The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques. An invention is a new form composition of matter device or Process. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other Background knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors have become possible through technologies which assist humans to travel to places we could not otherwise go, and probe the nature of the universe in more detail than our natural senses allow. Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt
Technological artifacts are products of an economy, a force for economic growth, and a large part of everyday life. An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between Technological innovations affect, and are affected by, a society's cultural traditions. They also are a means to develop and project military power.
Many sociologists and anthropologists have created social theories dealing with social and cultural evolution. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Social theory is an essential tool used by scholars in the analysis of society through the use of theoretical frameworks social structures and phenomena are analyzed and placed in context Social Evolution is the title of an essay by Benjamin Kidd, which became available as a book published by Macmillan and co London in 1894 Sociocultural evolution(ism is an umbrella term for theories of cultural evolution and Social evolution, describing how Cultures and societies Some, like Lewis H. Morgan, Leslie White, and Gerhard Lenski, declare technological progress to be the primary factor driving the development of human civilization. Lewis Henry Morgan ( November 21, 1818 &ndash December 17, 1881) was an American Ethnologist, Anthropologist and Leslie Alvin White ( 19 January 1900, Salida Colorado &ndash 31 March 1975, Lone Pine California) was an American Gerhard Emmanuel Lenski (born August 13, 1924 in Washington DC) is an American Sociologist known for contributions to the Sociology of The history of technology is the history of the Invention of Tools and techniques Morgan's concept of three major stages of social evolution (savagery, barbarism, and civilization) can be divided by technological milestones, like fire, the bow, and pottery in the savage era, domestication of animals, agriculture, and metalworking in the barbarian era and the alphabet and writing in the civilization era. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements A bow is a Weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Metalworking is craft and practice of working with Metals to create individual parts assemblies or large scale structures An alphabet is a standardized set of letters basic written symbols each of which roughly represents a Phoneme, a Spoken language, either
Instead of specific inventions, White decided that the measure by which to judge the evolution of culture was energy. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός For White "the primary function of culture" is to "harness and control energy. " White differentiates between five stages of human development: In the first, people use energy of their own muscles. In the second, they use energy of domesticated animals. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals In the third, they use the energy of plants (agricultural revolution). In the fourth, they learn to use the energy of natural resources: coal, oil, gas. In the fifth, they harness nuclear energy. Nuclear Energy is released by the splitting (fission or merging together (fusion of the nuclei of Atom (s White introduced a formula P=E*T, where E is a measure of energy consumed, and T is the measure of efficiency of technical factors utilizing the energy. In his own words, "culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased, or as the efficiency of the instrumental means of putting the energy to work is increased". Russian astronomer, Nikolai Kardashev, extrapolated his theory creating the Kardashev scale, which categorizes the energy use of advanced civilizations. Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev (Никола́й Семёнович Кардашёв (born April 25, 1932 The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement
Lenski takes a more modern approach and focuses on information. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings The more information and knowledge (especially allowing the shaping of natural environment) a given society has, the more advanced it is. He identifies four stages of human development, based on advances in the history of communication. The history of communication dates back to the earliest signs of Life. In the first stage, information is passed by genes. History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance In the second, when humans gain sentience, they can learn and pass information through by experience. Sentience is the ability to feel or perceive subjectively. It is an important concept in the philosophy of Animal rights, in buddhist philosophy and in In the fields of Neuropsychology, Personal development and Education, Learning is one of the most important Mental function of humans In the third, the humans start using signs and develop logic. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. In the fourth, they can create symbols, develop language and writing. The musical instrument is spelled Cymbal. A symbol is something --- such as an object, Picture, written word a sound a piece A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Advancements in the technology of communication translates into advancements in the economic system and political system, distribution of wealth, social inequality and other spheres of social life. An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between A political system is a System of Politics and Government. It is usually compared to the Law system, Economic system, Cultural Distribution of wealth is a comparison of the Wealth of various members or groups in a Society, and is one aspect of the Economy and Social structure Social inequality refers to a lack of Social equality, where individuals in a society do not have equal Social status. He also differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: 1) hunters and gatherers, 2) simple agricultural, 3) advanced agricultural, 4) industrial 5) special (like fishing societies).
