Located in the heart of Central Asia between the Amu Darya (Oxus) and Syr Darya (Jaxartes) Rivers, Uzbekistan has a long and interesting heritage. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The Amu Darya (formerly Oxus River the Greeks (Ptolemeus called it Oxiana palus) is the longest river in Central Asia. Syr Darya (Сырдария Сирдарё Sirdaryoسيردريا also transliterated Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a River in Central Asia Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly The leading cities of the Silk Road - Samarkand, Bukhara, and Khiva - are located in Uzbekistan. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Bukhara (Buxoro Бухоро بُخارا Бухара also spelled as Bukhoro and Bokhara, from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky Khiva ( Uzbek: Xiva, Хива; Хива Khiva; Persian: خیوه Khiveh) Alternative or historical names include As Russia extended its empire into Central Asia in the second half of the nineteenth century, Uzbekistan became part of Tsarist Russia and later of the Soviet Union. It declared its independence from Soviet rule in 1991.
The territory of Uzbekistan was already populated in the second millennium BC. Early human’s tools and monuments have been found in the Ferghana, Tashkent, Bukhara, Khorezm (Khwarezm, Chorasmia) and Samarkand regions. The first civilizations to appear in Uzbekistan were the Sogdiana, Bactria and Khwarezm (Chorasmia). History Hellenistic period The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great "Bactrian" redirects here For the camel see Bactrian camel. Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the The territories of these states became a part of the Achaemenid empire in the 6th century.
Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Bactria in 327 BC, marrying Roxane, the daughter of a local Sogdian chieftain. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' History Hellenistic period The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great "Bactrian" redirects here For the camel see Bactrian camel. Events By place Macedonian Empire Alexander the Great invades northern India. Roxana ( Bactrian, Persian: Roshanak; Bactrian definition literally "luminous beauty" Persian definition "the dawn" was a However, the story goes that the conquest was of little help to Alexander, as popular resistance was fierce, causing Alexander's army to be bogged down in the region.
The territory of Uzbekistan was referred to as Transoxiana until the 8th century. Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania "河中“Chinese / Ma Wara'un-Nahr ( Arabic: ما وراء النهر / Farārood (فرارود The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. See also: Sogdiana
The area was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 8th century AD. History Hellenistic period The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great A century later, the Persian Samanid dynasty established an empire. The Samanids (819–999 ( Sāmāniyān) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan, named after its founder Saman The Samanids encouraged Persian culture in the area. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Later, the Samanid empire was overthrown by the Kara-Khanid Khanate. This article refers to the Turkic state Kara-Khanid Khanate (also designated as Qarakhanids Uzbekistan and rest Central Asia was invaded by Genghis Khan and his Mongol tribes in 1220. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder
In the 1300s, Timur (1336 - 1405), known in the west as Tamerlane, overpowered the Mongols and built his own empire. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among In his military campaigns Tamerlane reached as far as the Middle East. He defeated the Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I and rescued Europe from Turkish conquest. Bayezid I ( Ottoman: بايزيد الأول Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman ییلدیرم "the Thunderbolt" Tamerlane sought to build a fitting capital for his empire in Samarkand. Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of From each campaign he would send artisans to the city, sparing their lives. Samarkand became home to many peoples: there used to be Greek,Chinese, Egyptian, Persian, Syrian and Armenian neighborhoods. Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Uzbekistan's most noted tourist sights date from the Timurid dynasty. The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī ( were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty
Later, separate Muslim city-states emerged with strong ties to Persia. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Khanate of Khiva Bukhara Khanate Khanate of Kokand
In 1865, Russia occupied Tashkent and by the end of the 19th century, Russia had conquered all of Central Asia. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending In 1876, the Russians dissolved the Khanate of Kokand, while allowing the Khanate of Khiva and the Emirate of Bukhara to remain as direct protectorates. Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The Khanate of Kokand ( Uzbek: Qo'qon Xonligi) was a state in Central Asia that existed from 1709&ndash1876 within the territory of modern Uzbekistan The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva Xonligi was the name of a Central Asian state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1515 to 1920 except Persian occupation by The Emirate of Bukhara ( Buxoro Amirligi; Аморати Бухоро was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920 In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Russia placed the rest of Central Asia under colonial administration, and invested in the development of Central Asia's infrastructure, promoting cotton growing, and encouraging settlement by Russian colonists. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp
Although stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed, resistance groups called basmachi operated in the region (reaching as far as the Pamir mountains) until the 1930s. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Basmachi Revolt (Восстание басмачей or Basmachestvo (Басмачество was a Muslim and largely Turkic uprising against Russian The Pamir Mountains are located in Central Asia and are formed by the junction or Knot of the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. In 1924, following the establishment of Soviet rule, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created from ethnic Uzbek areas of Central Asia, including most of the territories of the Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva as well as portions of the Fergana Valley that had constituted the Khanate of Kokand. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси O`zbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Farg‘ona vodiysi Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү Tajik: водии Фaрғонa Ферганская долина
During the Soviet era, Moscow used Uzbekistan for its tremendous potential in cotton-growing ("white gold"), grain, and natural resources. The extensive and inefficient irrigation used to support cotton growing is the main cause of shrinkage of the Aral Sea to less than one-third of its original volume, making this one of the world's worst environmental disasters. The Aral Sea ( Kazakh: Арал Теңізі Aral Tengizi, Orol dengizi Russian: Аральскοе мοре Tajik / Persian: Daryocha-i The overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies have left large parts of the land poisoned.
The following is a chronology of major recent events in Uzbekistan:
1989 - Islom Karimov becomes leader of Uzbek Communist Party. - Violent attacks against minorities in Ferghana Valley. Nationalist movement Birlik (Unity) is founded.
1991 - Uzbekistan declares independence from the Soviet Union, joining the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) -- a grouping of former Soviet republics -- after the Soviet Union's collapse. - Karimov is returned as president in elections in which few opposition groups are allowed to field candidates.
1992 - Karimov bans the Birlik and Erk (Freedom) parties. Large numbers of opposition party members are arrested for alleged anti-state activities.
1995 - A number of Erk party activists are given prison sentences for allegedly conspiring to oust the government.
1999 - Bomb blasts in the capital, Tashkent, kill more than a dozen people. Karimov blames the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU). -IMU broadcasts a declaration of jihad from a radio station in Iran, demanding the resignation of the Uzbek leadership. -IMU insurgents launch a series of attacks against government forces from mountain hideouts.
2000 - Karimov is re-elected president. Western observers call the elections neither free nor fair. - New York-based Human Rights Watch accuses Uzbekistan of the widespread use of torture.
June 2001 - Uzbekistan jails 73 people for up to 18 years for aiding Islamic extremists in its southern Surkhandarya region in 2000.
October - Uzbekistan allows the United States military to use its airbases for attacking the Taliban in Afghanistan.
January 2002 - Karimov wins backing to extend his presidential term from five to seven years in a referendum derided by the West as a ploy to hang on to power.
August - Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan military leader Juma Namangany is reported killed.
June 2003 - Erk opposition party holds first formal meeting since it was banned 11 years earlier.
December - Karimov sacks Prime Minister Otkir Sultanov, citing the country's poorest cotton harvest on record. Shavkat Mirziyayev is appointed to replace him.
March 2004 - Uzbek special forces storm a suspected Islamic militants' hideout, killing up to 23 people after a day-long siege.
July - Suicide bombers target U. S. and Israeli embassies in Tashkent. A third blast hits a state prosecutor's office, killing three people.
November - New restrictions on trading practices lead to civil disorder in eastern town of Kokand. Several thousand people are reported to have taken part in street protests.
May 13, 2005 - Hundreds are feared dead when Uzbek troops fire on thousands of protesters in the eastern town of Andijon. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Andijan ( Andijon in Uzbek also Andizhan is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the Andijan Province. Uzbek authorities maintain that only 176 people died during the clashes, most of them "terrorists" and their own soldiers. Independent estimates of the death toll range from 500, through 700 to 1000.
On August 31, 1991, Uzbekistan declared its independence from the Soviet Union, marking September 1 as a national holiday. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. While the Baltic States led the fight for independence, Central Asian states were afraid of it. The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the "The centrifugal forces pulling the Union apart were weakest in Central Asia. Well after the August 1991 coup attempt, all Central Asian countries believed that the Union might somehow be preserved," wrote Michael McFaul in Russia's Unfinished Revolution. Michael Anthony McFaul (born 1965 in Montana) is a Professor of Political science and director of the Center on Democracy Development and the Rule
Islom Karimov, former First Secretary of the Communist Party, was elected president in December 1991 with 88% of the vote; however, the elections were viewed as neither free nor fair by international observers. Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (in Cyrillic Uzbek: Ислом Абдуғаниевич Каримов; in Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич After independence Karimov encouraged anti-Russian nationalist sentiment, and 80% of ethnic Russians - more than 2 million people - fled Uzbekistan. 
The activities of missionaries from some Islamic countries, coupled with the absence of real opportunities to participate in public affairs, contributed to the popularization of a radical interpretation of Islam. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In February 1999, car bombs hit Tashkent and President Karimov narowly escaped an attempt. The government blamed the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) for the attacks. The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan ( IMU) was a militant Islamist group formed in 1998 by former Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani, and the As a result of law-enforcement operations, thousands of people suspected of complicity were imprisoned. In August 2000, the militant groups tried to penetrate Uzbek territory from Kyrgyz soil; acts of armed violence were noted in the southern part of the country as well.
In March 2004, another wave of attacks shook the country. These were reportedly committed by an international terrorist network An explosion in the central part of Bukhara killed ten people in a house used by alleged terrorists on March 28, 2004. Bukhara (Buxoro Бухоро بُخارا Бухара also spelled as Bukhoro and Bokhara, from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Later that day, policemen were attacked at a factory, and early the following morning they were attacked at a traffic check point. The violence escalated on March 29, when two women separately set off bombs near the main bazaar in Tashkent, killing two people and injuring around twenty. Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King These were the first suicide bombers in Uzbekistan. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons On the same day, three police officers were shot dead. In Bukhara, another explosion at a suspected terrorist bomb factory caused ten fatalities. Bukhara (Buxoro Бухоро بُخارا Бухара also spelled as Bukhoro and Bokhara, from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky The following day police raided a militant's hideout south of the capital city in retaliation.
President Karimov claimed the attacks were probably the work of a banned radical group Hizb ut-Tahrir ("The Party of Liberation"), although the group denied responsibility. Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Party of Liberation is an international Pan-Islamist, Sunni, vanguard political party whose goal is to combine all Muslim Other groups that might have been responsible include militant groups operating from camps in Tajikistan and Afghanistan and opposed to the government's support of the United States since September 9, 2001. Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
In 2004, British ambassador Craig Murray was removed from his post after speaking out against the regime's human rights abuses. Craig Murray (born October 1958 is a British Political activist, former Ambassador to Uzbekistan and current Rector of the University
On July 30, 2004, terrorists bombed the embassies of Israel and the United States in Tashkent, killing 3 people and wounding several in the process. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Jihad Group in Uzbekistan posted a claim of responsibility for those attacks on a website linked to Al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The Terrorism experts say the reason for the attacks is Uzbekistan's support of the United States and its War on terror. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U
In May 2005, several hundred demonstrators were killed when Uzbek troops fired into a crowd protesting against the imprisonment of 23 local businessmen. (For further details, see Andijan massacre. The Andijan massacre occurred when Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops fired into a crowd of Protesters in Andijan )
In July 2005, the Uzbek government gave the US 180 days' notice to leave the airbase it had leased in Uzbekistan. A Russian airbase and a German airbase remain.
In December 2007 Islam A. Karimov was reelected to power in a fraudulent election. Western election observers noted that the election failed to meet many O. S. C. E. benchmarks for democratic elections, the elections were held in a strictly controlled environment, and that there had been no real opposition since all the candidates publicly endorsed the incumbent. Human rights activists reported various cases of multiple voting throughout the country as well as official pressure on voters at polling stations to cast ballots for Karimov.  The BBC reported that many people were afraid to vote for anyone other than the president.  According to the constitution Karimov was ineligible to stand as a candidate, having already served two consecutive presidential terms and thus his candidature was illegal. 
The lead up to the elections was characterized by the secret police arresting dozens of opposition activists and putting them in jail including Yusuf Djumayaev, an opposition poet. Several news organizations, including The New York Times, the British Broadcasting Corporation and The Associated Press, were denied credentials to cover the election.  Around 300 dissidents are currently in jail, including Jamshid Karimov, the president's 41-year-old nephew.