The Assyrian people (Aramaic: Āṯūrāyē; Akkadian: Aššūrāyu) are believed to have descended from the ancient Assyrians of Mesopotamia (Aramaic: Bet-Nahrain, "the house of the rivers"), who, in the 7th century BC, controlled the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire which stretched from Egypt and Anatolia, across Mesopotamia, to western Iran. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Aramaic is a Semitic language with The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Aramaic is a Semitic language with The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.
Assyrians (also called Chaldeans and Syriacs) are the ethno-linguistic descendants of the Roman and Achaemenid provinces of Syria and Assyria. Syria was a Roman province, conquered in 64 BC by Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence after pursing victory in the Third Mithridatic "Aturia" redirects here For the Fossil Nautilus Genus, see Aturia (cephalopod.  The Assyrian people adopted Christianity as one of the first nations, in the 1st to 3rd centuries. Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. 
Culturally, linguistically, and ethnically distinct from their neighbours in the Middle East - the Arabs, Persians, Kurds, Turks, and Armenians - the Assyrians have, throughout their recent history, endured much hardship, largely as a result of religious and ethnic persecution. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ
Assyrian nationalism emphasizes their indigeneity to the Assyrian homeland, and cultural continuity since the Iron Age Neo-Assyrian Empire. The term Assyrianism or Assyrian nationalism refers to a variant of Syriac Christian Nationalism, which originated in the 19th century and is The Assyrian homeland or Assyria ( Assyrian: ܐܬܘܪ or Beth Nahrain refers to a geographic and cultural region in the The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC
The oldest neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Hassuna or Tell Hassuna is an ancient Mesopotamian site situated in Iraq, south of Mosul. The Assyrian roots ultimately go back to the ancient Akkadians, from whom the ancient Assyrians are believed to have descended. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture The Akkad region laid in north and central Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding The main city, Akkad (or Agade), is thought to have been situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish, close to modern Baghdad. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת Sippar ( Sumerian Zimbir "bird city" modern Tell Abu Habbah, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian and later Babylonian The Akkadian Kingdom reached the height of its power between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests of king Sargon. The 24th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2400 BC to 2301 BC The 22nd century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2200 BC to 2101 BC You may be looking for the Assyrian kings Sargon I
The first inscriptions of Assyrian rulers appear after 2000 BC. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture The Assyrian Empire originated in the early 2nd millennium BC, succeeding the Akkadian Kingdom of the late 3rd millennium BC. Assyria then consisted of a number of city states and small Semitic kingdoms. In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ The foundation of the Assyrian monarchy was traditionally ascribed to Zulilu, who is said to have lived after Bel-kap-kapu (Bel-kapkapi or Belkabi, circa 1900 BC), the ancestor of Shalmaneser I. Zulilu was traditionally the founder of the Assyrian monarchy some time before 1900 BC Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" The 19th century BC was the century which lasted from 1900 BC to 1801 BC Shalmaneser I ( Shulmanu-asharidu) king of Assyria. (1274 BC – 1245 BC or 1265 BC - 1235 BC Son of Adad-nirari I, he succeeded his father as King The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the Old, Middle, and Neo-Assyrian kingdoms, or periods. The most powerful and best-known nation of these periods is the Neo-Assyrian kingdom (911-612 BC), or the Assyrian empire, the first true empire in human history. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC  However, its capital was captured in the Battle of Nineveh, ending the dynasty. The Assyrians moved their capital to Harran, and when Harran was captured, the Assyrians once again moved their capital to Carchemish. Carchemish (called Europus by the Greco-Romans) was an important ancient city of the Mitanni and Hittite empires now on the frontier between 
After the defeat of Ashur-uballit II in 608 BC at Haran, the last Assyrian stronghold of resistance, the Assyrian empire was divided up by the key invading forces, the Babylonians and the Medes. "Aturia" redirects here For the Fossil Nautilus Genus, see Aturia (cephalopod. Ashur-uballit II (Aššur-uballiṭ II, was the last king of the Assyrian empire For the village in Azerbaijan see Haran Azerbaijan. In the Bible, Haran is the name of a man and of a place Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Sumer and Akkad and the bulk of the Western half of the empire came under the realm of the Babylonian king Nabopolassar, whereas the Eastern half of Assyria-proper and Urartu were controlled by the Medes, led by Cyaxares. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar Nabopolassar ( Akkadian: Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (ruled 625-605 BC of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Assyrian homeland or Assyria ( Assyrian: ܐܬܘܪ or Beth Nahrain refers to a geographic and cultural region in the Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising Cyaxares, Hvakhshathra, or Kayxosrew (𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼 Uvaxštra, Greek Κυαξαρης; r The Median empire was then conquered by Cyrus in 547 BC. , under the Achaemenid dynasty, and the Persian empire was thus founded, which later consumed the Neo-Babylonian or "Chaldean" Empire. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia King Cyrus changed Assyria's capital from Nineveh to Arbela. Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) Arbela may refer to An important city in ancient Israel located on the site of modern Irbid, Jordan The ancient name of the city of Arbil Assyrians became front line soldiers for the Persian empire under King Xerxes, because of their strategic locations, playing a big role in the Battle of Marathon under King Darius I in 490 BC. A front line is a line of confrontation in an Armed conflict, most commonly a War. The Battle of Marathon ( Greek: Μάχη τοῡ Μαραθῶνος Machē tou Marathōnos) during the Greco-Persian Wars took place in 490 Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed 
From the 1st century BC, Assyria was the theatre of the protracted Perso-Roman Wars. Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. It would eventually become a Roman province between 161 and 363 AD, although Roman control of this province was unstable and was often returned to the Persians. Assyria was one of three provinces (Armenia Mesopotamia and Assyria created by the Roman emperor Trajan in 116 C Along with the Armenians and Ethiopians, the Assyrians were among the first people to convert to Christianity and spread Eastern Christianity to the Far East. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia.
