Swindon is a town in Wiltshire in the South West of England. Etymology The county formerly 'Wiltonshire' or 'Wiltunscir' (9th century is named after the former county town of Wilton (itself named after the River Wylye South West England is one of the Regions of England. It is the largest such region in terms of area and extends from Gloucestershire and Wiltshire to England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland People have lived in the town since the Bronze Age and the town's location, being approximately halfway between Bristol and London, made it an ideal location for the Locomotive Factories of the Great Western Railway in the 1800s. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Swindon railway works were built by the Great Western Railway in 1841 in Swindon in the English county of Wiltshire. The Great Western Railway ( GWR) was a British railway company and a notable example of Civil engineering, linking London with the West
Swindon has grown from a population of just 1,198 in 1801 to over 150,000 in 2001. Swindon ( is a large town in the ceremonial county of Wiltshire in the South West of England, midway between Bristol (64 km / 40 miles 
The modern town of Swindon is built on and around a hill that stands over 450 ft (140 m) above sea-level, now known as Swindon Hill. Economy This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Swindon at current basic prices published (pp Swindon ( is a large town in the ceremonial county of Wiltshire in the South West of England, midway between Bristol (64 km / 40 miles Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface Its location to the north of the Marlborough Downs and on the southern end of the Vale of White Horse, with access to the River Cole and others, made it suitable for use as farming land. The North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB is located in the English counties of Berkshire, Hampshire, Oxfordshire Geography It is the valley of the Ock, a stream which joins the Thames from the West at Abingdon The River Cole is a tributary of the River Thames in England which flows through Wiltshire and Oxfordshire, where it forms part of the border between the 
There have been settlements around the hill since pre-historic times, but no evidence of occupation on the hill (including no evidence of any fortifications) until the Bronze Age. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Digs at Swindon's former quarry sites uncovered the first Bronze Age relics, with burial sites, tools, pottery and later; Iron Age artefacts also found. A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or Minerals are extracted This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man.
Archaeological excavations around Swindon Hill have revealed pre-Roman farms and an additional Iron Age farm complex was discovered on lowlands to the north of Swindon in the 1970s. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos  There are various monuments and earthworks nearby, including Liddington Castle, Barbury Castle, Avebury and the White Horses of Uffington, Hackpen and Marlborough (see Chalk figures in England). Liddington Castle, locally called Liddington Camp, is a late Bronze Age and early Iron Age Hill fort in the English county of Barbury Castle is an Iron Age Hill fort situated in Wiltshire, England. Avebury is the site of a large Henge and several Stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire surrounding the village of Avebury The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylised Prehistoric Hill figure, 374 feet (110 m long cut into the turf of the upper slopes of White A hill figure is a large visual representation created by cutting into a steep hillside and revealing the underlying geology
A Roman town called Durocornovium existed to the east of Swindon from the 1st to 4th centuries, located in present day Wanborough. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Wanborough is a village to the south-east of Swindon, Wiltshire, UK.  It is probable that Swindon began life as a settlement linked to a military encampment in the early days of the Roman occupation. The place that is now Swindon was on the junction of two Roman roads, one leading south from Cirencester towards Marlborough and the other south eastwards to Silchester (see Ermin Street). Cirencester is a Market town in Gloucestershire, England, 93 miles (150 km west northwest of London Marlborough ( IPA /ˈmɔːlbrə/ " Maul bruh" is a market town in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road Silchester is a Village and Civil parish in the English county of Hampshire. Ermin Street or Ermin Way (not to be confused with Ermine Street, which is further east is one of the great Roman roads of Britain Evidence exists to show that Swindon's quarries were in use at this time to produce stone for villas and clay from the Whitehill region (now West Swindon) was used to produce Whitehill Ware pottery. 
Burial grounds dating to the 4th century have been found in Purton, but the most substantial find was made in 1996, when contractors redeveloping an area of Groundwell Ridge uncovered the buried walls of Roman buildings. A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. Purton is a large village in North Wiltshire with a current population of about 4000 Described as "a site of great importance, with a large complex of buildings, a hypocaust (a system of under-floor heating, usually found as part of Roman bath houses), walls covered with painted plaster and a carefully-designed and constructed water supply. A hypocaust (Latin hypocaustum) is an ancient Roman system of Central heating. " - The area is now owned by Swindon Borough Council and English Heritage, and is protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. English Heritage is a Non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government ( Department for Culture Media and Sport) with a broad remit of In the United Kingdom, a Scheduled Monument is a 'nationally important' Archaeological site or historic building given protection against unauthorised change On 28 and 29 June 2003 the site was featured as parts of Channel 4's Time Team 'Big Dig' weekend. Time Team is a British television series that has aired on Channel 4 since 1994
With the recall of the legions to Rome in the 5th century, the Roman settlements declined under the Saxon invasion. For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south The Saxons built a farming community based on the top of Swindon Hill, with remains of wood-framed and Plaster huts found near to Market Square. Anglo-Saxon pottery and cloth finds suggest the town was still occupied throughout the 6th and 7th centuries. 
The Saxons left many lasting marks on the landscape and surroundings, including names for local places and features and ultimately the future name of Swindon, possibly derived from the words "Swine" for "Pig" and "Down" for "Hill".
Recorded in the Domesday Book as both Suindone and Suindune in 1086, the settlement was assessed at 12¾ hides and divided into 5 holdings. Odo of Bayeux (c 1036 &ndash February 1097 Palermo) Norman Bishop and English earl was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was for The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft long embroidered cloth which explains the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey The largest holding under the ownership of Odin the Chamberlain, which was later known as the Manor of High Swindon. This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here 5 hides, known as the Manor of Nethercott, was owned by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, Earl of Kent, and half-brother of King William the Conqueror. Odo of Bayeux (c 1036 &ndash February 1097 Palermo) Norman Bishop and English earl was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, and was for The Peerage title Earl of Kent has been created eight times in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Other holdings recorded in the Domesday Book are: Ulward, West Swindon (2 hides) and Alvred of Marlborough, 1½ hides. Marlborough ( IPA /ˈmɔːlbrə/ " Maul bruh" is a market town in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road Smaller estates at Walcot, Even Swindon and Broome are also noted. 
After Odo's imprisonment for having planned a military expedition to Italy, High Swindon reverted back to the Crown until the reign of Henry III in the 13th century who gave it to William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. William de Valence 1st Earl of Wexford and 1st Earl of Pembroke, born Guillaume de Lusignan or de Valence (1225-1230 &ndash May 16 or 18 1296 was It is under the ownership of William de Valence that the first recorded market held in Swindon is documented, in 1259. 
The first recorded Member's of Parliament in Swindon's history are John Ildhelfe and Richard Pernaunt. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. In 1295 they were elected into the Model Parliament of King Edward I. A Model Parliament (also referred to as a Mock Parliament) is a simulation of the parliamentary proceedings of a Legislature or Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307 popularly known as Longshanks, was a King of England who achieved historical fame by conquering large parts of Wales and almost Swindon became part of the constituency of Cricklade in 1660. Cricklade was a parliamentary constituency named after the town of Cricklade in Wiltshire. (see also History of government in Swindon)
There are also records existing that show in 1334 there were 248 poll tax payers in the town. The history of government in Swindon has its origins in the Middle Ages A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a Tax of a uniform fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income
The oldest recorded street in the town is Newport Street near the cattle market (dated 1346), originally called Nyweport Street meaning 'New Market'.  The cellars of some houses in modern day Newport Street are thought to date back to this era. A basement is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the Ground floor.
During the 14th Century, the Manor of High Swindon was known as Hegherswyndon. High Swindon has perhaps seen the least development of all the Manors, remaining largely unchanged until the 1800s.
During the period from 1086 onwards, the boundaries of High and West Swindon were re-arranged into Over and Nether Swindon and eventually became known as West and East Swindon in the 1500s.
Nethercott became the Manors of Eastcott and Westcott in the 1500s. Eastcott was bought by the Vilett family in the 1700s (now marked by Eastcott Hill in today's town) and Westcott was purchased by the Goddard family in the 18th century. 
In 1563, the Manor of Swindon (East and West Swindon) was purchased by Thomas Goddard. At the time of the purchase Swindon's economy revolved around the Agriculture industry, with sheep farms to the south, pigs and cattle to the north with Tanners, woolmongers and other trades supporting the farms in the town itself. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Tanning is the process of converting Putrescible skin into non-putrescible Leather, usually with Tannin, an Acidic Chemical compound
An Ecclesiastical Count (a type of 'guess census', an estimation of growth from 25 years previous performed by the Christian Church) was undertaken in 1705. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population The figures for Swindon show - 600 men, women, children and 26 freeholders.  With the Goddard's now owning the Manor of Swindon in its entirety, and being by right Lords of the Manor - their income from rent, leases and taxation increased. The title of Lord of the Manor arose in the English mediaeval system of Manorialism following the Norman Conquest. In 1717, the Michaelmas Day assizes for rent due to the Lord of Manor show 45 tenants and 34 Leaseholders (rent due on Michaelmas and Lady Day for leases). Michaelmas, the feast of St Michael the Archangel (also the Feast of SS Michael Gabriel and Raphael or the Feast of Michael and All Angels) is a day in the Leasehold is a form of property tenure where one party buys the right to occupy land or a building for a given length of time In the Christian calendar, Lady Day is the Feast of the Annunciation ( 25 March) and the first of the four traditional Irish and One record from the time shows - 'Richard York, paying eight pence a year for "his house late a barn"'. 
The main sources of revenue for the town were now from agriculture, livestock and quarrying with the Purbeck Stone quarries being worked to provide stone for minor expansion and house-building. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or Minerals are extracted Purbeck Marble is a Fossiliferous Limestone quarried in the Isle of Purbeck, a Peninsula in south-east Dorset, England
The first non-market shops also appeared around this period, moving Swindon steadily away from a purely barter driven economy, with Robert and Margaret Boxwell opening the first recorded grocer independent of the market on the High Street in 1705. Barter is a type of Trade in which goods or services are directly exchanged Beginning as early as the 14th century a grocer (also called purveyor) was a dealer in comestible dry goods such as spices pepper sugar and (later cocoa tea and coffee High Street, or the High Street, is a Metonym for the generic name (and frequently the official name of the primary Business street  This business lasted at least 50 years, records show at that time they were importing tea and sugar from London. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
Manorial records of Swindon from 1700-1900 show that many families chose to remain here instead of seeking fortunes elsewhere - 'Swindon was not a town that its occupants readily moved from or changed'. 
The town's biggest employers in 1701 were the quarries, with 15 roughmasons or stonecutters and 40 labourers listed. The craft of stonemasonry has existed since the dawn of Civilization - creating Buildings structures and Sculpture using stone from the earth Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking road building or any
Manorial records also note the following tradesmen/families in the town - Four bakers, four butchers, five innholders, 1 cooper, 1 mercer, 1 draper, 1 glover, 1 currier, 1 saddler, 3 weavers. This article is about the skilled manual worker meaning of the term for other uses see Tradesperson (disambiguation A tradesman is a skilled manual worker This article refers to the cooking profession For other uses see Baker (disambiguation A baker is someone who primarily Bakes A butcher is someone who prepares various Meats and other related goods for sale Inns are establishments where travellers can procure Food, Drink, and Lodging. Traditionally a cooper is someone who makes Wooden staved vessels of a conical form of greater length than breadth bound The term Mercer for a kind of trader is now largely obsolete Mercers were formerly merchants or traders who dealt in cloth typically fine cloth that was not produced locally Draper is the now largely obsolete term for a merchant in cloth or dry goods though often used specifically for one who owns or works in a draper's shop or store A glove ( Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of Garment (and more specifically a Fashion A currier is a specialist in the Leather processing Industry. This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. 20 servants, 4 tailors, 10 cobblers, 4 blacksmiths, 2 carpenters, 1 chandler, 1 cheese factor, 1 joiner, 2 slaters, 1 wheelwright, 1 ironmonger, 1 glazier and 1 surgeon. A domestic worker, domestic, servingman, servingwoman, or servant is one who works and often also lives within the employer's household A tailor is a person whose occupation is to sew and scissor menswear style jackets and the skirts or trousers that go with them blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. A Joiner differs from a Carpenter in that he cuts and fits joints in wood that do not use nails usually as a furniture maker A slater, or slate mason is a Tradesman who covers buildings with Slate. A wheelwright (or Wainwright) is a person who builds or repairs Wheels Making and balancing a wheel is skilled work. Today the term Ironmonger refers to a retailer (or wholesaler of iron goods A Glazier is a Construction professional that selects cuts installs replaces and removes Residential, commercial, and Artistic Glass Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental
The average diet at the time consisting of bread, meat and beer. This article is primarily about the human diet For a discussion of animal diets see List of feeding behaviours. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea
With the expansion of the Quarries and also the introduction of the Turnpike Act (1706), the four main access roads into the Town were turned into turnpikes between 1751-1775. Turnpike trusts in the United Kingdom were bodies set up by Act of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal highways A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards  With the Swindon to Faringdon road completed in 1757 and the Swindon to Marlborough road in 1761. Faringdon is a Market town in the Vale of White Horse, in Oxfordshire, England. Marlborough ( IPA /ˈmɔːlbrə/ " Maul bruh" is a market town in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road
Toll houses were also placed on the roads to Stratton St Margaret, Marlborough, Devizes, Wootton Bassett and Cricklade. Stratton St Margaret is a Civil parish in the borough of Swindon, in Wiltshire, England. Devizes is a small Market town and Civil parish in the heart of the English county of Wiltshire, in the southern United Kingdom Wootton Bassett is a small Market town located in northern Wiltshire, UK. Cricklade Cricklade is a small town in north Wiltshire in England, on the River Thames situated midway between Swindon and Cirencester.
Residents of Rodbourne Cheney and the Liddiard's came into Swindon via roadways that linked Shaw and Rushey Platt with the gate at Kingshill.
The amount levied depended on the type of cart, the number of horses used and the width of wheels (as the narrower wheels caused more damage to the road).
Roads were kept clean and in good repair by auctioning lots to townspeople who could possibly sell 'road scrapings and parings' (manure etc). Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture.
This practice continued at least until 1846, at which time the auctioneers Dore & Fidel published the lots for sale as
"1, From Swindon to the top of Kingshill. "Auctioneer" redirects here For the DC Comics supervillain see Auctioneer (comics. 2, From thence to the canal. 3, From thence to the hand post at Mannington. 4, From thence to the brow of the hill at Whitehill. 5, From thence to the Lodge Gate. 6, From thence to the west corner of Agbourn Coppice. 7, From thence to the Fourth Mile-stone. 8, From thence to the Gate, in the occupation of Ann Rudler. 9, From thence to the stream of water crossing the road by William Watt's. 10, From thence to the Turnpike Gate. 11, From thence to the borough of Wootton Bassett. Swindon Parish Road. 12, From Mr Blackford's Corner to the Wharf Bridge, and 13, The scraping and sweeping of all the streets in the Town of Swindon. "
Lot 13, being the roads of the Town itself would provide the most work and also the best rewards. Additional terms were stipulated for this lot, including the requirement that sweepings be removed every Thursday and Saturday. Markets at this time were held on Monday's, so there would have been a rich covering on the road by the time of its Thursday sweeping.
The Goddard family was established within Swindon prior to the 15th Century, Thomas Goddard of Upham acquired the Manor in 1563 and his descendant family were Lords of the Manor up until the 20th century. The Goddard family were from 1563 until 1927 Lords of the Manor of Swindon, living on the Goddard Estate in The Lawns This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here The title of Lord of the Manor arose in the English mediaeval system of Manorialism following the Norman Conquest. The estate included the area known today as the Lawns, and was bounded by the High Street and the site of Christchurch.
At one point during the 17th century, the Goddard family leased their manor house to William Levett Esq. , courtier to King Charles I of England who accompanied Charles on the day of his execution and owner of Levett's Farm within Savernake Forest. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Savernake Forest, located between Marlborough and Hungerford in the English county of Wiltshire, is privately owned by the Trustees of Savernake (Levett's nephew Richard Levett was Lord Mayor of London in 1699 and owner of Kew Palace; Levett's son was Dr. Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial Surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the legal title for the Mayor of (and head of the City of London Corporation. Three buildings at Kew, which is now a western suburb of London, have been known as Kew Palace. Henry Levett of London Charterhouse; Levett's son Dr. The London Charterhouse is a former Carthusian monastery in London, England, to the north of what is now Charterhouse Square. William was principal of Magdalene Hall, Oxford, and later Dean of Bristol. ) On Jan. 22, 1658, Francis Bowman Gent. , "guardian of Thomas Goddard, leased to Levett a "mansion house lately occupied by Anne Goddard in Swindon. Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial Surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy " Later Goddard family leases to Levett, who retained his farm within Savernake Forest, would come to include other lands owned by the Goddard family in Swindon. Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial Surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy Savernake Forest, located between Marlborough and Hungerford in the English county of Wiltshire, is privately owned by the Trustees of Savernake By then Levett was working as surveyor for the Duke of Somerset. Levett is an Anglo-Norman territorial Surname deriving from the village of Livet-en-Ouche now Jonquerets-de-Livet, in Eure, Normandy The Duke of Somerset is a title in the peerage of England that has been created several times In the lease of April 5, 1664, the lease by Goddard notes that "the Parke etc. " is included as well as the Goddard mansion.  Two of Levett's children are buried at Holy Rood Church in Swindon. 
The last of the Goddard male line, Major Fitzroy Pleydell Goddard, a diplomat, died in 1927. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states His widow, Eugenia Kathleen, left Swindon in 1931. Subsequent to this, the house remained empty until it was occupied by British and American forces during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Damaged by the military, it was bought from The Crown by Swindon Corporation in 1947 for £16,000. Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government The sale included 53 acres of land, the Manor house and the adjacent Holy Rood Church.
The house itself was derelict by 1952 and demolished. The Manor grounds were opened as parkland and remain so. Today; the wood, lake, sunken garden, elements of the walls and the gateposts at the entrance to Lawns are all open to the public. The former stables are now the Planks auction house.
The economy of Swindon has, pre-predominately over the years, depended on Land, agriculture and livestock markets. William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke (½ brother of Henry III) is recorded as having held a market in Swindon from 1259. William de Valence 1st Earl of Wexford and 1st Earl of Pembroke, born Guillaume de Lusignan or de Valence (1225-1230 &ndash May 16 or 18 1296 was Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 It is from these records that the name Swindon first appears, as well as 'Chepyng Swindon' in 1289 and 'Market Swindon' in 1336. 
Although Thomas Goddard was granted a weekly market and two fairs a year in 1626, the Market in Swindon was in decline by 1640. However a cattle plague hit nearby Highworth in 1652, allowing Swindon's livestock sales to increase. Highworth is a Market town in the Unitary authority of Swindon in Wiltshire, England, located about six miles north-east of In 1672, John Aubrey remarked "Here on Munday every weeke a gallant Markett for Cattle, which increased to its new greatnese upon the plague at Highworth. "How these curiosities would be quite forgott did not such idle fellowes as I am putt them down "
Swindon Market was one of the 32 weekly markets held throughout Wiltshire up to 1718. Etymology The county formerly 'Wiltonshire' or 'Wiltunscir' (9th century is named after the former county town of Wilton (itself named after the River Wylye
In 1814, John Britton passed through Swindon and recorded 1,600 people and 263 houses in the town. John Britton (1771-1857 was an English Antiquary, born on 7 July 1771 at Kington St He also wrote of the weekly corn market, fortnightly cattle market and regular Horse sales. However, by the mid-1800s the cattle market was poorly attended.
A new Cattle Market site was built in 1873 to try to revive the Market, a site which remained until the late 1980s when the final auction was held. There is no longer a Cattle Market in modern Swindon.
The 1800s saw the beginnings of Swindon's growth, firstly through the Canals and later due to the Railway. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways The Railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world Changes which helped the towns population double in the first half of the century from 1,198 in 1801 to 2,495 in 1841.  With new houses being built along Bath Road using stone from the local quarries, Swindon continued to move away from being a purely agricultural town.
However, this did not stop an observation being made in 1830 that Swindon was "a town of two principal streets. "
The Canals came to Swindon in the early part of the century, to be replaced later by the siting of the Great Western Railway's Works and the building of New Swindon in the mid-1800s. Swindon railway works were built by the Great Western Railway in 1841 in Swindon in the English county of Wiltshire.
Swindon at the beginning of the 19th century was still mainly centred at the top of Swindon Hill, some farmhouses, cottages and small dwellings were scattered around its base. Today's suburbs of Coate, Broome, Westleaze, Walcott, Russia Platt (later Rushey Platt), Westcott, Eastcott, Rodbourne Cheney, Westlecot and Kings Hill were all still small hamlets. Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601 A number of these are now in areas considered to be in the Town Centre. The town centre is the term used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and mainland Europe to refer to the commercial or Geographical centre of
Eastcott became the focus of the new Swindon, with the Wilts and Berks Canal Company building Swindon Wharf and a number of canal buildings just north of the hamlet. A wharf is a landing place or Pier where ships may tie up and load or unload Regent Circus is the site of a former orchard and a public house called the Red Cow (now recognised in the current pub named the Red Cow near to the original site).
A bridge placed across the canal in 1806 to provide access to a farm was later to become the Golden Lion bridge, now located in the centre of Swindon's main shopping area on Canal Walk. Up until 1840, what is known today as Swindon town centre was farms and fields.
From the mid-17th century till the end of 18th century, Swindon's economy began to increase with the exploitation of the Purbeck Stone (a type of limestone) quarries. Purbeck Marble is a Fossiliferous Limestone quarried in the Isle of Purbeck, a Peninsula in south-east Dorset, England Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3
Stone from these quarries had been used from the time of the Roman occupation, Swindon stone has been found in Roman villas and settlements in the area. Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410 A Roman villa is a Villa that was built or lived in during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire.
Documented workings survive from 1641, with all new excavations sanctioned and taxed by the Goddard family. The quarries declined during the period 1775-1800, but rebounded during the building of the Wilts and Berks Canal. Stone was used in building the canal walls, buildings and also exported using it. In 1820, 101 tons of Swindon stone was transported along the canal.  This fell to 44 tons in 1845 with the introduction of the Railway, however the Great Western Railway buildings and the creation of Swindon New Town saw a resurge in Stone production. The Great Western Railway ( GWR) was a British railway company and a notable example of Civil engineering, linking London with the West Quarrying activity ceased altogether in the late 1950s with the sites of two quarries being in the locations of Queens Park and Town Gardens in the modern town. The site of the former Okus Quarry is now a protected Site of Special Scientific Interest. Okus Quarry ( is a 2500 square metre Geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Wiltshire, notified in 1951 A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a Conservation designation denoting a Protected area in the United Kingdom.
In 1775, an act of parliament was passed authorising the building of the Wilts and Berks Canal. A "waterway that would link the Kennet and Avon Canal at Semington, near Trowbridge with the River Thames at Abingdon. The Kennet and Avon Canal is a Canal in southern England The name may refer to either the route of the original Kennet and Avon Canal Company, which linked the Semington is a medium-sized village in West Wiltshire, England Trowbridge is the County town of Wiltshire, England, situated on the River Biss in the west of the county approximately 12 miles (19 km southeast The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. . " It reached Swindon in 1804, and Abingdon in 1810. In all, 58 miles (93 km) of waterway was created.
The canal enabled Swindon businesses and farmers to transport goods over a wider area in a quicker time-scale. It also provided an influx of new residents, both from out of county and also from those navvies who settled after completion of the canal. Navvy is a shorter form of navigational engineer ( USA) or navigator ( UK) and is particularly applied to describe the manual labourers working With Ambrose Goddard, Lord of the Manor of Swindon at the time, also a major shareholder in the company. Goddard authorised a number of purchases on behalf of the canal company for land along its eventual route, land which he himself owned. 
In 1813, another act of parliament was passed authorising the North Wilts Canal, a proposal by the Thames & Severn Canal Company and the Wilts & Berks Canal Company to link the existing Wilts and Berks Canal at Swindon with the Thames and Severn Canal at Latton, Cricklade. The Thames and Severn Canal is a former Canal in Gloucestershire in the south of England, though there are plans to restore it Cricklade Cricklade is a small town in north Wiltshire in England, on the River Thames situated midway between Swindon and Cirencester. Consisting of nine miles (14 km) of waterway and 12 locks, it was completed in 1814. A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways. The two canals were consolidated in 1821 and brought together under the auspices of the Wilts & Berks Navigation Company.
A 70 acre feeder reservoir was built at Coate, a mile and a half south of the town, in 1822. A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use Coate Water ( is a Country park in the south-east of Swindon, near Junction 15 of the M4. This reservoir was created to keep the canal at a navigable level in the Swindon area. A body of water such as a River, Canal or Lake, is navigable if it is deep wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass and there are no obstructions like
With the railways providing a faster and cheaper method of transport, the canal was relatively unused by 1895. It was dredged in 1908, but declared ruined soon after It was finally closed under the Wilts & Berks Canal Abandonment Act, 1914 and partly filled in. Dredging is an Excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater in shallow seas or Fresh water areas with the purpose of
Various elements of the Canal can still be seen in Swindon, with the route also being remembered at Canal Walk in the Town Centre. Swindon Borough Council is currently considering re-creating part of Canal Walk to celebrate the towns water-borne heritage. 
Swindon as reported in 1830 was still a quiet, market town -
Swindon is a market town in the hundred of Kingsbridge, eighty miles from London, thirty-eight from Salisbury, nineteen from Devizes, and eleven from Marlborough; pleasantly seated on the banks of the Wilts and Berks canal, by which navigation the trade of this place is much facilitated; - Mr William Dunsford, whose residence is at the Wharf, is the superintendent. Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the Adjoining the church yard is a fine spring of water, which turns a corn mill within fifty yards of its source; and about a mile and a half south of the town is a reservoir, covering upwards of seventy acres, for supplying the canal. The population of the entire parish, according to the census of 1821, consisted of 1,580 inhabitants. 
This was to change markedly with the coming of the Great Western Railway.
In 1835 parliament approved the construction of a railway between London and Bristol, giving the role of Chief Engineer to Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 &ndash 15 September 1859 (ˈɪzəmbɑrd ˈkɪŋdəm brʊˈnɛl was a British Engineer.
There are several stories relating to how it came to pass through Swindon, with a well circulated myth that Brunel and Daniel Gooch were surveying a vale north of Swindon Hill and Brunel either threw a stone or dropped a sandwich and declared that spot to be the new location of the works. Sir Daniel Gooch 1st Baronet ( August 24 1816 &ndash October 15 1889) was first Chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western
The siting of the Locomotive works transformed Swindon from a small Market town into a bona fide Railway town, boosted the population considerably and also provided medical and educational facilities that had been sorely lacking. Market town or market right is a legal term originating in the Medieval period for a European settlement that has the right to hold Markets A railway town is a settlement that originated or was greatly developed because of a Railway station or junction at its site
The Great Western Railway was originally planned to cut through Savernake Forest near Marlborough, however the Marquess of Ailesbury who owned the land, objected. Swindon railway works were built by the Great Western Railway in 1841 in Swindon in the English county of Wiltshire. The Great Western Railway ( GWR) was a British railway company and a notable example of Civil engineering, linking London with the West Savernake Forest, located between Marlborough and Hungerford in the English county of Wiltshire, is privately owned by the Trustees of Savernake Marlborough ( IPA /ˈmɔːlbrə/ " Maul bruh" is a market town in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road The Marquess had previously also objected to part of the Kennet and Avon Canal running through his estate (see Bruce Tunnel). The Kennet and Avon Canal is a Canal in southern England The name may refer to either the route of the original Kennet and Avon Canal Company, which linked the Bruce Tunnel ( is on the summit pound of the Kennet and Avon Canal between Wootton Top Lock and Crofton Locks in Wiltshire,
With the Railway needing to run near to a canal at this point, and as it was cheaper to transport coal for trains along canals at this time, Swindon was the next logical choice for the works 20 miles (32 km) north of the original route.
Once the plan was set for the railway to come to Swindon, it was at first intended to bring it closely along the foot of the hill, so as to be as close as possible to the town without entailing excessive engineering works. However, the Goddard family, following the example quoted above of the Marquis (and many other landowners of the day), objected to having it near their property, so it was eventually laid a couple of miles further north. 
Eventually covering 320 acres (1. 3 km²), it became the focal point for the creation of New Swindon and the influx of over 10,000 new residents in the next 50 years.
In its heyday, it employed over 14,000 people and the main locomotive fabrication workshop, the A Shop was, at 11. 25 acres, one of the largest covered areas in the world.
With the railway passing through town in early 1841, the Goddard Arms public house in Old Swindon was used as a railway booking office in lieu of a station. Swindon railway station is in the town of Swindon, Wiltshire, England. Tickets purchased included the fare for a horse-drawn carriage to the tracks down the hill. A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people usually horse-drawn
Swindon railway station opened in 1842 with construction on the works continuing. Swindon railway station is in the town of Swindon, Wiltshire, England.
The factory had to be immediately adjacent to the railway, and it was necessary for the workers to be housed as close as possible to it.
As the town of Swindon at that time was over a mile away on top of the hill, a modest Railway Village of 300 homes was proposed in 1841. Building began using stone from Swindon's quarries and also from stone excavated during the boring of Box Tunnel, 243 houses were completed by 1853 with the towns population being estimated at over 2,500. Box Tunnel is a railway Tunnel in western England, between Bath and Chippenham, dug through the Box Hill. All 300 houses were completed by the mid-1860s.
Consequently a new town was built, known as New Swindon. This town would remain both physically and administratively separate from Old Swindon until 1900.
On January 22, 1900, Queen Victoria signed the charter granting Swindon Municipal Borough status, this was enacted 9 November. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland A charter is the grant of authority or rights stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified Municipal boroughs were a type of Local government which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974 in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 
The charter amalgamated Old and New Swindon into one town (population 45,006 in 1901), enabling the pooling of resources from two different authorities. This provided enough money to open an electrical power station in 1903 on land bought by the new council at Lower Eastcott Farm (now located in Corporation Street). A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of
Taking advantage of this, trams were introduced in September 1904. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train
In 1906, the Swindon Tram disaster occurred. A number 11 tram taking passengers from the Bath and West Show being held in Old Town suffered brake failure driving down Victoria Hill and crashed in Regents Circus killing 5. An agricultural show is a public event showcasing the equipment animals sports and recreation associated with Agriculture and Animal husbandry. 
The Wilts and Berks Canal continued to fall out of use with the last passing vessel being recorded in this year.  By 1914, the canals had mostly dried up and taken over by council, Coate Water was turned into a pleasure park. Coate Water ( is a Country park in the south-east of Swindon, near Junction 15 of the M4. No improvements to the canal could be started due to the start of World War I and it was abandoned. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
In 1919, a flagpole war memorial was the impetus for widespread rioting in the town by those who believed it to be disrespectful to the war dead. A war memorial is a building monument statue or other edifice to celebrate a War or victory or (predominating in modern times to commemorate those who died or were injured  The flagpole itself was later burned down and was eventually replaced by a wooden cenotaph. A cenotaph is a tomb or a Monument erected in honour of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere The existing stone cenotaph was introduced in 1920.
This period also saw the completion of the first council housing estate in Pinehurst, on the site of the old Hurst Farm. The council house is a form of public or social housing in the United Kingdom. The houses on the new estate included such luxuries as electric light and bathrooms. Developers had also provided a local shopping centre, post office and even a Community centre and temporary school.
The Swindon Advertiser and the Wiltshire, Berkshire and Gloucestershire Chronicle were bought by Swindon Press in 1920 and became the Evening Advertiser, now the Swindon Advertiser. The Swindon Advertiser (affectionately known by locals as 'the Adver'is a daily tabloid Newspaper, published in Swindon.  The Chronicle is today known as the Wiltshire Gazette and Herald. The Gazette and Herald is a local weekly paid-for newspaper established in 1816
1924 saw the highest employment ever in the GWR Railway Works, with 14,369 people employed in the various factories. Great Western Railway (GWR 6000 Class 6000 King George V is a preserved British Steam locomotive. Swindon railway works were built by the Great Western Railway in 1841 in Swindon in the English county of Wiltshire. And on April 28, 1924, King George V and Queen Mary visited the works to view the trains for themselves, witnessing the work's most famous locomotive in production: Number 6000, King George V. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953 was the queen-empress consort of George V of the United Kingdom Great Western Railway (GWR 6000 Class 6000 King George V is a preserved British Steam locomotive. 
Fitzroy Pleydell Goddard, last of the Goddard's and Lord of the Manor of Swindon held the post of High Sheriff of Wiltshire during this period before his eventual death in 1927. The High Sheriff is or was a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries Also, after only 25 years, Swindon's Trams were phased out by buses in 1929.
Swindon received its first purpose built Maternity Hospital in 1931, now Kingshill House, located along Bath Road. The current Swindon Town Hall England was built in the late 19th century to be a centrepiece of New Swindon, powers transferred to it from the Old Town Hall in 1891 A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for  Prior to this, the only facilities available were in the crowded Milton Road GWR Medical Fund Hospital.
The 30s also saw more motor cars in private hands, with the town's purpose built car park erected behind the Town Hall. Parking lot (called a car park in Australia and the UK) is a cleared area that is more or less level and is intended for Parking vehicles The current Swindon Town Hall England was built in the late 19th century to be a centrepiece of New Swindon, powers transferred to it from the Old Town Hall in 1891
Between 1934 and 1935, expansion began again in the Old Town area. With new houses and estates being built along the Marlborough Road, for sale at £730 each, and also the new Terraced housing estate in Walcot, where a house would cost £450. In Architecture and City planning, a terrace(d or row house or townhouse (though the latter term can also refer to Patio houses 
With the declaration of war and the onset of World War II, Evacuees arrived in Swindon in 1939. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II were designed to save the population of urban or military areas from German aerial bombing
Troops were stationed in churches and school halls throughout town with a contingent of British and American forces stationed in The Lawns, leading to the Manor house's eventual dereliction. Faringdon Road Park had trenches dug under trees and air-raid shelters added due its location near to both the Works and the Railway village. Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static For the general article about fortified structures see Bunker.
The GWR Works became a war factory which in turn led to Swindon becoming a target for Bombing raids, with the work's hooter used as one of the town's air raid siren due to its volume. Swindon railway works were built by the Great Western Railway in 1841 in Swindon in the English county of Wiltshire. A civil defense siren (also referred to as an air raid siren, tornado siren, tsunami siren, or other outdoor warning siren and also rarely referred 
The first air raid alerts started in June/July 1940 and Swindon received its first bomb in August. A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely The device fell to the rear of Shrivenham Road and no one hurt. However this good fortune was not to last and in October, bombs on York Road and Roseberry Street produced the Town's first fatalities. 
To provide recreation for the wartime community, the town's first public library was opened in 1943 in Regent Street with help from the Army. A public library (also called circulating library) is a Library which is accessible by the Public and is generally funded from public sources (such Followed later in 1946 with an arts centre, also on Regent Street. An art center or arts centre is distinct from an Art gallery or Art museum.
After the war, the influx of new residents to Swindon and the Post-World War II baby boom increased the town's population to 68,953 by 1951 and it became clear that more housing was needed. As is often the case after a major war the end of World War II brought a Baby boom to many countries notably those in Europe, Asia, North America This number was an increase of 13,000 residents since 1921.
New estates appeared throughout the 1950s; with Penhill built from 1951, Walcot East in 1956 and then Park North & South.
The beginning of Swindon's association with Car building also began in the 1950s, when Pressed Steel Fisher arrived in the town and built a factory. ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 The Pressed Steel Company Limited (PSC was a British car body manufacturing company founded at Cowley near Oxford in 1926 as a joint venture between William The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles The Pressed Steel Company Limited (PSC was a British car body manufacturing company founded at Cowley near Oxford in 1926 as a joint venture between William The factory produced sheet metal pressings and bodywork for a variety of applications, including the Railway, before eventual takeover from Rover. MG Rover was the last domestically owned mass-production car manufacturer in the British motor industry. It is today owned by BMW and provides some facilities to the Honda car factory. ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 () is a Multinational corporation, engine Manufacturer and engineering corporation headquartered in Japan.
With the influx of new residents to the industrial Swindon, existing medical facilities were over-burdened and a new hospital was proposed. To be sited at Okus, many thought the hospital would be too remote and public transport would be insufficient (incidentally, these are reasons cited for its eventual closure in 2002 and the building of the new Great Western Hospital). Great Western Hospital is a large Hospital situated in Swindon, Wiltshire, England, next to junction 15 of the M4 motorway. 
Princess Margaret laid the foundation stone in 1957 of the Princess Margaret Hospital (abbreviated to PMH), it would not be completed until January 1960.
As Swindon entered the 1960s; the population increase of 22,000 since 1951 brought the total number of residents to 91,775 in 1961. 
The new hospital and new residents heralded an era of redevelopment in the town, with the council buying houses around the town centre for 'slum clearance' and transformation into Retail units and shops. Urban Renewal (similar to Urban Regeneration in British English) is a controversial U For safety, the Town centre began pedestrianisation; with vehicle gates placed at Bridge Street, Fleet Street and Regents Street. Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrian zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited Originally only closed to traffic from 10am till 5pm on Saturdays, this was expanded to the eventual pedestrianisation of the main shopping area and paving over of the existing roads and canals.
Swindon as a major Railway Locomotive manufacturer ended in 1962, with work changing to focus on repairs to existing carriages and engines and large portions of the site sold. This article is about the retail chain for people of that name see William Henry Smith. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. However, in 1967, the retailer WH Smith moved its book distribution centre to the town, a move designed to take advantage of Swindon's central placing. This article is about the retail chain for people of that name see William Henry Smith. Other companies followed suit in the 1970s.
Construction began on the M4 motorway in the late 1960s to provide quick and easy access from the region into London, something that Swindon's football club seemed to use as an inspiration, when in 1969 Swindon Town F.C. recorded the most famous result in its history, winning 3-1 in the League Cup Final against Arsenal at Wembley Stadium, a match watched by close to 100,000 people. The M4 motorway is a Motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. Swindon Town Football Club is an English football club based in Swindon, Wiltshire, who currently play in League One. The Football League Cup, commonly known as the League Cup, is an English football competition Wembley Stadium is a Stadium in Wembley, located in the London Borough of Brent in London, England.
The football club later added the Anglo-Italian League Cup Winners' Cup to the 1969 honours, beating AS Roma 5-2 over two legs. Associazione Sportiva Roma, ( commonly referred to as simply Roma, is an Italian professional football club from Rome, and are currently amongst
The M4 motorway opened in 1971, providing Swindon with two motorway junctions (numbers 15 and 16). The M4 motorway is a Motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. The M4 motorway is a Motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. It was also the year of Decimalisation in the United Kingdom, with Decimal Day in February sounding the death knell for the old coinage. In the management of currencies, decimalisation (or decimalization) is the process of converting from traditional denominations to a " Decimal " Decimal Day ( 15 February Decimalisation helped to transform the retail stores in Swindon town centre, which was under redevelopment, with smaller family owned stores generally being pushed out of business under the invasion of the large chain stores. Chain stores are Retail outlets that share a Brand and central management and usually have standardized business methods and practices The development of the town included the erection of the Wyvern Theatre.
It wasn't until 1972 the PMH, Swindon's main hospital at the time, finally had a purpose built Accident & Emergency unit created. Up until this time the hospital had been using temporary hut based facilities.
The oil company Burmah Oil built their world Headquarters along Pipers Way in 1972, now owned by Burmah-Castrol. The Burmah Oil Company was founded in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1896 by David Sime Cargill to develop oil interests on the Indian subcontinent. Castrol is a Brand of industrial and Automotive Lubricants which is applied to a large range of Oils Greases and similar
Adding to Burmah Oil's ingress in the 70s; another large corporation, Hambro Life, established their Headquarters in the town in the 1970s, with offices over the Railway station and over Debenhams in the Shopping area. The name was changed to Allied Hambro in 1984 and Allied Dunbar in 1985, before its eventual purchase by Zurich Financial Services. Allied Dunbar is a Trading name of the Zurich Financial Services Group and its subsidiary companies Allied Dunbar Assurance plc and Dunbar Bank plc Zurich Financial Services Group is a major Financial services group based in Zürich, Switzerland.
Following boundary changes in 1974, the Borough of Swindon became Thamesdown. Swindon railway works were built by the Great Western Railway in 1841 in Swindon in the English county of Wiltshire. Economy This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Swindon at current basic prices published (pp The new authority oversaw the construction of the Brunel shopping centre in the same year and the 1976 opening of the Oasis leisure centre. A leisure centre in the UK and Canada is a purpose built building or site usually owned and operated by the Borough Councilor district The David Murray John Tower, a landmark dominating the town's skyline, was built as part of the shopping centre construction and is named after the Town Clerk who championed the boundary changes and ultimately - Swindon's regeneration. 
The 1980s saw Swindon expand out West, with Toothill and Freshbrook forming the area now known as West Swindon. It was here also that the first out of town shopping centre was built in Swindon, owned by Carrefour it is now an ASDA supermarket. Carrefour SA ( (karˈfur is a French international Hypermarket chain with a global network of outlets Asda is a United Kingdom Supermarket chain which retails food clothing and general merchandise
The GWR Works finally closed in 1986, although it was wound down slowly with some employees remaining until 1987. The Wills tobacco factory also closed in 1987, the site now the large Tesco store on Ocotal Way. WD & HO Wills was a British Tobacco importer and Cigarette manufacturer formed in Bristol, England. Tesco plc is a British -based international grocery and general merchandising retail chain
On April 1, 1997 the area became known once more as the Borough of Swindon after the creation of a new Unitary Authority, replacing the confusing Thamesdown name. Economy This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Swindon at current basic prices published (pp See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions
In 2002 the [New Swindon Company] http://www.newswindon.co.uk was formed with the brief to regenerate the town centre into a dynamic regional centre, reflecting the importance of Swindon in the region and to give the town the centre it deserves