Finally, from the late 1970s sociologists and anthropologists like Alvin Toffler (author of Future Shock), Daniel Bell and John Naisbitt have approached the theories of post-industrial societies, arguing that the current era of industrial society is coming to an end, and services and information are becoming more important than industry and goods. Alvin Toffler (born October 3, 1928) is an American Writer and futurist, known for his works discussing Future Shock is a book written by the Sociologist and Futurologist Alvin Toffler in 1970 Daniel Bell (born 10 May 1919 in New York) is a sociologist and a professor emeritus at Harvard University. John Naisbitt (b January 15, 1929 in Salt Lake City Utah) is an American Author and Public speaker in the area of A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion In Sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure A service is the non-material equivalent of a good. A service provision is an economic activity that does not result in Ownership, and this is what differentiates For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Some of the more extreme visions of the post-industrial society, especially in fiction, are strikingly similar to the visions of near and post-Singularity societies. Fiction is the telling of stories which are not real More specifically fiction is an imaginative form of Narrative, one of the four basic Rhetorical modes. The technological singularity is a theoretical future point of unprecedented technological progress caused in part by the ability of machines to improve themselves using Artificial
During the Stone Age, all humans had a lifestyle which involved limited use of tools and few if any permanent settlements. For the bone see Stapes. For other uses of the word stirrup see Stirrup (disambiguation. A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking The first major technologies, then, were tied to survival, hunting, and food preparation in this environment. Fire, stone tools and weapons, and clothing were technological developments of major importance during this period. Stone Age cultures developed music, and engaged in organized warfare. In the History of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all Music produced in preliterate cultures ( Prehistory Prehistoric warfare is War conducted in the era before Writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like States Historical warfare sets A subset of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger ship technology, leading to an eastward migration across the Malay archipelago, across the Indian ocean to Madagascar and also across the Pacific Ocean, which required knowledge of the ocean currents, weather patterns, sailing, celestial navigation, and star maps. An outrigger is a part of a boat's Rigging which is rigid and extends beyond the side or Gunwale of a boat The history of Papua New Guinea can be traced back to about 60000 years ago when people first migrated towards the Australian continent. The Malay Archipelago is a name given to the Archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia ( Indochina) and Australia. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is a Position fixing technique that was devised to help sailors cross the featureless oceans without having to The early Stone Age is described as Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic. The Epipaleolithic is a term used for the "final Upper Palaeolithic industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation which appear to merge technologically into the The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age The former is generally used to describe the early Stone Age in areas with limited glacial impact. The later Stone Age, during which the rudiments of agricultural technology were developed, is called the Neolithic period. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos During this period, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks such as flint, jade, jadeite and greenstone, largely by working exposures as quarries, but later the valuable rocks were pursued by tunnelling underground, the first steps in mining technology. A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. Flint (or flintstone) is a hard sedimentary Cryptocrystalline form of the Mineral Quartz, categorized as a variety of Chert Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. Jadeite is a Pyroxene mineral with composition Na[[aluminum Al]] Si 2 O 6 The polished axes were used for forest clearance and the establishment of crop farming, and were so effective as to remain in use when bronze and iron appeared.
Although Paleolithic cultures left no written records, the shift from nomadic life to settlement and agriculture can be inferred from a range of archaeological evidence. Such evidence includes ancient tools, cave paintings, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times --> In the history of art prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory beginning somewhere in very late geological history The Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11 Human remains also provide direct evidence, both through the examination of bones, and the study of mummies. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme Though concrete evidence is limited, scientists and historians have been able to form significant inferences about the lifestyle and culture of various prehistoric peoples, and the role technology played in their lives.
The Stone Age developed into the Bronze Age after the Neolithic Revolution. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and The Neolithic Revolution involved radical changes in agricultural technology which included development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. Agriculture was developed at least 10000 years ago and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals These combined factors made possible the development of metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of choice, although polished stone tools continued to be used for a considerable time owing to their abundance compared with the less common metals (especially tin). Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50
This technological trend apparently began in the Fertile Crescent, and spread outward over time. The Fertile Crescent is a Crescent -shaped region in the Middle East, originally incorporating the Levant and Ancient Mesopotamia, and often It should be noted that these developments were not, and still are not, universal. The Three-age system does not accurately describe the technology history of groups outside of Eurasia, and does not apply at all in the case of some isolated populations, such as the Spinifex People, the Sentinelese, and various Amazonian tribes, which still make use of Stone Age technology, and have not developed agricultural or metal technology. The three-age system refers to the Periodization of Human Prehistory into three consecutive Time periods named for their respective For the superstate in George Orwell 's novel see Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The Spinifex people, or Pila Nguru, are an Indigenous Australian people whose traditional lands are situated in the Great Victoria Desert, in the The Sentinelese (also Sentineli, Senteneli, Sentenelese, North Sentinel Islanders) are one of the Andamanese Indigenous
The Iron Age involved the adoption of iron smelting technology. The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. A bloomery is a type of Furnace once widely used for Smelting Iron from its oxides. It generally replaced bronze, and made it possible to produce tools which were stronger and cheaper to make than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last major step before the development of written language, though again this was not universally the case. It was not possible to mass manufacture steel because high furnace temperatures were needed, but steel could be produced by forging bloomery iron to reduce the carbon content in a controllable way. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Forging is the term for shaping metal by using localized compressive forces Iron ores were much more widespread than either copper or tin. In Europe, large hill forts were built either as a refuge in time of war, or sometimes as permanent settlements. A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement In some cases, existing forts from the Bronze Age were expanded and enlarged. The pace of land clearance using the more effective iron axes increased, providing more farmland to support the growing population.
By 1000 BC - 500 BC, the Germanic tribes had a Bronze Age civilization, while the Celts were in the Iron Age by the time of the Hallstatt culture. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Their cultures collided with the military and agricultural practices of the Romans, leading those Europeans who were conquered to adopt Roman technological advances. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC
It was the growth of the ancient civilizations which produced the greatest advances in technology and engineering, advances which stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group This article deals with the physical structure For related terms see Canal inclined plane, Cable railway, Funicular, or Fixed-wing They were among the first to extract gold by large-scale mining using fire-setting, and the first recognisable map, the Turin papyrus shows the plan of one such mine in Nubia. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 A method of mining fires were set against a rock face to break the rock by Thermal shock after dousing with water A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, Regions, and Themes The Turin Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian Map, generally considered the oldest surviving map of topographical interest from the ancient world This article is about the region in Africa for other uses see Nubia (disambiguation. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery was mass produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Papyrus (/pəˈpaɪrəs/ (Rhymes -aɪrəs)is a thick paper-like material produced from the Pith of the papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware The wheel, however, did not arrive until foreign invaders introduced the chariot. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of Carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples They developed Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses. Maritime history is a broad thematic element of History that often uses a global approach although national and regional histories remain predominant
For later technologies in Ptolemaic Egypt, Roman Egypt, and Arab Egypt, see Ancient Greek technology and innovation, Roman technology and Inventions in the Muslim world respectively. Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra Ægyptus redirects here See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Righteous Caliphs, and then the Ummayad Ancient Greek technology developed at an unprecedented speed during the 5th century BC continuing up to and including the girls period and beyond Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years
The Indus Valley Civilization, situated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Cites in the Indus Valley offer some of the first examples of closed gutters, public baths, and communal granaries. The Takshashila University was an important seat of learning in the ancient world. For the Genus of metalmark butterflies, see Taxila (butterfly. It was the center of education for scholars from all over Asia. Many Greek, Persian and Chinese students studied here under great scholars including Kautilya, Panini, Jivaka, and Vishnu Sharma. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Chanakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c 350-283 BC was an adviser and a Prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor
Ancient India was also at the forefront of seafaring technology - a panel found at Mohenjodaro, depicts a sailing craft. Mohenjo-daro (موئن جودڑو موئن جو دڙو मोहन जोदड़ो Mound of the Dead was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization Ship construction is vividly described in the Yukti Kalpa Taru, an ancient Indian text on Shipbuilding. The Yukti Kalpa Taru, compiled by Bhoja Narapati is concerned with shipbuilding. (The Yukti Kalpa Taru had been translated and published by Prof. Aufrecht in his 'Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts'). A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way
Indian construction and architecture, called 'Vaastu Shastra', suggests a thorough understanding or materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation. Vaastu Shastra deals with various aspects of Designing and Building living environments that are in harmony with the physical and metaphysical Ancient Indian culture was also pioneering in its use of vegetable dyes, cultivating plants including indigo and cinnabar. Indigo is the Color on the Electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in Wavelength, placing it between Blue and violet Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red Mercury(II sulfide ( Hg[[sulfide S]] or native Vermilion, the common Many of the dyes were used in art and sculpture. The use of perfumes demonstrates some knowledge of chemistry, particularly distillation and purification processes. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture
According to the Scottish researcher Joseph Needham, the Chinese made many first-known discoveries and developments. The history of Science and Technology in China is both long and rich with many contributions to science and technology Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham, CH, FRS, FBA ( December 9, 1900 – March 24 1995) was a British Major technological contributions from China include early seismological detectors, matches, paper, sliding calipers, the double-action piston pump, cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the wheelbarrow, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. Seismology (from Greek grc σεισμός seismos, "earthquake" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Earthquakes A match is a consumable Tool for lighting a Fire under controlled circumstances on demand Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging A caliper ( British spelling also calliper) is a device used to measure the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides A piston is a component of Reciprocating engines Pumps and Gas compressors It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by Piston Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. The plough ( American spelling plow; both plaʊ is a Tool used in Farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed A seed drill is a device for planting Seeds in the soil Before the introduction of the seed drill the common practice was to "broadcast" seeds by hand A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle usually with just one Wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear or a sail This article is concerned with a particular type of suspension bridge the suspended-deck type A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three-dimensional representation usually of terrain A propeller is essentially a type of fan which transmits power by converting Rotational motion into Thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such as an A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts The South Pointing Chariot is widely regarded as one of the most complex Geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization, and was continually used throughout the Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Other Chinese discoveries and inventions from the Medieval period, according to Joseph Needham's research, include: the paddle wheel boat, block printing and movable type, phosphorescent paint, chain drive, the escapement mechanism, and the spinning wheel. A paddle wheel (also called side wheel or stern wheel) is a large wheel fitted with Paddles which is used to propel a Boat. For the use of the technique in art see Woodcut on the technique and Old master print for the history in Europe and Woodblock printing in Japan. Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another In Mechanical watches and Clocks an escapement is a device which converts continuous rotational motion into an oscillating or back and forth motion A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or Yarn from natural or Synthetic Fibers History Technology in World Civilization
The solid-fuel rocket was invented in China about 1150, nearly 200 years after the invention of black powder (which acted as the rocket's fuel). A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes At the same time that the age of exploration was occurring in the West, the Chinese emperors of the Ming Dynasty also sent ships, some reaching Africa. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui But the enterprises were not further funded, halting further exploration and development. When Ferdinand Magellan's ships reached Brunei in 1521, they found a wealthy city that had been fortified by Chinese engineers, and protected by a breakwater. Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães fɨɾˈnɐ̃ũ dɨ mɐgɐˈʎɐ̃ĩʃ Fernando de Magallanes (Spring 1480 &ndash April 27 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defence or to protect an anchorage from the effects of Weather and Longshore drift. Antonio Pigafetta noted that much of the technology of Brunei was equal to Western technology of the time. Antonio Pigafetta (c 1491 was an Italian Scholar born in Vicenza. Also, there were more cannons in Brunei than on Magellan's ships, and the Chinese merchants to the Brunei court had sold them spectacles and porcelain, which were rarities in Europe. Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the Eyes normally for vision correction, Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures Chinese scientific understanding, however, was less developed than that in the West.
Greek and Hellenistic engineers invented many technologies and improved upon pre-existing technologies, particularly during the Hellenistic period. The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each Ancient Greek technology developed at an unprecedented speed during the 5th century BC continuing up to and including the girls period and beyond The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. This article focuses on the historical aspects of the Hellenistic age for the cultural aspects see Hellenistic civilisation. Heron of Alexandria invented a basic steam engine and demonstrated knowledge of mechanic and pneumatic systems. Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria ( Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Archimedes invented several machines. Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer The Greeks were unique in pre-industrial times in their ability to combine scientific research with the development of new technologies. One example is the Archimedean screw; this technology was first conceptualized in mathematics, then built. The Archimedes' screw, Archimedean screw, or screwpump is a Machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into Irrigation Other technologies invented by Greek scientists include the ballistae, and primitive analog computers like the Antikythera mechanism and the piston pump. The ballista ( Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra, from - βάλλω ballō, "to throw" plural ballistae An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English is a form of Computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical mechanical The Antikythera mechanism (ˌæntɪkɪˈθɪərə an-ti-ki- theer -uh is an ancient mechanical Calculator (also described as the first known " mechanical A piston is a component of Reciprocating engines Pumps and Gas compressors It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by Piston Greek architects were responsible for the first true domes, and were the first to explore the Golden ratio and its relationship with geometry and architecture. A dome is a common structural element of Architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a Sphere. In Mathematics and the Arts two quantities are in the Golden ratio if the Ratio between the sum of those quantities and the larger one is the
Apart from Hero of Alexandria's steam aeolipile, Hellenistic technicians were the first to invent watermills and windwheels, making them global pioneers in three of the four known means of non-human propulsion prior to the Industrial Revolution (the fourth being sails). Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria ( Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c An aeolipile, a rocket -like Jet engine invented in the first century by Hero of Alexandria, is considered to be the first recorded Steam engine However, only water power became extensively used in antiquity.
Other Greek inventions include torsion catapults, pneumatic catapults, crossbows, cranes, rutways, organs, the keyboard mechanism, gears, differential gears, screws, refined parchment, showers, dry docks, diving bells, odometer and astrolabes. In architecture, Greek engineers constructed monumental lighthouses such as the Pharos and devised the first central heating systems. The lighthouse of Alexandria (or The Pharos of Alexandria, Greek:) was a tower built in the 3rd century BC (between 285 and 247 BC on the Island The Tunnel of Eupalinos is the earliest tunnel in history which has been excavated with a scientific approach from both ends. The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct (in Greek gr ''Efpalinion orygma'' Ευπαλίνιον όρυγμα is a tunnel of 1036 m length in Samos,
Automata like vending machines, automatic doors and many other ingenious devices were first built by Hellenistic engineers as Ctesibius, Philo of Byzantium and Heron. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius ( Greek Κτησίβιος ( fl Philo of Byzantium ( Greek: Φίλων ο Βυζάντιος ca Greek technological treatises were scrupuously studied and copied by later Byzantine, Arabic Latin European scholars and provided much of the foundation for further technological advances in these civilizations.
Romans developed an intensive and sophisticated agriculture, expanded upon existing iron working technology, created laws providing for individual ownership, advanced stone masonry technology, advanced road-building (exceeded only in the 19th century), military engineering, civil engineering, spinning and weaving and several different machines like the Gallic reaper that helped to increase productivity in many sectors of the Roman economy. Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the South of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news A reaper is a person (or machine who reaps or harvests (cuts and gathers crops when they are ripe They also developed water power through building aqueducts on a grand scale, using water not just for drinking supplies but also for irrigation, powering water mills and in mining. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. They used drainage wheels extensively in deep underground mines, one device being the reverse overshot water-wheel. Frequently used in mines and probably elsewhere the reverse overshot Water wheel was a Roman innovation to help remove water from the lowest levels of underground workings They were the first to apply hydraulic mining methods for prospecting for metal ores, and for extracting those ores from the ground when found using a method known as hushing. Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of Mining that employs Water to dislodge rock material or move sediment Hushing is an ancient Mining method using a flood or torrent of water to reveal mineral veins
Roman engineers were the first to build monumental arches, amphitheatres, aqueducts, public baths, true arch bridges, harbours, reservoirs and dams, vaults and domes on a very large scale across their Empire. The remains of at least 320 Amphitheatres have been found widely scattered areas of the Roman Empire. The ancient Romans constructed numerous aqueducts ( Latin aquaeductūs, sing This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. For a list of all known Roman bridges see List of Roman bridges For the railway station in Wales, see Roman Bridge railway station A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees Notable Roman inventions include the book (Codex), glass blowing and concrete. A codex ( Latin for block of wood, Book; plural codices) is a book in the format used for modern books with separate pages normally Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating the molten glass into a bubble or parison with the aid of the blowpipe or blow tube Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Because Rome was located on a volcanic peninsula, with sand which contained suitable crystalline grains, the concrete which the Romans formulated was especially durable. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Some of their buildings have lasted 2000 years, to the present day.
Roman civilization was highly urbanized by pre-modern standards. Many cities of the Imperium had over 100,000 inhabitants with the capital Rome being the largest metropolis of antiquity. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Features of Roman urban life included multistory apartment buildings called insulae, street paving, public flush toilets, glass windows and floor and wall heating. In Roman architecture, insulae (singular Insula) were large Apartment buildings where the lower and middle classes of Romans (the Plebs A hypocaust (Latin hypocaustum) is an ancient Roman system of Central heating. The Romans understood hydraulics and constructed fountains and waterworks, particularly aqueducts, which were the hallmark of their civilization. For the mechanical technology see Hydraulic machinery and Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulics is a topic of science and Engineering A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source ( Latin fons) fills a basin of some kind and is drained away An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another They exploited water power by building water mills, sometimes in series, such as the sequence found at Barbegal in southern France. This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman Watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, near the town of Arles, in This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Some Roman baths have lasted to this day. This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. The Romans developed many technologies which were lost in the Middle Ages, and were only fully reinvented in the 19th and 20th centuries. They also left texts describing their achievements, especially by Pliny the Elder, Frontinus and Vitruvius. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Sextus Julius Frontinus (ca 40-103 AD was one of the most distinguished Roman aristocrats of the late first century AD but is best known to the post-Classical world as an Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c 80–70 BC died after c 15 BC was a Roman Writer, Architect and Engineer (possibly praefectus fabrum
Other less known Roman innovations include ship mills, arch dams and possibly tide mills. A tide mill is a specialist type of water mill driven by tidal rise and fall
The engineering skills of the Inca were great, even by today's standards. An example is the use of pieces weighing in upwards of one ton in their stonework (e. g. , Machu Picchu in Peru), placed together so that not even a blade can fit in-between the cracks. Machu Picchu (Machu Pikchu "Old Peak" 'mɑtʃu 'piktʃu is a Pre-Columbian Inca site located 2400 meters (7875 ft above sea level Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The villages used irrigation canals and drainage systems, making agriculture very efficient. Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area While some claim that the Incas were the first inventors of hydroponics, their agricultural technology was still soil based, if advanced. Hydroponics (from the Greek words hydro (water and ponos (labour is a method of growing Plants using mineral Nutrient solutions without This technology, including tiered farm plots, allowed significant yields from steeply sloped or otherwise unproductive land. They mined gold extensively, one of the objects of the Spanish conquistadors, and created a network of paths and roads connecting their many towns and villages. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador River gorges were crossed by roped suspension bridges, the rope made by braiding grasses. This article is concerned with a particular type of suspension bridge the suspended-deck type
Though the Maya civilization had no metallurgy or wheel technology, they developed complex writing and astrological systems, and created sculptural works in stone and flint. The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas Like the Inca, the Maya also had command of fairly advanced agricultural and construction technology. Throughout this time period much of this construction, was made only by women, as men of the Maya civilization believed that females were responsible for the creation of new things.
The main contribution of the Aztec rule was a system of communications between the conquered cities. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political In Mesoamerica, without draft animals for transport (nor, as a result, wheeled vehicles), the roads were designed for travel on foot, just like the Inca and Mayan civilizations. Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined They developed large cities, such as Tenochtitlan, which eventually became Mexico City. There are some towns in Mexico which are spelled "Tenochtitlán" like San Lorenzo Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico
From the 8th century, the medieval Islamic world witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the "Muslim Agricultural Revolution", "Arab Agricultural Revolution", or "Green Revolution". The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in Agriculture known as the Arab Agricultural A water wheel is a means of extracting power from the flow (or fall of water otherwise known as Hydropower. See Orontid dynasty for the Armenian kings and satraps called Orontes Hama (ancient Hamath; Arabic: حماة meaning fortress is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria north of Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to  Due to the global economy established by Muslim traders across the Old World during the "Afro-Asiatic age of discovery" or "Pax Islamica", this enabled the diffusion of many crops, plants and farming techniques between different parts of the Islamic world, as well as the adaptation of crops, plants and techniques from beyond the Islamic world, distributed throughout Islamic lands which normally would not be able to grow these crops. The rising Technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century Diffusion is the net movement of particles (typically molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration by uncoordinated random movement Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture  Some have referred to the diffusion of numerous crops during this period as the "Globalisation of Crops", which, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking and diet, clothing, and numerous other aspects of life in the Islamic world. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Mechanization or mechanisation ( BE) is providing human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Population distribution redirects here For the probability distribution of a statistical population see Probability distribution and Statistical population Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants Income, refers to consumption opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame which is generally expressed in monetary terms Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather 
Muslim engineers in the Islamic world were responsible for numerous innovative industrial uses of hydropower, the early industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, and petroleum, and large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic). For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of Hydropower that converts the energy of Tides into electricity or other useful forms of power Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods  The industrial uses of watermills were in widespread use since the 8th century. This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. A variety of industrial mills were developed in the Islamic world, including fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, paper mills, sawmills, shipmills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills, and windmills. A gristmill or grist mill is a building where Grain is ground into Flour, or the grinding mechanism itself A huller (or sometimes called a rice husker) is a kind of Agricultural machinery to hull Rice. A paper mill is a Factory devoted to making Paper from wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machine or similar apparatus A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards Sawmill process A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of 100 years ago a log enters A stamp mill (or stamp battery) is a type of mill that crushes material by pounding rather than grinding either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteen 's early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 A Sugar Refinery or sugar Mill is a Factory which refines sugar from various organic sources like sugar cane or beets into a A tide mill is a specialist type of water mill driven by tidal rise and fall A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south  Muslim engineers helped develop crankshafts and water turbines. The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an Engine which translates reciprocating Linear A water turbine is a rotary Engine that takes energy from moving water Much of the technology was however, well known in the Roman world by this time and earlier. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
A significant number of inventions were produced by Muslim scientists and engineers during this time, including inventors such as Abbas Ibn Firnas, Taqi al-Din, and especially al-Jazari, who is considered the "father of robotics" and "father of modern day engineering". Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 &ndash 887 AD) was also known as Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas and العباس بن فرناس ( Arabic language) Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf al-Shami al-Asadi ( Arabic: تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي السعدي Turkish: Takiyuddin) (1526&ndash1585 Abū al-'Iz Ibn Ismā'īl ibn al-Razāz al-Jazarī ( 1136 - 1206) (أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري  Some of the developments from the Islamic Golden Age include the camera obscura, coffee, hang glider, hard soap, shampoo, nitric acid, alembic, valve, reciprocating, combination lock, quilting, pointed arch, surgical catgut, windmill, inoculation, fountain pen, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis, quartz glass, Persian carpet, modern cheque, celestial globe, explosive rockets and incendiary devices. The camera obscura (Latin dark chamber) is an optical device used for example in drawing or for entertainment CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom History See also History of hang gliding Summary: Hang gliding existed in China perhaps by the 4th century AD according to the writing of the Shampoo is a Hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt skin particles Dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube For other uses see Valve (disambiguation. For the electronic component see Thermionic valve. A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is a Heat engine that uses one or more reciprocating Pistons to convert A combination lock is a type of lock in which a sequence of numbers or symbols is used to open the lock Quilting is a Sewing method done either by hand by Sewing machine, or by a longarm quilting system An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the Intestines of the Sheep or Goat, or occasionally from those of the A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind Inoculation is the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum Vaccine, or antigenic substance A fountain pen is a Pen that contains a reservoir of water-based liquid ink. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden" and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie" is the study of methods for In Cryptanalysis, frequency analysis is the study of the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a Ciphertext. Fused quartz and fused silica are types of Glass containing primarily Silica in amorphous (non- Crystalline form The Persian carpet ( Pahlavi bōb Persian farš فرش meaning "to spread" and qāli) is an essential part of A cheque (spelled check in American English) is a Negotiable instrument instructing a Financial institution to pay a specific amount of An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite 
European technology in the Middle Ages may be best described as a symbiosis of traditio et innovatio. A trebuchet or trebucket is a Siege engine that was employed in the Middle Ages either to smash Masonry Walls or to throw Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe, which generally does not include the parts of Europe under Arab rule, such as Islamic While medieval technology has been long depicted as a step backwards in the evolution of Western technology, sometimes willfully so by modern authors intent on denouncing the church as antagonistic to scientific progress (see e. g. flat earth myth), a generation of medievalists around the American historian of science Lynn White stressed from the 1940s onwards the innovative character of many medieval techniques. The idea of a flat Earth is the idea that the surface of the Earth is flat (a plane) rather than the view that it is a very close approximation of Lynn Townsend White Jr ( April 29 1907 – March 30 1987) was a professor of medieval History at Princeton, Genuine medieval contributions include for example mechanical clocks, spectacles and vertical windmills. A pendulum clock is a Clock that uses a Pendulum, a swinging weight as its Timekeeping element Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the Eyes normally for vision correction, A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind Medieval ingenuity was also displayed in the invention of seemingly inconspicuous items like the watermark or the functional button. A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in Paper that shows in various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected In Clothing and Fashion design, a button is a small plastic or metal disc- or knob-shaped typically round object usually attached to an article of Clothing In navigation, the foundation to the subsequent age of exploration was laid by the introduction of pintle-and-gudgeon rudders, lateen sails, the dry compassthe horseshoe and the astrolab. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored A rudder is a device used to steer a Ship, Boat, Submarine, Hovercraft, or other conveyance that move through a fluid (generally air or A lateen (from a la trina, meaning triangular or latin-rig is a triangular Sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists The astrolabe is a historical Astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers, Navigators
Significant advances were also made in military technology with the development of plate armour, steel crossbows, counterweight trebuchets and cannon. Plate armour is personal Armour made from large Metal plates worn on the Chest and sometimes the entire Body. A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts A trebuchet or trebucket is a Siege engine that was employed in the Middle Ages either to smash Masonry Walls or to throw | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural Perhaps best known are the Middle Ages for their architectural heritage: While the invention of the rib vault and pointed arch gave rise to the high rising Gothic style, the ubiquitous medieval fortifications gave the era the almost proverbial title of the 'age of castles'. The intersection of two or three Barrel vaults produces a rib-vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period.
The era is marked by such profound technical advancements like the printing press, linear perspectivity, patent law, double shell domes or Bastion fortresses. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image Perspective (from Latin perspicere to see through in the graphic arts such as drawing is an approximate representation on a flat surface (such as paper of an image as it is perceived A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. A star fort or trace italienne is a Fortification in the style that evolved during the age of Black powder, when cannons came Note books of the Renaissance artist-engineers such as Taccola and Leonardo da Vinci give a deep insight into the mechanical technology then known and applied. Mariano di Jacopo detto il Taccola (1382 &ndash c 1453 called Taccola ('Crow' was an Italian administrator artist and engineer of the early Renaissance. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Architects and engineers were inspired by the structures of Ancient Rome, and men like Brunelleschi created the large dome of Florence Cathedral as a result. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. He was awarded one of the first patents ever issued in order to protect an ingenious crane he designed to raise the large masonry stones to the top of the structure. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Military technology developed rapidly with the widespread use of the cross-bow and ever more powerful artillery, as the city-states of Italy were usually in conflict with one another. A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Powerful families like the Medici were strong patrons of the arts and sciences.
The sailing ship (Nau or Carrack) enabled the Age of Exploration with the European colonization of the Americas, epitomized by Francis Bacon's The New Atlantis. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer A carrack or nau was a three- or four- masted Sailing ship developed in the Atlantic Ocean in the 15th century by the Portuguese The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author In 1623 Sir Francis Bacon expressed his aspirations and ideals in The New Atlantis. Pioneers like Vasco de Gama, Cabral, Magellan and Christopher Columbus explored the world in search of new trade routes for their goods and contacts with Africa, India and China which shortened the journey compared with traditional routes overland. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca Pedro Álvares Cabral (about 1467/1468/1469 &ndash about 1520 ˈpeðɾʊ ˈaɫvɐɾɨʃ kɐˈβɾaɫ in Portuguese, ˈawvaɾiʃ caˈbɾaw in Brazilian) was Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães fɨɾˈnɐ̃ũ dɨ mɐgɐˈʎɐ̃ĩʃ Fernando de Magallanes (Spring 1480 &ndash April 27 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National They also re-discovered the Americas while doing so. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America They produced new maps and charts which enabled following mariners to explore further with greater confidence. Navigation was generally difficult however owing to the problem of longitude and the absence of accurate chronometers. A chronometer watch is a Watch tested and certified to meet certain precision standards European powers rediscovered the idea of the Civil code, lost since the time of the Ancient Greeks. A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of Private law.
The British Industrial Revolution is characterized by developments in the areas of textile manufacturing, mining, metallurgy and transport driven by the development of the steam engine. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The Watt steam engine was the first type of Steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Above all else, the revolution was driven by cheap energy in the form of coal, produced in ever-increasing amounts from the abundant resources of Britain. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Coal converted to coke gave the blast furnace and cast iron in much larger amounts than before, and a range of structures could be created, such as The Iron Bridge. A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. The Iron Bridge crosses the River Severn at the Ironbridge Gorge, by the village of Ironbridge, in Shropshire, England. Cheap coal meant that industry was no longer constrained by water resources driving the mills, although it continued as a valuable source of power. The steam engine helped drain the mines, so more coal reserves could be accessed, and the output of coal increased. The development of the high-pressure steam engine made locomotives possible, and a transport revolution followed.
The 19th century saw astonishing developments in transportation, construction, and communication technologies originating in Europe, especially in Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Steam Engine which had existed since the early 18th century, was practically applied to both steamboat and railway transportation. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The first purpose built railway line opened between Manchester and Liverpool in 1830, the Rocket locomotive of Robert Stephenson being one of the first working locomotives used on the line. Replica Rocket and coachjpg|thumb|right|A replica coach and Rocket at the Rocket 150 event]] Stephenson's Rocket was an early Steam locomotive of 0-2-2 Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 &ndash 12 October 1859 was an English Civil engineer. Telegraphy also developed into a practical technology in the 19th century to help run the railways safely.
Other technologies were explored for the first time, including the Incandescent light bulb. The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is a source of electric Light that works by Incandescence, (a general The Portsmouth Block Mills was where manufacture of ships' pulley blocks by all-metal machines first took place and instigated the age of mass production. The Portsmouth Block Mills form part of the Portsmouth Dockyard at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, and were built during the Napoleonic Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of Machine tools used by engineers to manufacture other machines began in the first decade of the century, notably by Richard Roberts and Joseph Whitworth. A machine tool is a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by Machining, which is the selective removal of metal Richard Roberts ( 22 April 1789 &ndash 11 March 1864) was a British/ Welsh Engineer whose development of high-precision Machine Sir Joseph Whitworth Baronet ( December 21, 1803 &ndash January 22, 1887) was an English Engineer and Entrepreneur Steamships were eventually completely iron-clad, and played a role in the opening of Japan and China to trade with the West. A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller Mechanical computing was envisioned by Charles Babbage but did not come to fruition. The Second Industrial Revolution at the end of the 19th century saw rapid development of chemical, electrical, petroleum, and steel technologies connected with highly structured technology research. The Second Industrial Revolution, typically dated between 1870 and 1914 was a second phase of the Industrial Revolution, involving several developments within the chemical
20th Century technology developed rapidly. Communication technology, transportation technology, broad teaching and implementation of Scientific method, and increased research spending all contributed to the advancement of modern science and technology. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Due to the scientific gains directly tied to military research and development, technologies including electronic computing might have developed as rapidly as they did in part due to war. Computing is usually defined like the activity of using and developing Computer technology Computer hardware and software. Radio, radar, and early sound recording were key technologies which paved the way for the telephone, fax machine, and magnetic storage of data. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later Playback Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, "make similar" i Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are terms from Engineering referring to the storage of Data on a Magnetized medium Energy and engine technology improvements were also vast, including nuclear power, developed after the Manhattan project. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb Transport by rocketry: most work occurred in the U.S. (Goddard), Russia (Tsiolkovsky) and Germany (Oberth). A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Making use of computers and advanced research labs, modern scientists have Recombinant DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known
Despite the fact we have just entered into the 21st century, technology is being developed even more rapidly, marked progress in almost all fields of science and technology has led to massive improvements to the technology we currently possess, the rate of development in computers being only one example at which the speed of progress continues forward, leading to the speculation of a technological singularity occurring within this century. The technological singularity is a theoretical future point of unprecedented technological progress caused in part by the ability of machines to improve themselves using Artificial Current ongoing developments include research into the scramjet, nanotechnology, bioengineering, nuclear fusion, new developments in armour, advanced materials and a plethora of other fields, leading to speculations among some circles of the development of devices such as powered armor in the near future. A scramjet ( s upersonic c ombustion ramjet) is a variation of a Ramjet with the distinction being that some or all of the combustion process Nanotechnology, sometimes shortened to nanotech, refers to a field of Applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an Atomic and Molecular Bioengineering (also known as Biological Engineering is the application of Engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of Biology and Medicine In Physics and Nuclear chemistry, nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple- like charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus Armour (or armor) is protective covering most commonly manufactured from metals to prevent damage from being inflicted to an individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact
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