The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period The region was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Grand Duchy of Finland (Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ Великое княжество Финляндское ' Velikoe knjažestvo finljandskoe) was the Predecessor The catastrophic Finnish famine of 1866-1868 was followed by eased economic regulation and political development. The Famine of 1866–1868 was the last Famine in Finland and northern Sweden, and the last major naturally caused famine in Europe.
In 1917, Finland declared independence. Months later the Russia-supported "Reds" made a coup in Helsinki, leadingto the Finnish Civil War, but in a few months the Western-supported "Whites" defeated them and brought back parliamentary power. The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national and social turmoil caused by World War I (1914&ndash1918 in Europe The still mainly agrarian economy grew relatively fast with strong property rights and support for free trade. Finland dislikedsocialist countries and relations to West were strong. During the Second World War, Finland fought twice against the Soviet Union, and had to cede most of Karelia to the USSR, but remained an independent democracy. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system During the Cold War Soviet Union attempted to invade Finland from within, utilizing YYA Treaty, finlandization, KGB, Stasi and emerging radical socialists such as taistoist. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Agreement of Friendship Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys- yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus Finlandization (suomettuminen finlandisering Finnlandisierung is the influence that one powerful country may have on the policies of a smaller neighboring country KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty For the regular police in East Germany see Volkspolizei. The Ministerium für Staatssicherheit ( Ministry for State Security Taistolaisuus (after the Finnish first name 'Taisto' sometimes translated as "Taistoism" in English was a orthodox pro- Soviet tendency in the mostly Eurocommunist Urho Kekkonen stayed 25 years in power until 1981. Kekkonen redirects here For other uses see Kekkonen (disambiguation. However, Finland still maintained capitalist economy and GDP per capita reached world's highest levels in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1990 the number of public sector employees and the tax burden increased more than nearly any other Western country. In 1992 Finland faced simultaneously economic overheating and depressed Western, Soviet and local markets. During the severe depression, the stock market fell of 50%, GDP fell of 15%, unemployment hiked to a fifth of workforce, and the public debt doubled to 60% of GDP. Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government
For the first time for decades, reformers were given room in all Nordic countries. Finland took many steps for greater civil liberties and economic freedom. Since reforms Finland has had good results in many international comparisons. It joined the European Union in 1995, but due to political difficulties did not follow Baltic countries to NATO. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The North Atlantic Treaty
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|The Viking Age|
If confirmed, the oldest archeological site in Finland would be the Wolf Cave in Kristinestad, Ostrobothnia. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Scandinavian Mountains in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen ("the Fells quot or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, The Scandinavian Peninsula is a geographic region in northern Europe, consisting principally of the Mainland territories of Norway and Sweden Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas See also Medieval Scandinavian laws A thing or ting ( Old Norse, Old English and Icelandic: þing; other modern The Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people starting in the 8th century with The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union Sweden–Finland is a historiographical term used especially in Finland, to refer to the Swedish Kingdom from the Kalmar Union to the The Union between Sweden and Norway (Unionen mellan Sverige och Norge Unionen mellom Norge og Sverige or the Swedish-Norwegian Kingdom was the union of the kingdoms of The history of Scandinavia is the history of the Nordic countries — Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. This article covers the history of the Kingdom of Denmark and of the areas comprising modern-day Denmark. From around the time of the Roman Empire until about 800 AD many stone inscriptions can be found written in Runes Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century This article is about the history of Iceland and the areas comprising modern day Iceland. The history of Greenland, the world's largest island is the history of life under extreme Arctic conditions an Ice cap covers about 95 percent of the island Pre-Norse history The early details of Faroese history are rather nebulous The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal The history of Karelia dates to 7000-6000 BC. Mining began between 1 and 1000 AD Scandinavism (also called Pan-Scandinavianism) and Nordism are literary and political movements that support various degrees of cooperation between the Scandinavian The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Skandinaviska myntunionen Skandinaviske møntunion Skandinaviske myntunion was a Monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark A Scandinavian defence union that would include Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark was planned between the four countries after World History For the Royal League 2004-05 tournament the twelve participating teams were initially placed into three groups Scandinavian Airlines System ( SAS) is a multi-national Airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Kristinestad (in Swedish Kristiinankaupunki (in Finnish is a municipality in Finland. Excavations are underway and if the so far presented estimates hold true, it would be the only pre-glacial (Neanderthal) site so far found in the Nordic countries and some 130 000 years old . The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland,
The earliest traces of modern humans are known from ca. 8500 BCE and are post-glacial. The people were first probably seasonal hunter-gatherers. A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting Their items are known as the Suomusjärvi culture and the Kunda culture. Kunda Culture, with its roots in Swiderian culture is a Mesolithic Hunter-gatherer communities of the Baltic forest zone extending eastwards Among the finds is the net of Antrea, one of the oldest fishing nets ever excavated (calibrated carbon dating: ca. Kamennogorsk (Каменного́рск Antrea St Andree known as Antrea (Антреа before 1948 is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 8300 BCE).
Around 5300 BCE pottery appeared in Finland. The earliest representatives belong to the Comb Ceramic Cultures, known for their distinctive decorating patterns. Pit-Comb Ware culture redirects here For the contemporary (ca This marks the beginning of the neolithic for Finland, although the subsistence was still based on hunting and fishing. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Extensive networks of exchange existed across Finland and Northeastern Europe during 5th millennium BCE. For example flint from Scandinavia and Valdai Hills, amber from Scandinavia and the Baltic region, and slate from Scandinavia and Lake Onega found their way into Finnish archeological sites and asbestos and soap stone from e. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Valdai Hills ( Russian: Валда́йская возвы́шенность or Валда́й Latvian: Valdaja augstiene are an upland region in north-west Amber is Fossil tree Resin, which is appreciated for its color and beauty Baltic Seven Islandsgif|right|thumb|330px|A contemporary transnational Euroregion encompasses the islands of the Baltic countries Slate is a fine-grained foliated homogeneous, Metamorphic rock derived from an original Shale -type Sedimentary rock composed of Clay Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Онежское озеро Onezhskoe ozero, i Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a Metamorphic rock, a talc- Schist. g. Saimaa spread outside of Finland. Saimaa ( IPA:) or Saimen in Swedish, is a lake in southeastern Finland. Rock paintings, apparently related to shamanistic and totemistic belief systems, have been found especially in Eastern Finland, e. g. Astuvansalmi. Astuvansalmi rock paintings (Astuvansalmen kalliomaalaukset are located in Finland at the shores of the lake Yövesi, which is a part of the large lake Saimaa
From 3200 BCE onwards either immigrants or a strong cultural influence from south of the Gulf of Finland settled in southwestern Finland. This culture was a part of the European Battle Axe cultures, which have often been associated with the movement of Indo-European speakers. The Corded Ware culture, alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European Archaeological horizon that The Battle-Axe or Cord Ceramic culture seems to have practiced agriculture and animal husbandry outside of Finland but the earliest confirmed traces of agriculture in Finland date later, approximately to the 2nd millennium BCE. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Animal husbandry, also called Animal science, stockbreeding or simple husbandry, is the agricultural practice of breeding Further inland the societies retained their hunting-gathering lifestyles. Finnic languages got an Indo-European influx both from a pre-Baltic and pre-Germanic phases and from early Baltic languages (and vice versa) approximately in the period 3500-1000 BC, which has been postulated to have initiated the differentiation between the Sami languages and Baltic-Finnic languages. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic The Baltic-Finnic languages, spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people are a branch of Finnic languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric group
The Battle axe and the Comb Ceramic cultures merged giving rise to the Kiukainen culture which existed between 2300 BCE and 1500 BCE featuring fundamentally a comb ceramic tradition with cord ceramic characteristics.
The Bronze Age began some time after 1500 BCE. The coastal regions of Finland were a part of the Nordic Bronze Culture, whereas in the inland regions the influences came from the bronze-using cultures of Northern and Eastern Russia.
The question of the time lines for the evolution and spread of the contemporary languages is controversial and new theories challenging older postulations have been introduced continuously.
According to the currently widest spread presumption, Finno-Ugric (or Uralic) languages were first spoken in Finland and the adjacent areas during the (typical) Comb Ceramic period, around 4000 BC at the latest. During the 2nd millennium BC these evolved - possibly under an Indo-European (most likely Baltic) influence - into proto-Sami (inland) and proto(-Baltic)-Finnic (coast). The Finnish language is thought to have started to differentiate during the Iron Age starting from the first century AD forwards.
Cultural influences from all points of compass are visible in Finnish archeological finds from the very first settlements onwards. E. g. archaeological finds from Finnish Lapland suggest the presence of the Komsa culture. The Komsa culture was a stone age culture of Hunter-gatherers that existed in northern Norway from around 10000 BC. The Sujala finds equal in age with the earliest Komsa-artefacts from Norway but may suggest also a connection to the Swiderian culture. Swiderian culture, also published in English literature as Sviderian and Swederian, is the name of Final Palaeolithic cultural complexes in Poland and the  South-Western Finland belonged to the Nordic Bronze Age, which may be associated with Indo-European languages and according to Finnish Germanist Jorma Koivulehto speakers of Proto-Germanic language in particular. The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English Artefacts found in Kalanti and the province of Satakunta, for long unilingually Finnish, and their place-names have made several scholars argue for an existence of a proto-Germanic speaking population component a little later, during the Early and Middle Iron Age. Uusikaupunki (ˈuːsiˌkɑupuŋki or Nystad in Swedish, is a town and municipality of Finland. Satakunta (Satakunda Finnia Septentrionalis or Satagundia is a region ( maakunta / landskap) and a historical province of Finland  A Norse-speaking population is thought to have settled Finland's coastal areas in the 12th to 13th centuries.  Swedish differentiated from the eastern Norse dialects by the 13th century. During the subsequent Swedish reign over Finland particularly the coastal areas witnessed new waves of settlement from Sweden.
Earliest findings of imported iron blades and local iron working appear in 500 BCE.
From about 50 AD, there are indicators from more intense intense long-distance exchange in coastal Finland. Inhabitants exchanged their products, presumably mostly furs, for weapons and ornaments with the Balts and the Scandinavians as well as with the peoples along the traditional eastern trade routes.
The existence of richly furnished burials, usually with weapons, suggests that there was a chiefly elite in some parts of the country. Hillforts spread over most of southern Finland at the end of the Iron and early Medieval Age. A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement There is no evidence of a state-formation, although there are a few referrals to kings ruling in Finland in Norse sagas, usually considered untrustworthy.
The three main dialectal groups of Finnish-speakers, (proper-)Finns, Tavastians and Karelians probably emerged during the Iron Age. The Karelians (also Karels are descendants of Baltic Finns whose historic homeland Karelia is divided between Finland 's counties North Karelia The archaeological culture of the Åland Islands had a more prominent Swedish character than the rest of the country, possibly suggesting Scandinavian settlement.
In the early Iron Age Finns appear for the first time in a written document when Tacitus mentions Fenni in his Germania. The Germania ( Latin title De Origine et situ Germanorum, English for the Origin and Situation of the Germans) written by Gaius However, it is unclear if these have anything to do with the present Finnish people. The first Scandinavian documents mentioning a "land of the Finns" are two runestones: (Söderby, Sweden, with the inscription finlont (U 582 †), Gotland with the inscription finlandi (G 319 M) dating from the eleventh century. A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock The Joint Nordic database for runic inscriptions ( Swedish: Samnordisk runtextdatabas) is a project started on January 1, 1993 at is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the largest Island in the Baltic Sea. The Joint Nordic database for runic inscriptions ( Swedish: Samnordisk runtextdatabas) is a project started on January 1, 1993 at .
Contact between Sweden and what is now Finland was considerable even during pre-Christian times — the Vikings were known to Finns both due to their participation in commerce and plundering. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian There is no commonly accepted evidence of Viking settlement in the Finnish mainland, although some finds in Southern Ostrobothnia have caused controversy . The Åland Islands probably had Swedish settlement during the Viking Period. However, some scholars claim that the archipelago was deserted during the 11th century and then re-settled by Swedes during the 12th century.
According to the archaeological finds, Christianity gained a foothold in Finland during the 11th century CE. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings According to the very few written documents that have survived, the church in Finland was still in its early development in the 12th century. Later medieval legends describe Swedish attempts to conquer and Christianize Finland sometime in the mid-1150s. First Swedish Crusade is a legendary military expedition presumably in the 1150s that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan In the early 13th century, the missionary Bishop Thomas apparently managed to bring some stability and order. At the same time, there were several secular powers who aimed to bring the Finns under their rule. These included Sweden, Denmark, the Republic of Novgorod in Northwestern Russia and probably the German crusading orders as well. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Novgorod Republic (Новгородская республика / Novgorodskaya respublika Новгородская земьля / Novgorodskaya zemlja) was a Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending  Finns had their own chiefs, but most probably no central authority. Russian chronicles however indicate ability to raise armies large enough to challenge Novgorod in the vicinity of Finland. Finnish-Novgorodian wars were a series of poorly documented conflicts that took place between unspecified Finnic groups and the Republic of Novgorod from the 11th
The name "Finland" signified only the southwestern province that has been known as "Finland Proper" since the 18th century. Finland Proper or Southwest Finland (Varsinais-Suomi Egentliga Finland is a region in south-western Finland. The concept of a Finnish "country" in the modern sense developed only slowly during the period of the 15th–18th centuries. This development was chiefly promoted by the unifying effect of the Catholic Church that considered the populated parts of present-day Finland to be one episcopal see and took it for granted that the Christians of that see would consider themselves as kinsmen. An episcopal see is the ecclesiastical domain of authority of a Bishop.
It was apparently the Swedish regent, Birger Jarl, who managed to stabilize the Swedish rule in Finland after the so-called Second Swedish Crusade, most often dated to 1249. born Birger Magnusson (c 1210 – 21 October 1266) was a Swedish statesman a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role Second Swedish Crusade was a semi-historical Swedish military expedition to Finland by Birger jarl in the 13th century Novgorod gained the rule in Karelia, the region immediately east of Finland, with a population still today closely related to the Finns in a linguistic and ethnic sense. Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Thus, the border between Catholic and Orthodox Christendom came to lie at the eastern border of Finland.
During the 13th century Finland was integrated in medieval European civilization. The Dominican order arrived in Finland around 1249 and came to exercise huge influence there. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is In the early 14th century, the first documents of Finnish students at Sorbonne appear. This article is about the Collège de Sorbonne. For other uses of the name see Sorbonne. In the south-western part of the country, an urban settlement evolved in Turku. Turku, in Swedish Åbo ( pronounced,) is a city and the original capital of Finland on the southwest coast of Finland at the Turku was one of the biggest towns in the Kingdom of Sweden, and its population included German merchants and craftsmen. Otherwise the degree of urbanization was very low in medieval Finland. Southern Finland and the long coastal zone of the Bothnian Gulf had a sparse farming settlement, organized as parishes and castellanies. The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti Bottniska viken ie Bottenviken + Bottenhavet is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. In the other parts of the country a small population of Sami hunters, fishermen and small-scale farmers lived. The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway These were exploited by the Finnish and Karelian tax collectors. During the 12th and 13th centuries, great numbers of Swedish settlers moved to the southern and north-western coasts of Finland, to the Åland Islands and to the archipelago between Turku and the Åland Islands: in these regions, the Swedish language is widely spoken even today. Swedish came to be the language of the high-status people in many other parts of Finland as well.
During the 13th century, the bishopric of Turku was established, sometimes identified as the medieval counterpart to Finland of our days, since there were no other sees in Finland. The cathedral of Turku was the center of the cult of Saint Henry, and naturally the cultural center of the bishopric. The bishop had the ecclesiastical authority over much of today's Finland and was usually the most powerful man there. Bishops were often Finns, whereas the commanders in the castles were more often Scandinavian or German noblemen. In 1362, representatives from Finland were called to participate in the elections of king for Sweden; and this year is often held to signify the incorporation of what would become Finland into the kingdom of Sweden. Similarly to the Scandinavian part of the kingdom, a gentry or (lower) nobility consisted of magnates and yeomen who could afford armament for a man and a horse. Gentry generally refers to people of high Social class, especially in the past Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime These were concentrated in the southern part of Finland.
The strong fortress of Viipuri (Swedish: Viborg) guarded the eastern border of Finland. Vyborg (Вы́борг Viipuri Viborg Wiborg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of Sweden and Novgorod signed the Treaty of Nöteborg (Pähkinäsaari in Finnish) in 1323, but that would not last long. Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as Treaty of Oreshek, is a conventional name for the peace treaty that was signed at Orekhovets (Nöteborg on August 12 For example, in 1348 the Swedish king Magnus Eriksson staged a failed crusade against the Orthodox "heretics", managing only to alienate his supporters and finally losing his crown. Magnus Eriksson or Magnus VII of Norway and Magnus IV of Sweden was king of Sweden (spring 1316 &ndash December 1, 1374) Norway, and Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox The bones of contention between Sweden and Novgorod were the northern coast-line of the Bothnian Gulf and the wilderness regions of Savo in Eastern Finland. Novgorod considered these as hunting and fishing grounds of its Karelian subjects, protesting against the slow infiltration of Catholic settlers from the West. Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod Occasional raids and clashes between Swedes and Novgorodians occurred during the late 14th and 15th centuries, but for most of the time an uneasy peace prevailed. There existed internal tensions as well. During the 1380s a civil war in the Scandinavian part of Sweden brought unrest to Finland, too. The victor of this struggle was Queen Margaret I of Denmark, who brought the three Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Denmark and Norway under her rule (the "Kalmar Union") in 1389. Margaret Valdemarsdatter (Margrete Valdemarsdotter ( 1353 - October 28 1412) was Queen of Denmark and of Norway and Regent of "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal The next 130 years or so were characterized by attempts of different Swedish factions to break out of the Union. Finland was sometimes involved in these struggles, but in general the 15th century seem to have been a relatively prosperous time, characterized by population growth and economic development. Towards the end of the century, however, the situation on the eastern border was becoming more tense. The Principality of Moscow conquered Novgorod, preparing the way for a unified Russian nation-state, and soon tensions arose with Sweden. The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое княжество Московское was a medieval Russian polity centered on Moscow between 1340 and The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy In 1495–1497, a brutal war was fought. The Russo-Swedish War of 1495–1497 was a result of an alliance between Ivan III of Russia and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family The fortress-town of Viipuri (Swedish: Viborg, Russian: Vyborg) stood against a Russian siege: according to a contemporary legend, it was saved by a miracle. Vyborg (Вы́борг Viipuri Viborg Wiborg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of
In 1521 the Kalmar Union finally collapsed and Gustav Vasa became the King of Sweden. Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. During his rule, the Swedish church was reformed (1527). The state administration underwent extensive reforms and development too, giving it a much stronger grip on the life of local communities - and ability to collect higher taxes. Following the policies of the Reformation, in 1551 Mikael Agricola, bishop of Turku, published his translation of the New Testament into the Finnish language. Mikael Agricola ( (c 1510 &ndash April 9, 1557) was a Finnish clergyman who became de facto founder of written Finnish and Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside
In 1550 Helsinki was founded by Gustav Vasa under the name of Helsingfors, but remained little more than a fishing village for more than two centuries. Helsinki (in Finnish;) or Helsingfors (in Swedish;) is the Capital and largest city of Finland. Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September
King Gustav Vasa died in 1560 and his crown was passed to his three sons in separate turns. King Erik XIV started an era of expansion when the Swedish crown took the city of Tallinn in Estonia under its protection in 1561. Eric XIV (Erik XIV (13 December 1533 &ndash 26 February 1577 was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568 Tallinn (historically known by the German, Swedish and Danish name Reval or the Polish name Rewal, among other names Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region The Livonian War was the beginning of an extremely warlike era which lasted for 160 years. The Livonian War of 1558–1582 was a lengthy military conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and variable coalition of Denmark–Norway, Grand Duchy of In the first phase, Sweden fought for the lordship of Estonia and Latvia against Denmark, Poland and Russia. Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The common people of Finland suffered because of drafts, high taxes, and abuse by military personnel. This resulted in the Cudgel War of 1596-7, a desperate peasant rebellion, which was suppressed brutally and bloodily. The Club War (also Cudgel War, Finnish Nuijasota, Swedish Klubbekriget) was a 1596 peasant uprising in the kingdom of Sweden A peace treaty (Treaty of Teusina) with Russia in 1595 moved the border of Finland further to the east and north following roughly nowadays borders. The Treaty of Teusina, also known as the Eternal Peace with Sweden in Russia, was concluded by Russian diplomats under Boyar Afanasiy Pushkin (the
An important part of the 16th century history of Finland was growth of the area settled by the farming population. The crown encouraged farmers from the province of Savonia to settle the vast wilderness regions in Middle Finland. Coat of arms of historical province of Savonia in Finlandpng|right|150px]] Savonia ( Finnish Savo or Swedish Savolax) is a historical province This was done, and the original Sami population often had to leave. The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway Some of the wilderness settled was traditional hunting and fishing territory of Karelian hunters. Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in During the 1580s, this resulted in a bloody guerrilla warfare between the Finnish settlers and Karelians in some regions, especially in Ostrobothnia.
In 1611-1632 Sweden was ruled by King Gustavus Adolphus, whose military reforms transformed the Swedish army from a peasant militia into an efficient fighting machine, possibly the best in Europe. For the other Swedish kings known as Gustavus Adolphus see Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden or Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden The conquest of Livonia was now completed, and some territories were taken from internally divided Russia in the Treaty of Stolbova. Livonia (Līvõmō Latvian and Livonija Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia. In 1630, the Swedish (and Finnish) armies marched into Central Europe, as Sweden had decided to take part in the great struggle between Protestant and Catholic forces in Germany, known as the Thirty Years' War. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. The Finnish light cavalry was known as the Hakkapeliitat. Hakkapeliitta ( Finnish pl hakkapeliitat) was the term used in the Holy Roman Empire for a Finnish light Cavalryman in the service
After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Sweden was ranked among the great European powers (the Swedish Empire). The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of Sweden was between 1611 and 1718 one of the Great powers of Europe During the war, several important reforms had been made in Finland:
However, the high taxation, continuing wars and the cold climate (the Little Ice Age) made the Imperial era of Sweden rather gloomy times for Finnish peasants. The Little Ice Age (LIA was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Climate Optimum In 1655–1660, a new series of bitter wars was fought, taking Finnish soldiers to the battle-fields of Livonia, Poland and Denmark. This article is about the 17th century war For 16th century war see Northern Seven Years' War ( 1563 – 1570) Livonia (Līvõmō Latvian and Livonija Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe In 1676, the political system of Sweden was transformed into an absolute monarchy. Charles XI (Karl XI 24 November 1655old style &ndash 5 April 1697old style was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in an unruly period in
In Middle and Eastern Finland, great amounts of tar were produced for export. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter European nations needed this material for the maintenance of their fleets. According to some theories, the spirit of early capitalism in the tar-producing province of Ostrobothnia may have been the reason for the witch-hunt wave that happened in this region during the late 17th century. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where "Witch trial" redirects here For the song by Rush, see Fear series. The people were developing more expectations and plans for the future, and when these were not realized, they were quick to blame witches - according to a belief system the Lutheran church had imported from Germany. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The Empire had a colony in the New World in the modern-day Delaware-Pennsylvania area between 1638–1655. At least half of the immigrants were of Finnish origin.
In the religious sense, the 17th century was an era of very strict Lutheran orthodoxy. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther In 1608, the law of Moses was declared the law of the land, in addition to secular legislation. Every subject of the realm was required to confess the Lutheran faith and the church attendance was mandatory. Eccleastialistical penalties were widely used.  The rigorous requirements of orthodoxy were revealed in the dismissal of the Bishop of Turku, Johan Terserus, who wrote a catechism which was decreed heretical in 1664 by the teologists of Academy of Åbo. A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament  On the other hand, the Lutheran requirement of the individual study of Bible prompted the first attempts at wide-scale education. The church required from each person a degree of literacy sufficient to read the basic texts of the Lutheran faith. Although the requirements could be fulfilled by learning the texts by heart, also the skill of reading became known among the population. 
In 1697–99, a famine caused by climate killed approximately 30% of the Finnish population. Soon afterwards, another war determining Finland's fate began (the Great Northern War of 1700–21). The Great Northern War (1700-21 was fought between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic Sea.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), Finland was occupied by the Russians, and the south-eastern part, including the important town of Vyborg, was annexed to Russia after the Treaty of Nystad. The Great Northern War (1700-21 was fought between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic Sea. Old Finland ( Vanha Suomi in Finnish, Gamla Finland in Swedish is a name used for the areas that Russia gained from Sweden in the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир Uudenkaupungin rauha was signed in 1721 in the then Swedish town of Nystad (which is called Uusikaupunki The border with Russia came to lie roughly where it returned to after World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Sweden's status as a European great power was gone, and Russia was now the leading might of the North. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale The absolute monarchy was finished in Sweden. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything During this Age of Liberty, the Parliament ruled the country, and the two parties of Hats and Caps struggled for control leaving the lesser Court party, i. The Age of Liberty (Frihetstiden is the half a century long experiment with a Parliamentary system and increasing Civil Rights in the period from Charles The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled The Hats were a political faction during the Age of Liberty ( 1719 - 1772) in Sweden. The Caps ( Mössorna) were a political faction during the Age of Liberty ( 1719 - 1772) in Sweden. e. parliamentarians with close connections to the royal court, with little to no influence. The Caps wanted to have a peaceful relationship with Russia and were supported by many Finns, while other Finns longed for revenge and supported the Hats.
Finland by this time was not a populous land. By the mid-18th century, the population was less than 470 000 according to official statistics (based on (Lutheran) church records, so a few Orthodox Christian parishes in Northern Karelia are not included). Historical province of Karelia in Finlandpng|right|150px|thumb|Historical province of Karelia in modern Finland(the borders of modern provinces with pink colour and the modern border of Finland However the population grew rapidly, and doubled before the turn of the century. 90% of the population are typically classified as "peasants", most being free taxed yeomen. A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground Society was divided in the four Estates: peasants (free taxed yeomen), the clergy, nobility and burghers. A minority, mostly cottagers, were estateless, and had no political representation. Forty-five percent of the male population were enfranchised with full political representation in the legislature — although clerics, nobles and townsfolk had their own chambers in the parliament, boosting their political influence and excluding the peasantry on matters of foreign policy.
The mid-18th century was a relatively good time, partly because life was now more peaceful. However, during the Lesser Wrath (1741–1742), Finland was again occupied by the Russians after the government, during a period of Hat party dominance, had made a botched attempt to reconquer the lost provinces. The Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743, known as the Hats' Russian War in Sweden and the Hats' War in Finland, which resulted in the Lesser The Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743, known as the Hats' Russian War in Sweden and the Hats' War in Finland, which resulted in the Lesser Instead the result of the Treaty of Åbo was that the Russian border was moved further to the west. The Treaty of Åbo or the Treaty of Turku was a peace Treaty signed between the Russian Empire and Sweden in Turku (Åbo on During this time, Russian propaganda hinted at the possibility of creating a separate Finnish kingdom. The attempt to create a Kingdom of Finland in 1742 is a little known chapter in the history of Finland.
Both the ascending Russian Empire and pre-revolutionary France aspired to have Sweden as a client state. Parliamentarians and others with influence were susceptible to taking bribes which they did their best to increase. The integrity and the credibility of the political system waned, and in 1771 the young and charismatic king Gustav III staged a coup-d'état, abolished parliamentarism and reinstated royal power in Sweden — more or less with the support of the parliament. Gustav III ( – 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his death A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which In 1788, he started a new war against Russia. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Despite a couple of victorious battles, the war was fruitless, managing only to bring disturbance to the economic life of Finland. The popularity of King Gustav III waned considerably. During the war, a group of officers made the famous Anjala declaration demanding peace negotiations and calling of Riksdag (Parliament). The Anjala conspiracy of 1788 was a scheme by disgruntled Swedish officers to end Gustav III's Russian War of 1788 &ndash 90. An interesting sideline to this process was the conspiracy of some Finnish officers, who attempted to create an independent Finnish state with Russian support. After an initial shock, Gustav III crushed this opposition. In 1789, the new constitution of Sweden strengthened the royal power further, as well as improving the status of the peasantry. However, the continuing war had to be finished without conquests - and many Swedes now considered the king as a tyrant.
With the interruption of the war (1788–1790), the last decades of the 18th century had been an era of development in Finland. New things were changing even the everyday life, such as starting of potato farming after the 1750s. New scientific and technical inventions were seen. The first hot air balloon in Finland (and in the whole Swedish kingdom) was made in Oulu (Uleåborg) in 1784, only a year after it was invented in France. Trade increased and the peasantry was growing more affluent and self-conscious. The Age of Enlightenment's climate of broadened debate in the society on issues of politics, religion and morals would in due time highlight the problem that the overwhelming majority of Finns spoke only Finnish, but the cascade of newspapers, belles-lettres and political leaflets was almost exclusively in Swedish — when not in French. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
The two Russian occupations had been harsh and were not easily forgotten. These occupations were a seed of a feeling of separateness and otherness, that in a narrow circle of scholars and intellectuals at the university in Turku was forming a sense of a separate Finnish identity representing the eastern part of the realm. Turku, in Swedish Åbo ( pronounced,) is a city and the original capital of Finland on the southwest coast of Finland at the The shining influence of the Russian imperial capital Saint Petersburg was also much stronger in southern Finland than in other parts of Sweden, and contacts across the new border dispersed the worst fears for the fate of the educated and trading classes under a Russian régime. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River At the turn of the century, the Swedish-speaking educated classes of officers, clerics and civil servants were mentally well prepared for a shift of allegiance to the strong Russian Empire. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
King Gustav III was assassinated in 1792, and his son Gustav IV Adolf assumed the crown after a period of regency. Gustav IV Adolf (November 1 1778 &ndash February 7 1837 was King of Sweden from 1792 until his abdication in 1809 The Enlightened Despot See also Gustav III of Sweden Adolf Frederick of Sweden died on February 12, 1771. The new king was not a particularly talented ruler; at least not talented enough to steer his kingdom through the dangerous era of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions
Meanwhile, the Finnish areas belonging to Russia after the peace treaties in 1721 and 1743 (not including Ingria), called the "Old Finland" were initially governed with the old Swedish laws (not uncommon practice in the expanding Russian Empire in the 18th century). However, gradually the rulers of Russia granted large estates of land to their non-Finnish favorites, ignoring the traditional landownership and peasant freedom laws of Old Finland. There were even cases where the noblemen punished peasants corporally, for example by flogging. The overall situation caused decline in the economy and morale in Old Finland, worsened since 1797 when the area was forced to send men to the Imperial Army. The construction of military installations in the area brought thousands of non-Finnish people to the region. In 1812, after the Russian conquest of Finland, "Old Finland" was rejoined to the rest of the country but the landownership question remained a serious problem until the 1870s.
During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, Finland was again conquered by the armies of Tsar Alexander I. The Grand Duchy of Finland (Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ Великое княжество Финляндское ' Velikoe knjažestvo finljandskoe) was the Predecessor The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809 Alexander I of Russia ( Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich (23 December 1777 – November 19 1825 served as Emperor of The four Estates of occupied Finland were assembled at the Diet of Porvoo on March 29, 1809 to pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia. The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled The Diet of Finland ( Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar) was the legislative Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Alexander I of Russia ( Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich (23 December 1777 – November 19 1825 served as Emperor of Following the Swedish defeat in the war and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809, Finland remained an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917, with Karelia ( "Old Finland") handed back to Finland in 1812. The Treaty of Fredrikshamn or the Treaty of Hamina was a Peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Imperial Russia on September 17 Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority A grand duchy is a territory whose Head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Old Finland ( Vanha Suomi in Finnish, Gamla Finland in Swedish is a name used for the areas that Russia gained from Sweden in the During the years of Russian rule the degree of autonomy varied. Periods of censorship and political prosecution occurred, particularly in the two last decades of Russian control, but the Finnish peasantry remained free (unlike their Russian counterparts) as the old Swedish law remained effective (including the relevant parts from Gustav III's Constitution of 1772). Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground Gustav III ( – 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his death Sweden's Constitution of 1772 took effect through a bloodless Coup d'état carried out by King Gustav III, establishing a brief Absolute monarchy in Sweden The old four-chamber Diet was re-activated in the 1860s agreeing to supplementary new legislation concerning internal affairs. The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled Industrialisation begun during the 19th century from forestry to industry, mining and machinery and laid the foundation of Finland's current day prosperity, even though agriculture employed a relatively large part of the population until the post-WWII era. is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one Forestry is the Art and Science of managing forests tree Plantations and related Natural resources.
Particularly following Finland's incorporation into the Swedish central administration during the 16th and 17th centuries, Swedish had been the dominant language in administration and education. The language strife was one of the major conflicts of Finland's national history and domestic politics Finland Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of Dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Swedish-speaking Finns as their Before that, in medieval semi-anarchy, German, Latin and Swedish were important languages beside native-spoken Finnish. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Finnish recovered its predominance after a 19th-century resurgence of Finnish Nationalism, and Russian controllers working to separate Finns from Sweden and to ensure the Finns' loyalty. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation
The publication in 1835 of the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, a collection of traditional myths and legends which is the folklore of the Karelian people (the Finnic Russian Orthodox people who inhabit the Lake Ladoga-region of eastern Finland and present-day NW Russia), first stirred the nationalism that later led to Finland's independence from Russia. A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular Nation; not necessarily a The Kalevala is a book and epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian Folklore in the nineteenth The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological The Karelians (also Karels are descendants of Baltic Finns whose historic homeland Karelia is divided between Finland 's counties North Karelia See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure Lake Ladoga (Лáдожское Óзеро Ladozhskoye Ozero; Laatokka is a Freshwater Lake located in Republic of Karelia and Leningrad The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The Finnish national awakening in the mid-nineteenth century was the result of members of the Swedish-speaking upper classes deliberately choosing to promote Finnish culture and language as a means of nation building, i. For nation-building in the sense of enhancing the capacity of state institutions building state-society relations and also external interventions see State-building e. to establish a feeling of unity between all people in Finland including (and not of least importance) between the ruling elite and the ruled peasantry. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect"
In 1863, Finnish gained a position in administration, and 1892 Finnish finally became an equal official language and gained a status comparable to that of Swedish. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Within a generation Finnish clearly dominated in government and society.
In 1906, as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the associated Finnish general strike of 1905, the old four-chamber Diet was replaced by a unicameral Parliament of Finland (the "Eduskunta"). The Russification of Finland (1899-1905 1908-1917 sortokaudet/sortovuodet (times/years of oppression in Finnish) was a governmental policy of the Russian Empire See also Russian Revolution (1917 The 1905 Russian Revolution also known as the Failed Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of See also Russian Revolution (1917 The 1905 Russian Revolution also known as the Failed Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of The Diet of Finland ( Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar) was the legislative Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber The Eduskunta (in Finnish) or the Riksdag (in Swedish) is the Parliament of Finland. For the first time in the world, universal suffrage and eligibility was implemented: Finnish women were the first in the world to gain full eligibility, and membership of an estate, land ownership or inherited titles were no longer required. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to However, on the local level things were different, as in the municipal elections the number of votes was tied to amount of tax paid. Thus, rich people could cast a number of votes, while the poor perhaps none at all. The municipal voting system was changed to universal suffrage in 1917 when the Parliament got left-wing majority.
In the aftermath of the February Revolution in Russia, Finland received a new Senate, a coalition-Cabinet with the same power structure as the Finnish Parliament. The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national and social turmoil caused by World War I (1914&ndash1918 in Europe The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Senate of Finland combined the functions of Cabinet and Supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1816 to 1917 and in the independent Republic Based on the general election in 1916, the Social Democrats had a small majority, and the Social Democrat Oskari Tokoi became Prime Minister. A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Antti Oskari Tokoi ( April 15, 1887, Perho, Finland - April 4, 1963, Leominster Massachusetts, United States This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. The new Senate was willing to cooperate with the provisional government of Russia, but no agreement was reached. The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 after the February Revolution and the Abdication The Finns' view was basically that the personal union with Russia was finished after the Tsar was dethroned – although the Finns had de facto recognized the provisional government as the Tsar's successor by accepting its authority to appoint a new Governor General and Senate. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. They expected the Tsar's authority to be transferred to Finland's Parliament, which the provisional government of Russia refused, suggesting instead that the question should be settled by the Russian Constituent Assembly. The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание Vserossiiskoe Uchreditelnoe Sobranie was a democratically elected constitutional For the Finnish Social Democrats it seemed as though the Russian Bourgeoisie was an obstacle on Finland's road to independence as well as on the Proletariat's road to justice. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian The non-Socialists in Tokoi's Senate were however more confident. They, and most of the non-Socialists in the Parliament, rejected the Social Democrats' proposal on Parliamentarism (the so-called "Power Act") as being too far-reaching and provocative. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which The act restricted Russia's influence on domestic Finnish matters, but didn't touch the Russian government's power on matters of defence and foreign affairs. For the Russian Provisional government this was however far too radical. As the Parliament had exceeded its authority, it was dissolved.
The minority of the Parliament, and of the Senate, were content. New elections promised a chance to gain majority, which they were convinced would improve the chances to reach an understanding with Russia. The non-Socialists were also inclined to cooperate with the Russian Provisional government because they feared the Socialists' power would grow, resulting in radical reforms, such as equal suffrage in municipal elections, or a land reform. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government The majority had, of course, the squarely opposite opinion. They didn't accept the Provisional government's right to dissolve the Parliament.