The Council of Seleucia of ca. Council of Rimini|First Council of Constantinople (360 The Council of Seleucia was an early Christian church Synod at Seleucia Isauria (now Silifke 325 dealt with jurisdictional conflicts among the leading bishops. Events By Place Roman Empire Gladiatorial combat is outlawed in the Roman Empire At the subsequent Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon of 410, the Christian communities of Mesopotamia renounced all subjection to Antioch and the "Western" bishops and the Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon assumed the rank of Catholicos. Events By place Western Roman Empire Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Emperor. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Al-Mada'in ( Arabic المدائن "The cities" also known under the Aramaic name "Mahoze" or as "Madayn" is the name of Catholicos (plural Catholicoi) is a title used by the Patriarch (head/regional head Bishop) of any of certain Eastern churches The Nestorian and Monophysite schisms of the 5th century divided the church into separate denominations. The Nestorian Schism was the split between the Byzantine church of the West and the Assyrian church of the East in the 5th century. Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that
The ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh had its own bishop of the Church of the East at the time of the Arab conquest of Mesopotamia.  During the era of the Islamic Empire, Assyrians maintained their autonomy; in a fatwa, Mohammed, the prophet of Islam, demanded the "protection of the Assyrian people of Mesopotamia". Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government A fatwā (فتوى plural fatāwā فتاوى in the Islamic faith is a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.  The Assyrians eventually lost their autonomy when the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and the written fatwa destroyed in 1847, after which thirty thousand Assyrians were subsequently massacred. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish 
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Ottoman Empire was disintegrating. The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ World War I and its aftermath saw its end, during which time Assyrians – like Armenians – claim a genocide occurred (1914 to 1922), where an estimated two-thirds of Assyrians died in organized massacres, starvation, disease, and systematic kidnapping and rape. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ In 1932, Assyrians refused to become part of the newly-formed state of Iraq and instead demanded their recognition as a nation within a nation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Assyrian leader Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII asked the League of Nations to recognize the right of Assyrians to govern the area known as the "Assyrian triangle" in northern Iraq. Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII (born February 28, 1908, in Qochanis in modern-day Turkey, died November 6, 1975 in San José The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The Assyrian independence (also known as the Assyrian Question) is a Political movement and Ideology that supports the creation of an Assyrian homeland  Eventually this led to the Iraqi government to commit its first of many massacres against its minority populations (see Simele massacre). The Simele massacre ( Syriac: syr ܦܪܡܬܐ ܕܣܡܠܐ Premta d-Simele) was the first of many massacres committed by the 
With the fall of Saddam Hussein and the 2003 invasion of Iraq, no reliable census figures exist on the Assyrians in Iraq (as they do not for Iraqi Kurds or Turkmen), though the number of Assyrians is estimated to be approximately 800,000. The Assyrian independence (also known as the Assyrian Question) is a Political movement and Ideology that supports the creation of an Assyrian homeland The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Iraqi Kurdistan Region ( Kurdish: هه رێمى كوردستان Herêmi Kurdistan, Arabic:إقليم كردستان العراق, Iqlĩm Kurdistãn The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) ( Turkish: Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic
The Assyrian Democratic Movement (or ADM) was one of the smaller political parties that emerged in the social chaos of the occupation. The Assyrian Democratic Movement ( ADM) also known as Zowaa is an ethnic Assyrian political party in Iraq, and is currently the only Assyrian-based Its officials say that while members of the ADM also took part in the liberation of the key oil cities of Kirkuk and Mosul in the north, the Assyrians were not invited to join the steering committee that was charged with defining Iraq's future. The ethnic make-up of the Iraq Interim Governing Council briefly (September 2003 - June 2004) guided Iraq after the invasion included a single Assyrian Christian, Younadem Kana, a leader of the Assyrian Democratic Movement and an opponent of Saddam Hussein since 1979. The Iraqi Governing Council (IGC was the provisional government of Iraq from July 13, 2003 to June 1, Yonadam Yousef Kanna ( Syriac: ܝܘܢܐܕܐܡ ܚܢܐܢܐ also known as Yacoub Yousip) is an Iraqi politician and a member of the Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar)