death of Henry III, the Pope quickly moved to change the system to prevent such secular involvement in the election of future popes.
Pope Nicholas II, elected in 1058, initiated a process of reform which exposed the underlying tension between empire and papacy. Nicholas II (died July 27 1061 born Gérard de Bourgogne, Pope from 1059 to July 1061 was at the time of his election the Bishop of Florence. In 1059, at a synod in Rome, Nicholas condemned various abuses within the church. These included simony (the selling of clerical posts), the marriage of clergy and, more controversially, corrupt practices in papal elections. Simony is the Ecclesiastical crime of paying for Holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church named after Simon Magus, who appears in the Nicholas then restricted the choice of a new pope to a conclave of cardinals, thus ruling out any direct influence by secular powers. A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor The primary objective of these actions was to restrict the influence of the Holy Roman Emperor on papal elections. In 1061, the assembled bishops of Germany, the emperor's own faction, declared all the decrees of this pope null and void.
In 1059, Nicholas II took two steps of a kind which, while unusual at this period, would later become commonplace for the medieval papacy. He granted land, which was already occupied, to recipients of his own choice, engaging those recipients in a feudal relationship with the papacy, or the Holy See, as the feudal lord. The beneficiaries of Nicholas' land grants were the Normans, who were granted territorial rights in southern Italy and Sicily in return for feudal obligations to Rome. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France.
The East-West Schism was the event that divided Chalcedonian Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the Chalcedonian refers to churches and theologians which accept the definition given at the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD of how the divine and human relate in the person of Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Though normally dated to 1054, the East-West Schism was actually the result of an extended period of estrangement between the two Churches. The primary causes of the Schism were disputes over papal authority—the Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern Greek-speaking patriarchs, and over the insertion of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed by the Western Church. Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of Eastern Orthodox today claim that the primacy of the Patriarch of Rome was only honorary, and that he has authority only over his own diocese and does not have the authority to change the decisions of Ecumenical Councils. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. There were other, less significant catalysts for the Schism, including variance over liturgical practices and conflicting claims of jurisdiction. A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions
The Church split along doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic lines, and the fundamental breach has never been healed. Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Attempts were made to reunite the two churches in 1274 (by the Second Council of Lyon) and in 1439 (by the Council of Basel), but in each case the councils were repudiated by the Orthodox as a whole, charging that the hierarchs had overstepped their authority in consenting to these so-called "unions". The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council took place in 1245 The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church Further attempts to reconcile the two bodies have failed.
The origins of the Crusades lie in Western developments earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The breakdown of the Carolingian empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilization of local European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population. The Church tried to stem this violence with the Peace and Truce of God movements, forbidding violence against certain people at certain times of the year. This was somewhat successful, but trained warriors always needed an outlet for their violence.
For these reasons, a plea for help from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I in opposing Muslim attacks thus fell on ready ears. Although the eastern Mediterranean area had been conquered by the Arabs in the seventh century, Christians had been permitted to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land until 1071 when the Seljuk Turks swept in from Asia and defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Seizing all of Asia Minor as well as the Holy Land the Seljuk Turks soon impeded Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem, forcing the Byzantine emperor, Alexius Comnenus, to ask Pope Urban II (1088-1099) for help against the Turks in the early 1090s. Alexius Comnenus may refer to Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus (d Pope
Urban II viewed this request as a great opportunity. Not only could it restore Christian control over the Holy Land, but it also provided a means of domestic pacification that focused the aggression of the European nobility towards the Moslems instead of each other. In addition, coming to the aid of Byzantium held the possibility of a reunion between the eastern and western Churches after almost four decades of schism, thereby strengthening the western Church in general and the papacy in particular.
On November 27, 1095, Urban II made one of the most influential speeches in the Middle Ages at the Council of Clermont combining the ideas of making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with that of waging a holy war against infidels. The Council of Clermont was a mixed Synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held on November 27 1095 at Clermont France The pope called for a “War of the Cross,” or Crusade, to retake the holy lands from the unbelievers. France, the Pope said, was already overcrowded and the Holy Lands of Canaan were overflowing with milk and honey. Pope Urban II asked the Frenchmen to turn their swords in favour of God's service, and the assembly replied "Dieu le veult!" -- "God wills it!"
On January 8, 1198, Lotario de' Conti di Segni was elected Pope Innocent III. Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January The pontificate of Innocent III is considered the height of temporal power of the papacy.
The first medieval inquisition, the episcopal inquisition, was established in the year 1184 by a papal bull entitled Ad abolendam, "For the purpose of doing away with. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Ad abolendam ("On abolition" or "Towards abolishing" was the November 1184 Decretal and bull of Pope Lucius III, written " The inquisition was in response to the growing Catharist heresy in southern France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. It is called "episcopal" because it was administered by local bishops, which in Latin is episcopus. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The episcopal inquisition was not very effective for many reasons. The bishops often did not reside in their dioceses, living in far-off cities such as Rome and rarely, if ever, visiting. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. When they did visit, bishops were busy and had many other responsibilities. Also, the procedures used in this inquisition were not effective. For example, according to the Ad abolendam, it was required to reveal the name of the accuser to the accused, and this would often lead to the revenge killing of the accuser before the trial.
In the 1230s the Church responded to the failures of the episcopal inquisition with a series of papal bulls which became the papal inquisition. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and The papal inquisition was staffed by professionals, trained specifically for the job. Individuals were chosen from different orders and secular clergy, but primarily they came from the Dominican Order. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is The Dominicans were favored for their history of anti-heresy, education, and skill in debate. As mendicants, they were accustomed to travel and not interested in personal gain. The term mendicant (Latin mendicans, begging refers to Begging or relying on charitable donations and is most widely used for religious followers or Unlike the haphazard episcopal methods, the papal inquisition was thorough and systematic, keeping detailed records.
At the second ecumenical Council of Lyons in 1274, the bishops declared that the Roman church possessed “the supreme and full primacy and authority over the universal Catholic Church,” which of course gave the bishop of Rome quite a lot of power.
The Catholic Church endured a prolonged period of crisis that lasted from 1305 until 1416. During these years, the Church found its authority undermined, openly challenged, and divided among rivals. Although it emerged at the end of the period with its authority seemingly intact, the struggle brought significant changes to the structure of the Church and sowed seeds that would later sprout in the Protestant Reformation.
This century of crisis can be divided into two periods of unequal length.
In the first phase, the popes were resident not in Rome but in Avignon, in southern France. In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon Because a bishop is supposed to reside in his see, this circumstance, which lasted from 1305 to 1378, undermined the authority and prestige of the papacy. During this period, seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon:
In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back to Rome and died there. Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334 Pope Benedict XII (died April 25, 1342) born Jacques Fournier, was Pope from 1334 to 1342 Pope Clement VI (1291 &ndash December 6, 1352) born Pierre Roger, the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from May 1342 until his Pope Innocent VI (1282 or 1295 &ndash September 12, 1362) born Étienne Aubert, Pope at Avignon from 1352 to 1362 the successor Blessed See also Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI.
After seventy years in France the papal curia was naturally French in its ways and, to a large extent, in its staff. The Great Schism of Western Christianity or Papal Schism (also known as the Western Schism) was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417 Back in Rome some degree of tension between French and Italian factions was inevitable. This tension was brought to a head by the death of the French pope Gregory XI within a year of his return to Rome. See also Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI. The Roman crowd, said to be in threatening mood, demanded a Roman pope or at least an Italian one. In 1378 the conclave elected an Italian from Naples, Pope Urban VI. Pope Urban VI (c 1318 &ndash October 15, 1389) born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 1378 to 1389 His intransigence in office soon alienated the French cardinals. And the behaviour of the Roman crowd enabled them to declare, in retrospect, that his election was invalid, voted under duress.
The French cardinals withdrew to a conclave of their own, where they elected one of their number, Robert of Geneva. He took the name Pope Clement VII. For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September By 1379 he was back in the palace of popes in Avignon, while Urban VI remained in Rome.
This was the beginning of the period of difficulty from 1378 to 1417 which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Western schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called "the second great schism" by some secular and Protestant historians), when parties within the Catholic church were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance in 1417 finally resolved the controversy. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Council of Constance is the 16th Ecumenical council.
For nearly forty years the Church had two papal curias and two sets of cardinals, each electing a new pope for Rome or Avignon when death created a vacancy. Each pope lobbied for support among kings and princes who played them off against each other, changing allegiance when according to political advantage.
In 1409 a council was convened at Pisa to resolve the issue. The council declared both existing popes to be schismatic (Gregory XII from Rome, Benedict XIII from Avignon) and appointed a new one, Alexander V. But the existing popes had not been persuaded to resign so the church had three popes.
Another council was convened in 1414 at Constance. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Council of Constance is the 16th Ecumenical council. In March 1415 the Pisan pope, John XXIII, fled from Constance in disguise; he was brought back a prisoner and deposed in May. The Roman pope, Gregory XII, resigned voluntarily in July.
The Avignon pope, Benedict XIII, refused to come to Constance. In spite of a personal visit from the emperor Sigismund, he would not consider resignation. For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund ( February 14, 1368 – December 9, The council finally deposed him in July 1417. Denying their right to do so, he withdrew to an impregnable castle on the coast of Spain. Here he continued to act as pope, creating new cardinals and issuing decrees, until his death in 1423.
The council in Constance, having finally cleared the field of popes and antipopes, elected Pope Martin V as pope in November. Pope Martin V (c 1368 &ndash February 20, 1431) born Odo (or
Political theorists in the mid 14th century began to express the view that the papacy was not even the supreme power source in the church, but that a duly-convened council of the higher clergy could override popes in circumstances that warranted intervention. The Schism was the supreme example of such circumstances, and the actions of the Council of Constance, which deposed three rival popes and elected a single pope to take up residence in Rome, represented the high point of conciliarist influence. Soon after, however, Pope Martin V, the very pope whom the council had put in place began the work at setting aside conciliarist attempts to make regular meetings of councils a permanent feature of church governance. Pope Martin V (c 1368 &ndash February 20, 1431) born Odo (or
The Renaissance, also known as the Age of Humanism, was a period of secularization of Western civilization. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The Renaissance Church became a secular institution in this period, shedding its spiritual roots, with insatiable greed for material wealth and temporal power. The Italian Renaissance produced little of what could be considered great ideas or institutions by which men living in society could be held together in harmony. Indeed, the greatest of all European institutions, the Roman Church, fell into neglect under the Renaissance popes, whose fall from spiritual grace sparked the Reformation.
The papacy that emerged from the Western Schism no longer put its energy into playing a dominant role in a united Christendom, but instead focused on building and expanding its political base in Italy. During the Renaissance, the popes expanded the papal territories dramatically, most notably under Pope Alexander VI and Pope Julius II. Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 In addition to being the head of the Church, the Pope became one of Italy's most important secular rulers , signing treaties with other sovereigns and fighting wars. In practice, though, most of the territory of the Papal States was still only nominally controlled by the Pope with much of the territory being ruled by minor princes. Control was often contested; indeed it took until the 16th century for the Pope to have any genuine control over all his territories.
At the beginning of the fifteenth century, Rome had experienced a long decline from the glory of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The skyline of the city was littered with the ruins of once spectacular structures. Wild animals ran free through the overgrowth dominating the center of the city. The city that had dominated the entire world centuries earlier was just a shadow of its former self. In the first century, Rome had a population of about one million. At the start of the fifteenth century the population of the city numbered about 25,000. Rome was no longer a great center of commerce, and the papacy, which had long sustained the city through its riches and international influence, had moved from Rome to Avignon during the fourteenth century. Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune
In 1420, the papacy returned to Rome under Pope Martin V. Pope Martin V (c 1368 &ndash February 20, 1431) born Odo (or During the subsequent centuries the papacy would rebuild the city, and the Papal States, centered in Rome, would assume a position of great importance in Italian affairs. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa The papacy closely supervised the Renaissance revival of Rome, maintaining its economic power, and thus control of the city, through the sale of church offices and taxation of the Papal States. Throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, there were periodic spurts of support for political independence from church control. However, the Papacy kept a tight grip on its territorial holdings and the destinies of city and church remained inextricably intertwined.
After the return of the papacy, the first step in resurrecting Rome was the ascension of Pope Nicholas V in 1447. See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March When he was a monk in Tuscany, Nicholas V had been helped financially by the Florentine banker Cosimo de Medici, who had lent him money without demanding any collateral. Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (September 27 1389 &ndash August 1 1464 was the first of the Medici political dynasty de facto rulers of In repayment for this favor, Nicholas later appointed Cosimo the Papal banker. Financed by the Medici family, Nicholas founded the Vatican Library. The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. In his eight short years as pope, Nicholas V initiated changes that would transform Rome into a Renaissance city.
After the death of Nicholas V, the Papacy continued to be a force for change in Rome. However, as Rome became wealthier and more powerful, corruption in the Papacy grew. The pattern continued throughout the fifteenth century. With the election of Pope Sixtus IV in 1471, the Papacy began a plunge toward moral degradation while Rome itself ascended to the greatest splendor it had achieved since Roman times. Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484 Under Sixtus IV, nepotism reached new and corrupt heights. Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability Sixtus' 'nephews' (the papal nephew was a long-standing way of referring to the pope's illegitimate children) were granted influential posts and huge salaries. Pope Sixtus IV even entered into a conspiracy to have the powerful Medici family assassinated when he thought they were getting in the way of one of his nephews. Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484 This pattern of behavior became the model for papal rule throughout the Renaissance, undermining papal moral authority, but allowing the Papacy to grow strong politically and economically.
At the same time, Pope Sixtus IV initiated a major drive to redesign and rebuild Rome, widening the streets and destroying the crumbling ruins. Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 &ndash August 12, 1484) born Francesco Della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484 He commissioned the construction of the famed Sistine Chapel and summoned many great Renaissance artists from other Italian states to work on rebuilding and redecorating Rome. Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina is the best-known Chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in Vatican City.
The already corrupt Papacy reached its nadir during the reign of Rodrigo Borgia, who was elected to the papacy in 1492 after the death of the generally unnoteworthy Pope Innocent VIII, and who assumed the name Pope Alexander VI. Pope Innocent VIII (1432 &ndash July 25, 1492) born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was Pope from 1484 until his death Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( Borgia, a Spaniard, had been at the center of Vatican affairs for 30 years as a Cardinal. When he became pope, myth and legend quickly rose up around his family. Alexander VI had four acknowledged children, three males and one female. Alexander VI was himself known as a corrupt pope bent on his family's political and material success, to an even greater extent than Sixtus IV had been. It was no secret that Alexander VI's oldest son Cesare, was a murderer, and had killed many of his political opponents. ( September 13, 1475 &ndash March 12, 1507) Duke of Valentinois, and Romagna, Prince of Andria and Venafro Lucrezia Borgia, Alexander VI's daughter, was married three times to aid the pope's efforts to create advantageous alliances with other families. This article is about the historical person For the biographical opera see Lucrezia Borgia (opera. Under Alexander VI, the Papacy continued to grow strong politically and economically, but the means by which it grew were much vilified throughout Italy.
Alexander VI died in 1503, and was succeeded by Pope Julius II. Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 Under Julius II, both the city of Rome and the Papacy entered a Golden Age. Julius II continued the consolidation of power in the Papal States, encouraged the devotion to learning and writing in Rome begun by Pope Nicholas V, and, foremost, continued the process of rebuilding Rome physically. See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March The most prominent project among many was the rebuilding of the Basilica of St. Peter, one of the most sacred buildings in Christianity. The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St The creation of a new St. Peter's, and indeed a new Rome, taxed the city. Ancient structures were demolished to make room and building materials for the new buildings of the city.
Rome received its final push to Renaissance glory from Pope Leo X, second son of Lorenzo de Medici who ascended to the papal throne in 1513, following Julius II. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death Lorenzo de' Medici (January 1 1449 &ndash 9 April 1492 was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance Leo X was at ease in social situations, a skilled diplomat, demonstrated great skill as an administrator, and was an intelligent and beneficent patron of the arts. He encouraged scholarly learning, and supported the theatre, an art form considered to be of ambiguous morality until that time. Most prominently, he supported the visual arts of painting and sculpture. He is well known for his patronage of Raphael, whose paintings played a large role in the redecoration of the Vatican. Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and The death of Leo X in 1521 signalled the effective end of Rome's Golden Age, and the Renaissance as a whole began to lose its energy.
Columbus' discovery in 1492 of supposedly Asiatic lands in the western seas threatened the unstable relations between the kingdoms of Portugal and Castile, which had been jockeying for position and possession of colonial territories along the African coast for many years. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Crown of Castile, as a historic entity is usually considered to have begun in 1230 with the third and definitive union of the two kingdoms of León and Castile The king of Portugal asserted that the discovery was within the bounds set forth in Papal bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1479. The king and queen of Castile disputed this and sought a new Papal Bull on the subject. Pope Alexander VI, a native of Valencia and a friend of the Castilian king, responded with three bulls, dated May 3 and 4, which were highly favorable to Castile. Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( The third of these bulls was titled "Inter caetera", awarded Spain the sole right to colonize most of the New World. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia.
Beginning with Martin Luther, Protestants attacked the Pope as representing the power of the Anti-Christ and the Roman Catholic Church as the Whore of Babylon prophesied in the Book of Revelation. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office The Whore of Babylon is one of several Christian allegorical figures of supreme Evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου The identification of the Papacy as the Anti-Christ was an article of faith for many Protestant denominations:
The four most important traditions to emerge directly from the reformation were the Lutheran tradition, the Reformed/Calvinist/Presbyterian tradition, the Anabaptist tradition, and the Anglican tradition. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Anabaptists ( Greek ανα (again twice + βαπτιζω (baptize thus "re-baptizers" are Christians of the Radical Reformation Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Subsequent Protestant traditions generally trace their roots back to these initial four schools of the Reformation. It also led to the Catholic or Counter Reformation within the Roman Catholic Church. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the
The Catholic Church did not mount an organized and deliberate response to the Protestant Reformation until the election (1534) of Pope Paul III, who placed the papacy itself at the head of a movement for churchwide reform. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Pope Paul III established a reform commission, appointed several leading reformers to the College of Cardinals, initiated reform of the central administrative apparatus at Rome, authorized the founding of the Jesuits, the order that was later to prove so loyal to the papacy, and convoked the Council of Trent, which met intermittently from 1545 to 1563. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The council succeeded in initiating a number of far-ranging moral and administrative reforms, including reform of the papacy itself, that was destined to define the shape and set the tone of Roman Catholicism into the mid-20th century.
The Catholic Reformation was comprehensive and comprised five major elements:
Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life to returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focus on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is a specialized and often live-in Higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students The Spanish Mystics are major figures in the Catholic Reformation of 16th and 17th century Spain The French School of Spirituality was the principle devotional influence within the Catholic Church from the mid 17th Century through the mid 20th Century not only in France
Pope Paul III (1534-1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545-1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, to address contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. An indulgence, in Roman Catholic Theology, is the full or partial Remission of temporal punishment due for Sins which have already been forgiven The Council clearly rejected specific Protestant positions and upheld the basic structure of the Medieval Church, its sacramental system, religious orders, and doctrine. It rejected all compromise with the Protestants, restating basic tenets of the Catholic faith. The Council clearly upheld the dogma of salvation appropriated by Christ lived out by faith and works. Transubstantiation, during which the consecrated bread and wine were held to become (substantially) the body and blood of Christ, was upheld, along with the Seven Sacraments. See also Eucharist (Catholic Church On the related belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist in body blood soul and divinity see Real Presence. Other practices that drew the ire of Protestant reformers, such as indulgences, pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary were strongly reaffirmed as spiritually vital as well. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance
But while the basic structure of the Church was reaffirmed, there were noticeable changes to answer complaints that the Counter Reformers tacitly were willing to admit were legitimate. Among the conditions to be corrected by Catholic reformers was the growing divide between the priests and the flock; many members of the clergy in the rural parishes, after all, had been poorly educated. Often, these rural priests did not know Latin and lacked opportunities for proper theological training. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. (Addressing the education of priests had been a fundamental focus of the humanist reformers in the past. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal ) Parish priests now became better educated, while Papal authorities sought to eliminate the distractions of the monastic churches. Notebooks and handbooks thus became common, describing how to be good priests and confessors.
Thus, the Council of Trent was dedicated to improving the discipline and administration of the Church. The worldly excesses of the secular Renaissance church, epitomized by the era of Alexander VI (1492-1503), exploded in the Reformation under Pope Leo X (1513-1522), whose campaign to raise funds in the German states to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica by supporting sale of indulgences was a key impetus for Martin Luther's 95 Theses. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences, commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses, were written by Martin Luther in 1517 But the Catholic Church would respond to these problems by a vigorous campaign of reform, inspired by earlier Catholic reform movements that predated the Council of Constance (1414-1417): humanism, devotionalism, legalist and the observatine tradition. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Council of Constance is the 16th Ecumenical council.
The Council, by virtue of its actions, repudiated the pluralism of the Secular Renaissance Church: the organization of religious institutions was tightened, discipline was improved, and the parish was emphasized. The appointment of Bishops for political reasons was no longer tolerated. In the past, the large landholdings forced many bishops to be "absent bishops" who at times were property managers trained in administration. Thus, the Council of Trent combated "absenteeism," which was the practice of bishops living in Rome or on landed estates rather than in their dioceses. The Council of Trent also gave bishops greater power to supervise all aspects of religious life. Zealous prelates such as Milan's Archbishop Carlo Borromeo (1538-1584), later canonized as a saint, set an example by visiting the remotest parishes and instilling high standards. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Saint Charles Borromeo (Carlo Borromeo Latinized as Carolus Borromeus) ( October 2 1538 – November 3 1584) is an At the parish level, the seminary-trained clergy who took over in most places during the course of the seventeenth century were overwhelmingly faithful to the church's rule of celibacy. Celibacy refers to the lack of participation in Sexual intercourse.
The reign of Pope Paul IV (1555-1559) is associated with efforts of Catholic renewal. Pope Paul IV ( June 28, 1476 &ndash August 18, 1559) né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23 Paul IV is sometimes deemed the first of the Counter-Reformation popes for his resolute determination to eliminate Protestantism - and the institutional practices of the Church that contributed to its appeal. Two of his key strategies were the Inquisition and censorship of prohibited books. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and The Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("List of Prohibited Books" was a list of publications prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church. In this sense, his aggressive and autocratic efforts of renewal greatly reflected the strategies of earlier reform movements, especially the legalist and observantine sides: burning heretics and strict emphasis on Canon law. Canon Law, the Ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system with all the necessary elements courts lawyers judges a fully articulated It also reflected the rapid pace toward absolutism that characterized the sixteenth century.
While the aggressive authoritarian approach was arguably destructive of personal religious experience, a new wave of reforms and orders conveyed a strong devotional side. Devotionalism, not subversive mysticism would provide a strong individual outlet for religious experience, especially through meditation such as the reciting of the Rosary. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity The Rosary (from Latin rosarium, meaning "rose garden" or "garland of roses" is a popular traditional Roman Catholic devotion. The devotional side of the Counter-Reformation combined two strategies of Catholic Renewal. For one, the emphasis of God as an unknowable absolute ruler - a God to be feared - coincided well with the aggressive absolutism of the papacy under Paul IV. But it also opened up new paths toward popular piety and individual religious experience.
The Papacy of St. Pius V (1566-1572) represented a strong effort not only to crack down against heretics and worldly abuses within the Church, but also to improve popular piety in a determined effort to stem the appeal of Protestantism. Pope Pius V was trained in a solid and austere piety by the Dominicans. It is thus no surprise that he began his pontificate by giving large alms to the poor, charity, and hospitals rather than focusing on patronage. As pontiff, he practiced the virtues of a monk. Known for consoling the poor and sick, St. Pius V sought to improve the public morality of the Church, promote the Jesuits, support the Inquisition. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order He enforced the observance of the discipline of the Council of Trent, and supported the missions of the New World. The Spanish Inquisition, brought under the direction of the absolutist Spanish state since Ferdinand and Isabella, stemmed the growth of heresy before it could spread. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain Ferdinand II of Aragon the Catholic (Fernando II de Aragón y V de Castilla "el Católico" Ferran II d'Aragó "el Catòlic" Ferrando II d'Aragón
The pontificate of Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) opened up the final stage of the Catholic Reformation characteristic of the Baroque age of the early seventeenth century, shifting away from compelling to attracting. Pope Sixtus V ( December 13, 1521 &ndash August 27, 1590) born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 1585 to 1590 Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc His reign focused on rebuilding Rome as a great European capital and Baroque city, a visual symbol for the Catholic Church.
In 1793, a French diplomat in Rome, Nicolas de Basseville, indulged in a provocative display of the tricolour, symbol of French anti-clerical republicanism. A Roman crowd attacked him and he dies the next day. Four years later, when Napoleon reaches as far south as Ancona in an advance on Rome, this incident remains a specific grievance for which France holds the pope responsible - demanding and receiving 300,000 livres as compensation for Basseville's family.
In 1796 French Republican troops under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy, defeated the papal troops and occupied Ancona and Loreto. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The First Republic in France, officially the French Republic (République française was proclaimed on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Ancona (Ankon is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101909 (2005 Pius VI sued for peace. The price of persuading the French intruder to head north again, agreed in the Treaty of Tolentino, was a massive indemnity, the removal of many works of art from the Vatican collections and the surrender to France of Bologna, Ferrara and the Romagna. The Treaty of Tolentino was signed after nine months of negotiations between France and the Papal States on February 19, 1797.
However, on December 28 of that year, a popular French general was killed in a riot outside the French embassy in Rome, thus providing a new pretext furnished for invasion by the French. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of French army units marched to Rome, entered it unopposed on and, proclaiming a Roman Republic, demanded of the Pope the renunciation of his temporal authority. The Roman Republic (Repubblica Romana was proclaimed on February 15, 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded Upon his refusal to do so, Pius VI was taken prisoner, and on February 20 was ultimately brought to the citadel of Valence in France where he died. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Valence ( Occitan Valença) is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the department of Drôme, situated
The new pope, Pope Pius VII, was at first conciliatory towards Napoleon. Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14 1740&mdashAugust 20 1823 born Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope from March 14 1800 to August He negotiated the French Concordat of 1801 which reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status. The Concordat of 1801 is a reflection of an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the majority This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. , removing it from the authority of the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and While the Concordat restored some ties between France and the papacy, the agreement was slanted largely in favor of the state; the balance of church-state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon Bonaparte's favor. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
In 1804, Pius VII, traveled to Paris in 1804 to officiate at Napoleon's imperial coronation. On December 2, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, in the presence of Pope Pius VII. Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are apocryphal; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance. Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14 1740&mdashAugust 20 1823 born Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope from March 14 1800 to August
But by 1808 relations had deteriorated. The pope annoyed Napoleon by refusing to sanction the annulment of his brother Jerome's marriage and, perhaps more significantly, by not bringing the ports of the papal states into the Continental System.
The result was that a French army occupied Rome in February 1808. In the following month another section of the papal states (the Marches) was annexed to the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy. Napoleon followed up these affronts by annexing in 1809 all that remains of the papal states, including the city of Rome, and by announcing that the pope no longer has any form of temporal authority. Pius VII responded by an immediate use of his spiritual authority, excommunicating Napoleon himself and everyone else connected with this outrage. Piux VII was immediately arrested and removed to imprisonment in France.
These are the events which brought the entire Italian peninsula under French control by 1809. The situation remained unchanged until after Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig in 1813 - an event followed by Austrian recovery of much of Italy and a subsequent seal of approval at the congress of Vienna.
During the reigns of Pope Leo XII (1823-9) and Pope Gregory XVI (1831-46), Rome became strongly identified with the anti-liberal sentiments of most of the ruling European houses of the day. Pope Leo XII ( August 22, 1760 – February 10, 1829) born Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola della Genga, was Pope Gregory XVI ( September 18 1765 &ndash June 1 1846) born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of The election of Pope Pius IX in 1846 seemed to promise a less reactionary papacy. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 However, in 1848, nationalist and liberal revolutions began to break out across Europe; in 1849, a Roman Republic was declared and the Pope fled the city. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common See also Roman Republic, Roman Republic (18th century The Roman Republic was a short-lived (four months state established on February 8 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, recently elected president of the newly declared French Second Republic, saw an opportunity to assuage conservative Catholic opinion in France, and in cooperation with Austria sent troops to restore Papal rule in Rome. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President History Revolution of 1848 See also Mid-nineteenth century France The industrial population of the Faubourgs After some hard fighting, Pius was returned to Rome by a victorious French army, and repenting of his previous liberal tendencies pursued a harsh, conservative policy even more repressive than that of his predecessors.
In the years that followed, Italian nationalists–both those who wished to unify the country under the Kingdom of Sardinia and its ruling House of Savoy and those who favored a republican solution–saw the Papal States as the chief obstacle to Italian unity. Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Louis Napoleon, who had now seized control of France as Emperor Napoleon III, tried to play a double game, simultaneously forming an alliance with Sardinia and playing on his famous uncle's nationalist credentials on the one hand and maintaining French troops in Rome to protect the Pope's rights on the other. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President
After the Austro-Sardinian War, much of northern Italy was unified under the House of Savoy's government; in the aftermath, Garibaldi led a revolution that overthrew the Bourbon monarchy in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. Afraid that Garibaldi would set up a republican government in the south, the Sardinians petitioned Napoleon for permission to send troops through the Papal States to gain control of the Two Sicilies, which was granted on the condition that Rome was left undisturbed. In 1860, with much of the region already in rebellion against Papal rule, Sardinia conquered the eastern two-thirds of the Papal States and cemented its hold on the south. Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Bologna, Ferrara, Umbria, the Marches, Benevento and Pontecorvo were all formally annexed by November of the same year, and a unified Kingdom of Italy was declared. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Papal States were reduced to Latium, the immediate neighborhood of Rome. Latium was a region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people.
Rome was declared Capital of Italy in March 1861, when the first Italian Parliament met in the kingdom's old capital Turin in Piemonte. However, the Italian Government could not take possession of its capital because Napoleon III kept a French garrison in Rome protecting Pope Pius IX. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 The opportunity to eliminate the last vestige of the Papal States came when the Franco-Prussian War began in July 1870. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Emperor Napoleon III had to recall his garrison from Rome for France's own defence and could no longer protect the pope. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Following the collapse of the Second French Empire at the battle of Sedan, widespread public demonstrations demanded that the Italian Government take Rome. The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War on 1 September 1870 King Victor Emmanuel II sent Count Ponza di San Martino to Pius IX with a personal letter offering a face-saving proposal that would have allowed the peaceful entry of the Italian Army into Rome, under the guise of offering protection to the pope. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of
On September 10, Italy declared war on the Papal States, and the Italian Army, commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna, crossed the papal frontier on 11 September and advanced slowly toward Rome, hoping that a peaceful entry could be negotiated. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Count Raffaele Cadorna ( February 9, 1815 - February 6, 1897) was an Italian general who served as one of the major The Italian Army reached the Aurelian Walls on 19 September and placed Rome under a state of siege. The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane were City walls built between 271 and 275 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Although the pope's tiny army was incapable of defending the city, Pius IX ordered it to put up at least a token resistance to emphasize that Italy was acquiring Rome by force and not consent. On September 20, the Bersaglieri entered Rome and marched down Via Pia, which was subsequently renamed Via XX Settembre. The Bersaglieri (bersaʎˈːɛri are a Corps of the Italian Army created by General Alessandro La Marmora in 1836 to serve in the Piedmontese Army Rome and Latium were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy after a plebiscite.
In Chapter XXXIV De Cesare also made the following observations:
This event, described in Italian history books as a liberation, was taken very bitterly by the Pope. The Italian government had offered to allow the Pope to retain control of the Leonine City on the west bank of the Tiber, but Pius rejected the overture. The Leonine City (in Latin Civitas Leonina) is that part of the city of Rome around which Pope Leo IV commissioned the construction of the Leonine The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains Early the following year, the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. The Pope, whose previous residence, the Quirinal Palace, had become the royal palace of the Kings of Italy, withdrew in protest into the Vatican, where he lived as a self-proclaimed "prisoner", refusing to leave or to set foot in St. Peter's Square, and forbidding (Non Expedit) Catholics on pain of excommunication to participate in elections in the new Italian state. The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply the Quirinale) is the Official residence of the President A prisoner in the Vatican is what Pope Pius IX claimed to be after the army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome ( September 20 Saint Peter's Square, or Saint Peter's Piazza ( Italian: Piazza San Pietro) is located directly in front of St Non Expedit (Latin for "It is not expedient" were the words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the policy of abstention from the polls in parliamentary elections Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community
In October a plebiscite in Rome and the surrounding Campagna resulted in a vote for union with the kingdom of Italy. Pius IX refused to accept this act of force majeure. He remained in his palace, describing himself as a prisoner in the Vatican. However the new Italian control of Rome did not wither, nor did the Catholic world come to the Pope's aid, as Pius IX had expected.
The provisional capital of Italy had been Florence since 1865. In 1871, the Italian government moved to the banks of the Tiber. Victor Emmanuel installed himself in the Quirinale Palace. Rome became once again, for the first time in thirteen centuries, the capital city of a united Italy.
Rome was unusual among capital cities only in that it contained the power of the Pope and a small parcel of land (Vatican City) beyond national control. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory This anomaly was not formally resolved until the Lateran pacts of 1929. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy
Paradoxically, the eclipse of papal temporal power during the 19th century was accompanied by a recovery of papal prestige. The monarchist reaction in the wake of the French Revolution and the later emergence of constitutional governments served alike, though in different ways, to sponsor that development. The reinstated monarchs of Catholic Europe saw in the papacy a conservative ally rather than a jurisdictional rival. Later, when the institution of constitutional governments broke the ties binding the clergy to the policies of royal regimes, Catholics were freed to respond to the renewed spiritual authority of the pope.
The popes of the 19th and 20th centuries exercised their spiritual authority with increasing vigor and in every aspect of religious life. By the crucial pontificate of Pope Pius IX (1846 - 1878), for example, papal control over worldwide Catholic missionary activity was firmly established for the first time in history. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878
Even before the Franco-Prussian War, Pius IX had foreseen the temporal power of the Church draining away and had begun redefining the Catholic church as a spiritual power that would serve as a firm bulwark against the liberal and scientific trends of the period. The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871
The First Vatican Council established clear theoretical underpinnings to Pius IX's commitment to an intensified centralization of ecclesiastical government in Rome. The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. The council's companion definition of papal infallibility strengthened the energetic exercise of the papal magisterial power that was so marked a feature of the years between the first and second Vatican Councils. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church.
The pope's primary purpose was to obtain confirmation of the position he had taken in his Syllabus of Errors (1864), condemning a wide range of positions associated with rationalism, liberalism, and materialism. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Syllabus of Errors ( Syllabus Errorum) was a document issued by Holy See under Pope Pius IX on December 8 1864, Year 1864 ( MDCCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism.
The purpose of the council was, besides the condemnation, to define the doctrine concerning the church. In the three sessions, there was discussion and approval of only two constitutions: Dei Filius, the Dogmatic Constitution On The Catholic Faith and Pastor Aeternus, the First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, dealing with the primacy and infallibility of the bishop of Rome when solemnly defining dogma. Papal infallibility is the Dogma in Catholic theology that by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of
Seven months later, on 18 July 1870, the prelates assembled in St Peter's accepted an uncompromising dogma - that the pope, when speaking from his throne on a matter of faith or morals, is inspired by God and is therefore infallible. Papal infallibility was merely the most striking example of the authoritarian stance now being established. Papal infallibility is the Dogma in Catholic theology that by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of The direction in which Pius IX was taking the church was made very plain in a document of 1864 known simply as the Syllabus. It is a list of eighty modern errors. They include such broad topics as socialism, civil marriage and secular education.
The final error is the most sweeping of all. It is the concept that 'the Roman Pontiff can and should reconcile himself to and agree with progress, liberalism and modern civilization'.
The pontificate of Pope Pius XI was marked by great diplomatic activity and the issuance of many important papers, often in the form of encyclicals. Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born In diplomatic affairs, Pius was aided at first by Pietro Gasparri and after 1930 by Eugenio Pacelli (who succeeded him as Pope Pius XII). Pietro Cardinal Gasparri PhD ( May 5, 1852 – November 18, 1934) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop, Diplomat Pope Pope Cardinal Gasparri's masterpiece was the Lateran Treaty (1929). Nevertheless, the Fascist government and the pope were in open disagreement over the restriction of youth activities; this culminated in a strong papal letter (Non abbiamo bisogno, 1931), arguing the impossibility of being at once a Fascist and a Catholic. Relations between Mussolini and the Holy See were cool ever after.
Negotiations for the settlement of the Roman Question began in 1926 between the government of Italy and the Holy See, and in 1929 they culminated in the agreements of the three Lateran Pacts, signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri in the Lateran Palace (hence the name by which they are known). The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929 Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's The Cardinal Secretary of State &mdashofficially Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope &mdashpresides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which Pietro Cardinal Gasparri PhD ( May 5, 1852 – November 18, 1934) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop, Diplomat The Lateran Palace, sometimes more formally known as the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran (Italian Palazzo Laterano) is an ancient Palace of the Roman
The Lateran treaty included a political treaty, which created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic The Pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties The concordat established Catholicism as the religion of Italy. And the financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of temporal power in 1870. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The sum thereby given to the Holy See was actually less than Italy declared it would pay under the terms of the Law of Guarantees of 1871, by which the Italian government guaranteed to Pope Pius IX and his successors the use of, but not sovereignty over, the Vatican and Lateran Palaces and a yearly income of 3,250,000 lire as indemnity for the loss of sovereignty and territory. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 The lira (plural lire) was the Currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 An indemnity is a sum paid by A to B by way of compensation for a particular loss suffered by B. The temporal power of the Popes is the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual The Holy See, on the grounds of the need for clearly manifested independence from any political power in its exercise of spiritual jurisdiction, refused to accept this settlement, and the Popes thereafter considered themselves prisoners in the Vatican, a small, limited area inside Rome. A prisoner in the Vatican is what Pope Pius IX claimed to be after the army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome ( September 20
The Reichskonkordat, signed on July 20, 1933, between Germany and the Holy See remains the most important and controversial of Pacelli's concordats. The Reichskonkordat is the Concordat between the Holy See and Nazi Germany. The Reichskonkordat is the Concordat between the Holy See and Nazi Germany. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A national concordat with Germany was one of Pacelli's main objectives as secretary of state. As nuncio during the 1920s, he had made unsuccessful attempts to obtain German agreement for such a treaty, and between 1930 and 1933 he attempted to initiate negotiations with representatives of successive German governments, but the opposition of Protestant and Socialist parties, the instability of national governments and the care of the individual states to guard their autonomy thwarted this aim. Nuncio is an ecclesiastical Diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin word Nuntius, meaning "envoy In particular, the questions of denominational schools and pastoral work in the armed forces prevented any agreement on the national level, despite talks in the winter of 1932. 
Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on 30 January 1933 and sought to gain international respectability and to remove internal opposition by representatives of the Church and the Catholic Centre Party. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The German Centre Party ( Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum) was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich He sent his vice chancellor Franz von Papen, a Catholic nobleman and former member of the Centre Party, to Rome to offer negotiations about a Reichskonkordat. (29 October 1879 2 May 1969 was a German nobleman Catholic monarchist Politician, General Staff officer and Diplomat  On behalf of Cardinal Pacelli, his long-time associate Prelate Ludwig Kaas, the out-going chairman of the Centre Party, negotiated first drafts of the terms with Papen. Prelate Ludwig Kaas ( 23 May 1881 &ndash 15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German  The concordat was finally signed, by Pacelli for the Vatican and von Papen for Germany, on 20 July and ratified on September 10, 1933. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. 
Between 1933 to 1939, Pacelli issued 55 protests of violations of the Reichskonkordat. Most notably, early in 1937, Pacelli asked several German cardinals, including Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber to help him write a protest of Nazi violations of the Reichskonkordat; this was to become Pius XI's encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge. Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber (born March 3, 1869 in Klosterheidenfeld Unterfranken, died June 12, 1952 in Munich Mit brennender Sorge ( German for "With burning Concern" is a Roman Catholic Church Encyclical of Pope Pius XI, published The encyclical, condemning the view that "exalts race, or the people, or the State, or a particular form of State . List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Statism (or Etatism) is a very loose and often Derogatory term that is used to describe Specific instances of state intervention in personal social . . above their standard value and divinizes them to an idolatrous level", was written in German instead of Latin and read in German churches on Palm Sunday 1937. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Palm Sunday is a Christian Moveable feast which always falls on the Sunday before Easter. 
When Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, the Vatican declared neutrality to avoid being drawn into the conflict and also to avoid occupation by the Italian military. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1944, the German Army occupied Rome. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Adolf Hitler proclaimed that he would respect Vatican neutrality. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately However several incidents, such as giving aid to downed Allied airmen, nearly caused Nazi Germany to invade the Vatican. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Rome was liberated by the Allies after only a few weeks of occupation.
The continuing strength of the forces within the church favoring theological innovation and energetic reform became unmistakably evident at the Second Vatican Council, convened by Pope John XXIII (1958 - 1963), and found expression especially in its decrees on ecumenism, religious liberty, the liturgy, and the nature of the church. Pope John (numberingBlessed The ambivalence of some of those decrees, however, and the disciplinary turmoil and doctrinal dissension following the ending of the council, brought about new challenges to papal authority.
On October 11, 1962, Pope John XXIII opened the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pope John (numberingBlessed The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. The 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic church emphasized the universal call to holiness and brought many changes in practices, including an increased emphasis on ecumenism; fewer rules on penances, fasting and other devotional practices; and initiating a revision of the services, which were to be slightly simplified and made supposedly more accessible by allowing the use of native languages instead of Latin. This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. Universal Call to Holiness and Apostolate is a teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that all people are called to be holy. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Opposition to changes inspired by the Council gave rise to the movement of Traditionalist Catholics who disagree with changing the old forms of worship. Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or people who identify as Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical
On December 7, 1965, a Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of His Holiness Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I lifted the mutual excommunication against Catholic and Orthodox which had been in force since the Great Schism of 1054. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar.
During the Second Vatican Council, Catholic bishops drew back a bit from the doctrine of papal primacy. They opted instead for a vision of church administration which looked a bit more like the church during the first millennium: collegial, communal, and a joint operation among a group of equals rather than an absolute monarchy under a single ruler.
The bishops didn’t go so far as to say that the pope didn’t exercise supreme authority over the church, but they did insist that all bishops share in this authority. In essence, the idea is that the Christian community is one that consists of communion of local churches which do not entirely give up their authority as a result of membership in a larger organization. In this view, the pope serves as a symbol of unity and works to ensure the continuation of that unity.
The establishment of national conferences of bishops tended to erode papal authority to some degree, and Pope Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), reaffirming the prohibition of artificial birth control, was met with both evasion and defiance. Pope Humanae Vitae ( Latin "Of Human Life" is an Encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968 By the late 1970s papal authority itself had become a bone of contention.
On June 30, 1988, Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of St. Pius X (SSPX), consecrated four men as bishops at Ecône, Switzerland without the express permission of the Pope. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Marcel-François Lefebvre ( November 29 1905 – March 25 1991) better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Ecône is an area in the municipality of Riddes, district of Martigny, in the canton of Valais, in Switzerland Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Lefebvre et al. automatically incurs excommunication according to canon law. Traditionalist SSPX have been in schism ever since. 
Sedevacantism is a theological position embraced by a minority of traditionalist Catholics which holds that the papacy has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958 (or, in some cases, the death of Pope John XXIII in 1963). Sedevacantism is the position held by a minority of Traditionalist Catholics who claim that the Papal See has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or people who identify as Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Pope Pope John (numberingBlessed Sedevacantists believe that the subsequent claimants to the papal office — Paul VI (1963–1978), John Paul I (1978), John Paul II (1978–2005) and Benedict XVI (since 2005) — have been neither true Catholics nor true popes. Pope Pope John Paul I ( Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP I, Italian: Giovanni Paolo I) born Albino Luciani, ( October 17 1912 Pope Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger
The term "sedevacantism" is derived from the Latin phrase sede vacante, which means "while the see is vacant". Sede vacante is the vacancy of the Episcopal see of a Particular church in the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. The phrase is used (though not exclusively) to refer to the Holy See in the period between a pope's death or resignation and the election of his successor. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect the Pope (or Bishop of Rome) who is considered by Catholics to be the Successor
Some groups of traditionalist Catholics reject the generally recognized Popes and give allegiance instead to alternative Popes of their own choosing, resulting in a schism. The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" Since they hold that the See of Rome is headed by their nominee and thus is not vacant, they are not sedevacantists in the strict sense. However, the term "sedevacantist" is often applied to them because, in order to proceed to select their own Pope, they had first to declare that the Holy See had become vacant. Another term for them is "conclavist".
Pope Paul VI (1963-1978), however, continued the ecumenical efforts of Pope John XXIII in his contacts with Protestant and Orthodox churches. Pope Pope John (numberingBlessed Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine He also continued John XXIII's attempts to make discreet moves in the direction of pragmatic accommodation with the Communist regimes of eastern Europe, a policy that would have been unthinkable during the reigns of Pope Pius XI and Pope Pius XII. Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born Pope Paul VI also reorganized the curia and spoke strongly for peace and social justice.
With the accession of Pope John Paul II, the church had, for the first time since Pope Adrian VI in the 16th century, a non-Italian pope. Pope Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of
John Paul II has been credited with helping to bring down communism in eastern Europe by sparking what amounted to a peaceful revolution in his Polish homeland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Lech Wałęsa, one of the several founders of the Solidarity worker movement that ultimately toppled communism, credited John Paul with giving Poles the courage to rise up. "The pope started this chain of events that led to the end of communism," Wałęsa said. "Before his pontificate, the world was divided into blocs. Nobody knew how to get rid of communism. "He simply said: Don't be afraid, change the image of this land. "
Gorbachev himself acknowledged publicly the role of John Paul II in the fall of Communism. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician "What has happened in Eastern Europe in recent years would not have been possible without the presence of this Pope, without the great role even political that he has played on the world scene" (quoted in La Stampa, March 3, 1992). Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent.
Perhaps the most significant statement the pope made after the fall of Communism throughout his entire pontificate was that "the claim to build a world without God has been shown to be an illusion" (Prague, April 21, 1990). "Fall of Communism" redirects here For the fall of the Soviet Union itself see History of the Soviet Union (1985–1991. For John Paul II it was only a matter of when and how Communism would fall. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Communism as a system, in John Paul II's opinion, fell not only by the hand of divine Providence, but as a consequence of its own mistakes and abuses. John Paul II repeated the content of Christianity, its religious and moral message, its defense of the human person, insisting that this is a principle to be followed. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Thus, in his estimation, Christianity itself became the determining factor in the fall of Communism.
While celebrating the fall of Communism, however, John Paul warned against the dangers of capitalism. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where "Unfortunately, not everything the West proposes as a theoretical vision or as a concrete lifestyle reflects Gospel values. " He saw in capitalism certain "viruses": secularism, indifferentism, hedonistic consumerism, practical materialism, and also formal atheism. Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs In the Catholic Church, indifferentism is a condemned heresy that holds that one Religion is as good as another and that all religions are equally Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Atheism
James L Barker ( 27 July 1880 – 29 May 1958) was an American historian and a missionary for The Church of Jesus History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a graphical list While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several churches to denote their high spiritual leaders this title in English While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several churches to denote their high spiritual leaders this title in English Sixteen Pope s have had French ancestry all in the second half of the Medieval era List of German Popes: Pope Gregory V Bruno von Kärnten 996–999 Pope Clement II Suitger Graf von Morsleben und Hornburg This article contains a list of popes that have become saints. Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with or making it superior to the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; especially Sedevacantism is the position held by a minority of Traditionalist Catholics who claim that the Papal See has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over The Papacy has been surrounded by numerous Legends. Among the most famous are the claims that the Papal Tiara contains the Number of the beast The Prophecy of the Popes, attributed to Saint Malachy, is a list of 112 short phrases in Latin.