The Social Democrats held on to the Power Act and opposed the publication of the decree of dissolution of the Parliament, whereas the non-Socialists voted for publishing it. The disagreement over the Power Act led to the Social Democrats leaving the Senate. When the Parliament met again after the summer recess in August 1917, only the groups supporting the Power Act were present. Russian troops took possession of the chamber, the Parliament was dissolved, and new elections were carried out. The result was a (small) non-Socialist majority and a purely non-Socialist Senate. The abolishment of the Power Act, and the cooperation between Finnish non-Socialist forces and oppressive Russia provoked great bitterness among the Socialists, and dozens of politically motivated terror assaults, including murders. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand,
The October Revolution turned Finnish politics upside down. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Now the new non-Socialist majority of the Parliament felt a great urge for total independence, and the Socialists came gradually to view Russia as an example to follow. On November 15, 1917, the Bolsheviks declared a general right of self-determination, including the right of complete secession, "for the Peoples of Russia". Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio is the act of withdrawing from an organization union or especially a political entity The Declaration of Rights of Peoples of Russia (Деклара́ция прав наро́дов Росси́и was a document promulgated by the Bolshevik government of On the same day the Finnish Parliament issued a declaration by which it assumed, pro tempore, all powers of the Sovereign in Finland. Pro tempore or pro tem is a Latin phrase which best translates to "for the time being" in English Grand Duke of Finland, or more correctly translated Grand Prince of Finland ( Storfurste av Finland Suomen suuriruhtinas was from around 1580
Worried by the development in Russia, and Finland, the non-Socialist Senate proposed for the parliament to declare Finland's independence, which was agreed on in the parliament on December 6, 1917. The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year On December 18 (December 31 N. S.) the Soviet government issued a Decree, recognizing Finland's independence, and on December 22 (January 4, 1918 N. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Council of Ministers of the USSR (Совет Министров СССР tr Decrees (декреты were legislative acts of the highest Soviet institutions primarily of the Council of People's Commissars (the highest executive body and S. ) it was approved by the highest Soviet executive body - VTsIK. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Верхо́вный Сове́т СССР Verkhóvnyj Sovét SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in Germany and the Scandinavian countries followed without delay. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well
From January to May 1918, Finland experienced the brief but bitter Finnish Civil War that colored domestic politics and the foreign relations of Finland for many years. The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national and social turmoil caused by World War I (1914&ndash1918 in Europe According to the latest constitution of 2000 the President (currently Tarja Halonen) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government (currently Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen On the one side there were the "white" civil guards, who fought for the anti-Socialists. On the other side fought the Red Guards, which consisted of workers and tenant farmers. The Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic had been proclaimed. The Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (Suomen sosialistinen työväentasavalta Finlands socialistiska arbetarrepubliken was a short-lived Finnish socialist government The defeat of the Red Guards was achieved with support from Imperial Germany; and only Germany's defeat in World War I saved Finland from becoming a German satellite state. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but under heavy influence or control by another country Had the Red Guards won, Finland would have eventually become a part of the emerging communist state. The neighbor-country Sweden was in the midst of her own process of democratization, with socialists in government for the first time. For many decades, Finns on both sides remained bitter over Sweden's reluctance to become involved in the Civil War.
Despite the Declaration of Independence calling Finland a Republic, after the civil war the parliament, cleared of its Social Democrat members, and with a narrow majority voted to establish the Kingdom of Finland. The Social Democratic Party of Finland (in Finnish: Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue, SDP) is one of the most influential political parties The Kingdom of Finland was a short-lived attempt following Finnish independence from Russia to establish Prince Frederick of Hesse as the Frederick Charles of Hesse, a German prince, was elected King, putatively with the name Väinö I of Finland, with Pehr Evind Svinhufvud and General Mannerheim serving as Regents. Frederick Charles Louis Constantine, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel ( May 1, 1868, Gut Panker &ndash May 28 Frederick Charles Louis Constantine, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel ( May 1, 1868, Gut Panker &ndash May 28 Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad ( December 15, 1861 &ndash February 29, 1944) was the President of Finland from 1931 to 1937 Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim ( IPA: ˡkɑːrl ˡɡɵstɑf ˡeːmil ˡmɑnːərhe͡im ( June 4, 1867 &ndash January 27, 1951 However, Germany's defeat in World War I meant that the idea was abandoned. Finland instead became a republic, with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first President in 1919. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg ( January 28, 1865 – September 22, 1952) was a prominent Jurist and Academic, who played a
The new republic faced a dispute over the Åland Islands, which were overwhelmingly Swedish-speaking and sought retrocession to Sweden. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. However, as Finland was not willing to cede the islands, they were offered an autonomous status. Nevertheless, the residents did not approve the offer, and the dispute over the islands was submitted to the League of Nations. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 The League decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the Åland Islands, but they should be made an autonomous province. Thus Finland was under an obligation to ensure the residents of the Åland Islands a right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the At the same time, an international treaty was concluded on the neutral status of Åland, under which it was prohibited to place military headquarters or forces on the islands.
Directly after the Civil War there were many incidents along the border between Finland and Soviet Russia, such as the Aunus expedition and the Pork mutiny. The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919 during the Russian Civil War. The Pork mutiny was an incident in Northern Finland in 1922 On February 2 a group of armed Red Guard members crossed the Finnish- Soviet border Relations with the Soviets were improved after the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, in which Finland gained Petsamo, but gave up claims on East Karelia. The Treaty of Tartu ( Russian: Тартуский мирный договор, Finnish: Tarton rauha) between Finland and Soviet Russia was East Karelia, in Finnish Itä-Karjala also Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty
After four attempts at instituting prohibition of alcohol during the Grand Duchy period, all rejected by the Czar, independent Finland enacted prohibition on June 1, 1919. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common It lasted until April 5, 1932, at 10:00 a. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. m. , having many indisputably negative effects on Finns' drinking habits and on Finnish crime rates during its tenure. Binge drinking is drinking certain beverages with the intention of becoming intoxicated Crime statistics attempt to provide a statistical measure of the level or amount of- Crime that is prevalent in societies 
Nationalist sentiment remaining from the Civil War developed into the proto-Fascist Lapua Movement in 1929. Lapua Movement (Lapuan liike sometimes referred to as " Lapua Fascism " named after the then Municipality and modern days town of Lapua Initially the movement gained widespread support among anti-Communist Finns, but following a failed coup attempt in 1932 it was banned and its leaders imprisoned. The Mäntsälä rebellion (Mäntsälän kapina was a failed coup attempt by the Lapua Movement to overthrow the Finnish government
The Soviet Union started to tighten its policy against Finland in 1930s, limiting the navigation of Finnish merchant ships between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland and blocking it totally in 1937. Lake Ladoga (Лáдожское Óзеро Ladozhskoye Ozero; Laatokka is a Freshwater Lake located in Republic of Karelia and Leningrad The Gulf of Finland ( Finnish: Suomenlahti, Russian: Финский залив, Finskiy zaliv, Swedish: Finska viken
During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: she defended herself against the Soviet Union in the Winter War of 1939-1940, resulting in the loss of Finnish Karelia, and again in the Continuation War of 1941-1944 (with considerable support from Nazi Germany resulting in a swift invasion of neighboring areas of the Soviet Union), leading also to the loss of Finland's only ice-free winter harbour Petsamo. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the Historical province of Karelia in Finlandpng|right|150px|thumb|Historical province of Karelia in modern Finland(the borders of modern provinces with pink colour and the modern border of Finland The Continuation War (Jatkosota Fortsättningskriget Советско-финская война ( 25 June 1941 &ndash 19 September 1944) Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Continuation War was, in accordance with the armistice conditions, immediately followed by the Lapland War of 1944-1945, when Finland fought the Germans to force them to withdraw from northern Finland back into Norway (then under German occupation). The Lapland War (Finnish Lapin sota) were the hostilities between Finland and Nazi Germany between September 1944 and April 1945 fought in the Finland's
Finland managed to maintain its independence and democratic constitution, contrary to most other countries proximate to the Soviet Union, and suffered comparably limited losses in terms of civilian lives and property, but was punished harsher than other German cobelligerents and allies, having to pay enormous reparations and resettle an eighth of its population after having lost an eighth of the territory including one of its industrial heartlands< and the second city Vyborg (Finnish: Viipuri, Swedish: Viborg). Co-belligerence is waging the War in Cooperation against a common enemy without the formal treaty of Military alliance. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation intended to cover damage or injury during a war Vyborg (Вы́борг Viipuri Viborg Wiborg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of After the war, the Soviet Union settled these gained territories with people from many different regions of the empire, for instance from Ukraine. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.
Anti-Communist sentiments had, following the Civil War, been even more pronounced in Finland than in most other West European societies. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national and social turmoil caused by World War I (1914&ndash1918 in Europe Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The propaganda war between Bolshevist Russia/the Soviet Union and her western border state neighbours had been harsh and intense. Bolshevist Russia or Bolshevik Russia is a common term for the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 In a European context the term Border states policy, and Border states in a specific sense refer to attempts during the Interbellum to unite the countries that The Finns in Karelia were hit harder, relatively, by the Great Purge than perhaps any other people, and in Finland at least the government must have had a quite accurate picture of the situation because of intensive intelligent operations. Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution 
Hence, at the eve of the World War, the Finns had very concrete fears for their survival as a people — let alone as a nation state. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy The Finns perceived the defence against the Communist Soviet Union as literally a fight of life or death; And during the Winter War, this perception was also shared by the spectator nations in the West. Finland's support from, and coordination with, Nazi Germany starting during the winter of 1940/41 made other countries considerably less sympathetic to the Finns' plight; particularly since the Continuation War led to a Finnish invasion of the Soviet Union designed not only to recover the lost territory but additionally to answer irredentist pan-Finnicist dreams of a Greater Finland by incorporating East Karelia whose inhabitants were culturally kindred although religiously Russian Orthodox. The Continuation War (Jatkosota Fortsättningskriget Советско-финская война ( 25 June 1941 &ndash 19 September 1944) Greater Finland (Suur-Suomi was an idea which was born in some irredentist movements emphasizing pan-Finnicism and expressed a Finnish version of pre- World War II East Karelia, in Finnish Itä-Karjala also Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure The United Kingdom even declared war on Finland, strikingly delivered at Finland's Independence Day 1941. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Finland 's Independence Day (Finnish itsenäisyyspäivä, Swedish självständighetsdag) is a national public holiday held on
During and in between the wars, approximately 80,000 children were evacuated abroad. During World War II some 70000 Finnish children (sotalapset were evacuated from Finland to Scandinavia, chiefly to Sweden. 5% went to Norway, 10% to Denmark, and the rest to Sweden. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Most of them were sent back by 1948, but 15-20% remained abroad. In retrospect, the separation from their parents, siblings and language, and then later again a repeat of the separation, this time from their foster homes, has proved to be an often forgotten tragedy.
For information about Jews in Finland during WWII, visit this link. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Finland had to reject Marshall aid. The Marshall Plan (from its enactment officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger United States shipped secret development aid and financial aid to the non-communist SDP in hope of saving Finland's independence.  Establishing trade with the Western powers, such as the United Kingdom, and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one Even after the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade. This article is about the political term for the term as used in Biology, see symmetry (biology.
In 1950 half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban towns.  The new jobs in manufacturing, services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. The average number of births per woman declined from baby boom a peak of 3. A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period and usually within certain geographical bounds and when the birth rate exceeds 2% of the population 5 in 1947 to 1. 5 in 1973.  When baby boomers entered the workforce, the economy did not generate jobs fast enough and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden, migration peaking in 1969 and 1970 (today 4. 7 percent of Swedes speak Finnish).  1952 Summer Olympics brought international visitors. The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland
Finland retained a democratic constitution and free economic structure during the Cold War era. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included obligations and restraints on Finland, as well as territorial concessions. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Both treaties have been abrogated by Finland since the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, while leaving the borders untouched. Even though being a neighbour to the mighty Soviet Union sometimes resulted in overly cautious concern in foreign policy ("Finlandization"), Finland developed closer co-operation with the other Nordic countries and declared itself neutral in superpower politics. Finlandization (suomettuminen finlandisering Finnlandisierung is the influence that one powerful country may have on the policies of a smaller neighboring country The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties
In 1952, Finland and the countries of the Nordic Council entered into a passport union, allowing their citizens to cross borders without passports and soon also to apply for jobs and claim social security benefits in the other countries. The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is an intergovernmental forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries. Many from Finland used this opportunity to secure better paying jobs in Sweden in the 1950s and 1960s, dominating Sweden's first wave of post-war labour immigrants. Although Finnish wages and standard of living could not compete with wealthy Sweden until the 1980s, the Finnish economy rose remarkably from the ashes of World War II, resulting in the buildup of another Nordic-style welfare state.
Despite the passport union with Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland Finland could not join the Nordic Council until 1955 because of Soviet fears that Finland might become too close to the West. The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is an intergovernmental forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries. At that time the Soviet Union saw the Nordic Council as part of NATO of which Denmark and Norway were members. The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is an intergovernmental forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries. The North Atlantic Treaty That same year Finland joined the United Nations, though it had already been associated with a number of UN specialized organisations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The first Finnish ambassador to the UN was G. A. Gripenberg (1956-1959), followed by Ralph Enckell (1959-1965), Max Jakobson (1965-1972), Aarno Karhilo (1972-1977), Ilkka Pastinen (1977-1983), Keijo Korhonen (1983-1988), Klaus Törnudd (1988-1991), Wilhelm Breitenstein (1991-1998) and Marjatta Rasi (since 1998). In 1972 Max Jakobson was even a candidate for Secretary-General of the UN. See also General Secretary. A number of International organizations, Communist parties and other bodies use the title Secretary In another remarkable event of 1955, the Soviet Union decided to return the Porkkala peninsula to Finland, which had been rented to the Soviet Union in 1948 for 50 years as a military base, a situation which somewhat endangered Finnish sovereignty and neutrality. Porkkala (Porkala is a peninsula in the Gulf of Finland located at Kirkkonummi (Kyrkslätt in Southern Finland.
Finland became an associate member of the European Free Trade Association in 1961 and a full member in 1986. The European Free Trade Association ( EFTA) is a European Trade bloc which was established on 3 May 1960 as an alternative for European states who were either A trade agreement with the EEC was complemented by another with the Soviet Bloc. The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The first Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), which lead to the creation of the OSCE, was held in Finland in 1972-1973. The CSCE was widely considered in Finland as a possible means of reducing tensions of the Cold War, and a personal triumph for President Urho Kekkonen. Kekkonen redirects here For other uses see Kekkonen (disambiguation.
Officially claiming to be neutral, Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The "YYA Treaty" (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. The Agreement of Friendship Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys- yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus This was extensively exploited by President Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. Kekkonen redirects here For other uses see Kekkonen (disambiguation. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations, which gave him a status of "only choice for president" and 25 years regime from 1956 to 1981. There was also a tendency of self-censorship regarding Finno-Soviet relations. Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandisation" by the German press (fi. Finlandization (suomettuminen finlandisering Finnlandisierung is the influence that one powerful country may have on the policies of a smaller neighboring country suomettuminen). When Finlandisation was not enough, direct censorship was used, including in 1700 books and many movies. Asylum-seeking defectors were returned to the Soviet Union for punishment or execution. The Soviet-financed, anti-Western, pro-Soviet youth movements peaked in the 1970s, when the communist-led Teen Union started to harass bourgeoisie-suspected teachers. Soviets succeed to agitate a majority of baby boomers to socialist ideologies, with the radical taistoists even demanding Finland to join Soviet Union. Taistolaisuus (after the Finnish first name 'Taisto' sometimes translated as "Taistoism" in English was a orthodox pro- Soviet tendency in the mostly Eurocommunist Stasi and KGB used their strengthened allies to cooperate installations of socialists in the administration, mass media (particularly by Tampere University journalism department, YLE, and Helsingin Sanomat), academia (particularly social sciences), political parties and trade unions (particularly Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions). For the regular police in East Germany see Volkspolizei. The Ministerium für Staatssicherheit ( Ministry for State Security KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty The University of Tampere is a university in Tampere, Finland. YLE (Full name Finnish: Yleisradio Oy, Swedish: Rundradion Ab) is Finland 's national broadcasting company founded Helsingin Sanomat is the biggest Subscription Newspaper in Finland. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions, usually referred to by the Politicization, agitated as a way to socialist revolution, was widespread and public sector workers were often dependent on having the correct political party membership. Despite calls to silence Western ideas, the liberal opposition (mainly National Coalition Party) was allowed to operate and be publicly critical. The National Coalition Party (in Finnish Kansallinen Kokoomus, Kok  Agrarians (mainly Centre Party and Finnish Rural Party) and socialist (SDP, Finnish People's Democratic League, and the Communist Party) dominated the government. Finnish People's Democratic League (in Finnish: Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto, SKDL in Swedish: Demokratiska Förbundet för Finlands Folk The Communist Party of Finland (Suomen kommunistinen puolue Finlands kommunistiska parti abbreviated SKP was a Communist Political party in Finland. 
However, Finland maintained capitalism unlike most other countries bordering the Soviet Union. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Property rights were strong. While nationalization committees were set up in France and UK, Finland avoided nationalizations. After failed experiments with protectionism in the 1950s, Finland eased restrictions and made a free trade agreement with the European Community in 1973, making its markets more competitive. The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 Local education markets expanded and an increasing number of Finns also went abroad to study in the United States or Western Europe, bringing back advanced skills. There was a quite common, but pragmatic-minded, credit and investment cooperation by state and corporations, though it was considered with suspicion. Support for capitalism was widespread.  Savings rate hovered among the world's highest, at around 8% until the 80s. In the beginning of the 1970s, Finland's GDP per capita reached the level of Japan and the UK. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Finland's economic development shared many aspects with export-led Asian countries. 
Until 1970 Finland and other Nordic countries had relatively low taxes, low regulation, and some of the highest income levels in the world. Then Nordic countries saw a dramatic change. In Finland, the number of bureaucrats and overall taxation were doubled between 1970 and 1990.  Corruption became widespread in 1970s and 1980s.  Job market was regulated and trade union leaders, who allied with SDP, became power-demanding about everything except foreign policy. Nordic countries have since been in an economic decline when measured by income level ranking and other indicators, though Finland was subsidized by the trade privileges with Soviets (especially barter) and debt-based growth in 1980s. Barter is a type of Trade in which goods or services are directly exchanged
In 1991 Finland fell into a Great Depression-magnitude depression caused by a combination of economic overheating, fixed currency, depressed Western, Soviet, and local markets. A recession is a contraction phase of the Business cycle. The U Overheating of an Economy occurs when its productive capacity is unable to keep pace with growing Aggregate demand. Stock market and housing prices declined by 50%.  The growth in the 1980s was based on debt and defaults started rolling in. GDP declined by 15% and unemployment increased from a virtual full employment to one fifth of the workforce. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. The crisis was amplified by trade unions' initial opposition to any reforms. Politicians struggled to cut spending and the public debt doubled to around 60% of GDP.  Some 7-8% of GDP was needed to bail out failing banks and force banking sector consolidation.  After devaluations the depression bottomed out in 1993.
SDP suffered from its role in the crisis, though only few of the involved politicians aside from the SDP chairman Ulf Sundqvist were convicted. For the first time SDP gave voluntarily room for pro-Western Prime Minister Esko Aho, Finance Minister Sauli Niinistö and other opposition heavyweights to take care of the Finland's rescue operation. Esko Tapani Aho (born May 20, 1954) is a Statesman and former Prime Minister of Finland. Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (born August 24, 1948, Salo, Finland) is the Speaker of the Parliament of Finland. Mauno Koivisto and later Tarja Halonen classified documents about their and other politicians' involvement in the crisis. Mauno Henrik Koivisto mɑuno henrik koiʋisto (born November 25, 1923) was the President of Finland from 1982 to 1994 Tarja Kaarina Halonen ( pronounced) (born 24 December 1943 is the current President of Finland. Similarly, information about Stasi and KGB operations in Finland was classified, though revelations by former Soviet commanders, foreign intelligence services, and self-revelations have consistently pointed to top names such as Paavo Lipponen, the Prime Minister between 1995-2003. For the regular police in East Germany see Volkspolizei. The Ministerium für Staatssicherheit ( Ministry for State Security KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty Paavo Tapio Lipponen ( (b April 23, 1941) is a Finnish politician . Critics maintain that Finland should openly review its Cold War history like other former Soviet satellites have done.
Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized the economy since late 80s. Financial and product market regulation was removed. The market is now one of the most free in Europe. State enterprises were privatized and taxes were cut. However, unlike in Denmark, trade unions blocked job market reforms, causing persistent unemployment and a two-tier job market. Trade unions also blocked social security reform proposals towards basic income or negative income tax. A basic income is a proposed system of Social security, that periodically provides each citizen with a sum of money that is sufficient to live on In Economics, a negative income tax (abbreviated NIT) is a Progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental Finland joined the European Union in 1995. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The central bank was given an inflation-targeting mandate until Finland joined eurozone.  The growth rate has since been one of the highest of OECD countries and Finland has topped many indicators of national performance.
Mauno Koivisto and his SDP opposed the idea of European Union membership and preferred entering into the European Economic Area treaty. Mauno Henrik Koivisto mɑuno henrik koiʋisto (born November 25, 1923) was the President of Finland from 1982 to 1994 The European Economic Area ( EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between member states of European Free Trade Association (EFTAthe The Centre Party was also very opposed to such Western cooperation. The prospect of membership in the EC/EU became an increasingly preferred alternative after Sweden had submitted its membership application in 1991 and the Soviet Union was dissolved at the end of the year. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Finland submitted its own application to the EC in March 1992. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The process of accession was completed on January 1, 1995, when Finland joined the European Union along with Austria and Sweden. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Before the parliamentary decision to join the EU, a consultative referendum was held on April 16, 1994 in which 56. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) 9% of the votes were in favour of joining. Leading Finland into the EU is held as the main achievement of the Centrist-Conservative government of Esko Aho then in power. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Centre Party (in Finnish: Suomen Keskusta, Kesk, in Swedish: Centern i Finland, C) is a centrist The National Coalition Party (in Finnish Kansallinen Kokoomus, Kok Esko Tapani Aho (born May 20, 1954) is a Statesman and former Prime Minister of Finland.
In addition to fast integration with the European Union, safety against Russian leverage has been increased by building fully NATO-compatible military. The North Atlantic Treaty 1000 troops (a high per-capita amount) are simultaneously committed in NATO operations. Finland has also opposed energy projects that increase dependency on Moscow.  At the same time, Finland remains one of the last non-members in Europe and there seems to be not enough support for full membership unless Sweden joins first. 
The population is aging with the birth rate at 10. This is a list of countries by crude Birth rate, based on the United Nations Population Division's quinquennial estimates and projections 42 births/1,000 population or fertility rate at 1. 8.  With median age at 41. 6 years Finland is one of the oldest countries  and a half of voters is estimated to be over 50 years old. Like most European countries, without further reforms or much higher immigration Finland is expected to struggle with demographics, even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries.