History of China
|3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors|
|Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BCE|
|Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE|
|Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BCE|
|Spring and Autumn Period|
|Warring States Period|
|Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE|
|Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE|
|Three Kingdoms 220–280|
|Wei, Shu & Wu|
|Jin Dynasty 265–420|
|Eastern Jin||16 Kingdoms|
|Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589|
|Sui Dynasty 581–618|
|Tang Dynasty 618–907|
|( Second Zhou 690–705 )|
|5 Dynasties &|
|Northern Song||W. Xia Dyn.|
|Southern Song||Jin Dyn.|
|Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368|
|Ming Dynasty 1368–1644|
|Qing Dynasty 1644–1911|
|Republic of China 1912–1949|
of China 1949–present
|Dynasties in Chinese History|
Economic History of China
Historiography of China
History of Chinese Art
History of Education in China
History of Science and Technology in China
Legal History of China
Linguistic History of China
Military History of China
Naval History of China
Timeline of Chinese History
Recorded history of China begins in the 15th century BC when Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters: Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC . The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the Oracle bones ( Chinese: 甲骨 Pinyin: jiǎgǔpiàn are pieces of Bone or turtle shell that were heated and cracked during divination Written Chinese comprises the written symbols used to represent Spoken Chinese and the rules about how they are arranged and punctuated The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley. The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho ( Hatan Gol Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the 221 BC is commonly accepted to be the year in which China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. Events By place Carthage The Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is murdered by a Celtic assassin while campaigning to increase In that year, Qin Shi Huang first united China. Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control increasingly larger territory that reached maximum under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and Manchurian Qing Dynasty. The following is a Chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China
The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a country alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create the Chinese culture. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot. The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history
What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. This is an alphabetical list of Paleolithic sites or cultures in China: Bailiangdong Baojiyan Bose China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin  Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated 1. Xiaochangliang ( is the site of some of the earliest Paleolithic remains in East Asia, located in the Nihewan Basin in Yangyuan County, Hebei 36 million years ago.  The archaeological site of Xihoudu (西侯渡) in Shanxi Province is the earliest recorded of use of fire by Homo erectus, which is dated 1. Xihoudu (西侯渡 is an archological site located in the Shanxi Province of China. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. 27 million years ago.  The excavations at Yuanmou and later Lantian show early habitation. Yuanmou Man ( Homo erectus yuanmouensis, refers to an ancestral human whose remnants two Incisors, were discovered near Danawu Village in Yuanmou Lantian Man ( Homo erectus lantianensis, formerly Sinanthropus lantianensis) was an ancestral human Perhaps the most famous specimen of Homo erectus found in China is the so-called Peking Man discovered in 1923. Peking Man (now in pinyin as Beijing Man) also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis) is an example of Homo erectus
Two pottery pieces were unearthed at Liyuzui Cave in Liuzhou, Guangxi Province dated 16,500 and 19,000 BC. Liuzhou ( is a Prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. Guangxi (or Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region;) is a Zhuang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. 
The Neolithic age in China can be traced back as early as 10,000 BC Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is carbon-dated to about 7,000 BC. This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been discovered by archaeologists The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of  The Peiligang culture of Xinzheng county, Henan was excavated in 1977. The Peiligang culture (裴李崗文化 Péilǐgāng Wénhuà is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities in the Yi-Luo river basin in Xinzheng ( is a small county-level city of Zhengzhou in the south of Henan province of China. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country  With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, and to support specialist craftsmen and administrators.  In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a cultural center, where the first villages were founded; the most archaeologically significant of those was found at Banpo, Xi'an. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho ( Hatan Gol Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the Banpo (半坡 is an archaeological site first discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the  The Yellow River was so named because of the loess that would build up on the bank and down in the earth then it would sink creating a yellowish tint to the water. Loess is a homogeneous typically non stratified porous Friable,slightly coherent often calcareous fine-grained Silty pale yellow or buff windblown ( aeolian 
The early history of China is complicated by the lack of a written language during this period coupled with the existence of documents from later time periods attempting to describe events that occurred several centuries before. The problem in some sense stems from centuries of introspection on the part of the Chinese people which has blurred the distinction between fact and fiction in regards to this early history. By 7000 BC, the Chinese were farming millet, giving rise to the Jiahu culture. During the 7th millennium BC, Agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder Jiahu ( 賈湖 Pinyin: Jiǎhú was the site of a Neolithic Yellow River settlement based in the central plains of ancient China At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6,000-5,000 BC have been discovered "featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing. Damaidi (大麥地 is a small village in China located in Zhongwei County in Ningxia, among the Weining Mountains on the north bend of the Yellow Ningxia ( Postal map spelling: Ningsia full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic Neolithic signs At a range of Neolithic sites in China, small numbers of symbols of either pictorial or simple geometric nature have been unearthed which were " These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese.  Later Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture around 2500 BC. The Yangshao culture ( was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. Longshan culture ( was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River and dated from about 3000 BC to The 25th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2500 BC to 2401 BC
The historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) and the account in Chinesethe Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. The Xia Dynasty ( of China is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historian and The Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project ( was a multi-discipline project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. The Bamboo Annals ( Chinese character: 竹書紀年 Pinyin: Zhúshū Jìnián) is a Chronicle of ancient China. The Xia Dynasty ( of China is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historian and The Shang and Zhou people had existed within the Xia Dynasty since the beginning of Xia. They were Xia’s loyal vassals. The exact time of the Xia Dynasty is hard to define, but mainly focused on two options, either 431 years or 471 years.
Most archaeologists now connect the Xia to excavations at Erlitou in central Henan province, where a bronze smelter from around 2000 BC was unearthed. The Erlitou culture (simplified Chinese 二里头文化 traditional Chinese 二里頭文化 Pinyin: èrlǐtóu wénhuà ( 2100 BC to 1800 BC or 1500 Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country The 20th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2000 BC to 1901 BC Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestors of modern Chinese characters.  With few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones or the Zhou bronze vessel writings, the Xia era remains poorly understood. Oracle bones ( Chinese: 甲骨 Pinyin: jiǎgǔpiàn are pieces of Bone or turtle shell that were heated and cracked during divination The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China.
The earliest discovered written record of China's past dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones. The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the Oracle bones ( Chinese: 甲骨 Pinyin: jiǎgǔpiàn are pieces of Bone or turtle shell that were heated and cracked during divination Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the The first set, from the earlier Shang period (c 1600–1300 BC) comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng. The Erligang culture (二里岡文化 (1600 - 1400 BC is the term used by archaeologists to refer to a Bronze Age archaeological culture in China. Zhengzhou ( formerly called Zhengxian is a Prefecture-level city, and the capital of Henan province, People's Republic of China. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c 1300–1046 BC). Anyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in Henan province, People's Republic of China. The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang; it was the longest dynasty in Chinese history. King Cheng Tang of Shang of China (in Chinese:"湯" born Zi Lü, in Chinese"子履" King Di Xin of Shang ( Chinese: 帝辛 born Zi Shou (Chinese 子受 was the last
The Records of the Grand Historian states that the Shang Dynasty moved its capital six times. The final and most important move to Yin in 1350 BC led to the golden age of the dynasty. The term Yin Dynasty has been synonymous with the Shang dynasty in history, although lately it has been used specifically in reference to the latter half of the Shang Dynasty.
Chinese historians living in later were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, but the actual political situation in early China is known to have been much more complicated. Hence, as some scholars of China suggest, the Xia and the Shang can possibly refer to political entities that existed concurrently, just as the early Zhou (successor state of the Shang), is known to have existed at the same time as the Shang. Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on
Written records found at Anyang confirm the existence of the Shang dynasty. However, Western scholars are often hesitant to associate settlements contemporaneous with the Anyang settlement with the Shang dynasty. For example, archaeological findings at Sanxingdui suggest a technologically advanced civilization culturally unlike Anyang. Sanxingdui ( is the name of an Archaeological site in China, now believed to be the site of an ancient Chinese city The evidence is inconclusive in proving how far the Shang realm extended from Anyang. The leading hypothesis is that Anyang, ruled by the same Shang in the official history, coexisted and traded with numerous other culturally diverse settlements in the area that is now referred to as China proper.
By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Yellow River or Huang He / Hwang Ho ( Hatan Gol Queen river) is the second-longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou were a people who lived west of Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. King Wu of Zhou ( or King Wu of Chou was the first sovereign or ruler of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. God of Dreams Duke of Zhou is also known as the 'God of Dreams' The Battle of Muye (or Mu (牧野之戰 was fought in China in 1046 BC. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng is a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.
In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋時代), named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The Spring and Autumn Period ( was a period in Chinese history which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC The Spring and Autumn Annals ( is the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家，诸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism (儒家), Taoism (道家), Legalism (法家) and Mohism (墨家) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Hundred Schools of Thought ( were philosophers and schools that had flourished from 770 to 221 BC an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other Mohism or Moism ( was a Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Di 470 &ndashc The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.
After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other is known as the Warring States Period. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. Events By place Roman Republic Rome aims for a quick end to hostilities in the First Punic War and decides to invade the As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡縣，郡县). ( Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in western China with its capital in Chengdu. ( is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. The commandery ( 郡 in Pinyin: jùn was a historical administrative level of China. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省縣，省县). See also Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Due to China 's large Population and area the political divisions of China have consisted The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝). Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. This article is about the People's Republic of China province Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the Guangxi (or Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region;) is a Zhuang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Events By place Carthage Carthage persuades Syracuse to revolt against Rome and ally itself with Carthage instead Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the
Historians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Though the unified reign of the Qin (秦) Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (咸陽，咸阳) (close to modern Xi'an). Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other This article is related to a city for the airport located in the city see Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Xianyang ( Sienyang Hsienyang UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time. In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars. Burning of the books and burial of the scholars ( is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.
The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China, which was later augmented and enhanced during the Ming Dynasty (明朝). Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led The other major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods. Even something as basic as the length of axles for carts had to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire. 
The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Events By place Roman Republic In the Battle of Ilipa ( Alcalá del Río, near Seville) in Spain, the It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu (Han Wudi 漢武帝，汉武帝) consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (sometimes identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. Background birth and years as crown prince Emperor Wu was the tenth child of Emperor Jing, and was born to one of Emperor Jing's favorite Concubines, The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol ( is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. Ningxia ( Postal map spelling: Ningsia full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic (青海 qīnghǎi is a province of the People's Republic of China, named after Qinghai Lake. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the
Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang (王莽) founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty (新朝) and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. Year 9 ( IX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Wang Mang ( (45 BC&ndashOctober 6 23 Courtesy name Jujun (巨君 was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family The Xin Dynasty ( was a Chinese Dynasty (although strictly speaking it had only one Emperor) which lasted from 9 - 23 AD These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasants. The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.
Emperor Guangwu (光武帝) reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. Family background Liu Xiu was the sixth generation descendant of Emperor Jing of the Former (or Western Han Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The consort clan ( is the Family, Clan of or group related to an Empress dowager or a spouse of a Chinese dynastic ruler or a Warlord A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to The Yellow Turban Rebellion (黃巾之亂，黄巾之乱) broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords. The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, ( was a AD 184 peasant rebellion against Emperor Ling of Han Events By place Roman Empire The Antonine Wall is permanently abandoned In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms. The Three Kingdoms period ( is a period in the History of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Romance of the Three Kingdoms ( written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese Historical novel based upon events in
Though the three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu, 五胡) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang. The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties Events Births Abaye — Babylonian 'amora (religious scholar Maxentius, Roman emperor The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties For the city see Wuhu. For the history of each of the Wu Hu tribes see Sixteen Kingdoms. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Events By Place Roman Empire Persuaded by Galerius, Diocletian launches the last major persecution of Christians The Di (氐 were an Ethnic group in China. They lived in areas of present-day provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan and Shaanxi ( located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a Sub-provincial city. The Cheng Han ( 303 or 304 - 347) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 in China Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao. Family background Liu Yuan was a member of Xiongnu nobility as a descendant of Chanyus of the Luanti (欒提 royal clan who along with their people had long The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes Linfen County is a small Chinese county in Shanxi province Its main city is Linfen city previously called Pingyang population 680000 The Han Zhao ( 304 - 329) was a State of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420. His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. See also Liu Cong (刘琮 son of Liu Biao Early career Liu Cong was Liu Yuan's fourth son by his concubine Consort Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. The Sixteen Kingdoms ( or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereign states in China proper and its neighboring areas Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Tibetan people are indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and China Proper Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.
Signaled by the collapse of East Jin (東晉，东晋) Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. This article is about the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. The Han people managed to survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei (鲜卑), and their civilization continued to thrive. The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan.
In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.
In 589, Sui (隋) annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen (陳，陈), through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.
The Sui Dynasty (隋朝), which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. Events By Place Europe October 17 — The Adige River overflows its banks flooding the church of St The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly. As it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.
On June 18, 618, Gaozu (唐高祖) took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty (唐朝) was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Events By Place Asia The Sui Dynasty ends and the Tang Dynasty begins in China. Background and early career Li Yuan's seventh-generation ancestor was Li Gao, the founder of the Sixteen Kingdoms state Western Liang. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar.
Chang'an (長安，长安) (modern Xi'an西安), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.
The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.
The Tang introduced a new system into the Chinese government, called the "Equal Field System" （均田制）. This system gave families land grants from the Emperor based on their needs, not their wealth.
From about 860 the Tang Dynasty began to decline due to a series of rebellions within China itself, and in the previously subject Kingdom of Nanzhao (南詔，南诏) to the south. This article is about the year 860 For the area code see Area code 860. Nanzhao, alternate spellings Nanchao and Nan Chao ( Traditional Chinese: 南詔 Simplified Chinese: 南诏 Pinyin: Nánzhāo One of the warlords, Huang Chao (黃巢), captured Guangzhou in 879, killing most of the 200,000 inhabitants including most of the large colony of foreign merchant families there. Huang Chao ( d 884 was the leader of infamous Huang Chao Rebellion (874–884 in China that seriously weakened the once mighty Tang Dynasty of China Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city Events By Place Europe Pope John VIII recognizes the Dukedom of Croatia as an independent state In late 880 Luoyang surrendered to him and on 5 January, 881 he conquered Chang'an. See Interstate 880 for the American Freeway Events By Place Europe Oldest known mention of the city of Events By Place Europe Charles the Fat is crowned Western Emperor Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. The emperor Xizong (唐僖宗) fled to Chengdu and Huang established a new temporary regime, which was eventually destroyed by Tang forces. ( located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a Sub-provincial city. but another time of political chaos followed.
The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (五代十国), lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ( 907-960 was an era of political upheaval in China, beginning in the Tang Dynasty and ending in the Song Dynasty. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ( 907-960 was an era of political upheaval in China, beginning in the Tang Dynasty and ending in the Song Dynasty. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms (十国).
In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) (宋朝) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (汴京/開封，开封), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty (契丹族遼國，契丹族辽国) ruled over Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Xi Xia redirects here For a Chinese general whose name may be transliterated as Xi Xia see Xi Qia The Western Xia Dynasty ( or This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty Events By Place Europe Edgar the Peaceable is crowned King of England. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern The Khitan (or Khitai,) were a Nomadic people, located in Mongolia and modern Manchuria (Northeast China from the 4th century dominating much of it The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (女真族金國，女真族金国) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty (西夏) from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes. ( is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Ningxia ( Postal map spelling: Ningsia full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic The Tangut ( identified with the state of Western Xia, were a Qiangic - Tibetan people who moved to northwestern China sometime before
It also took power over northern China and Kaifeng from the Song Dynasty, which moved its capital to Hangzhou (杭州). ( Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a Sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the People's Republic of China, The Southern Song Dynasty also suffered the humiliation of having to acknowledge the Jin Dynasty as formal overlords. In the ensuing years China was divided between the Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and the Tangut Western Xia (西夏). The Tangut ( identified with the state of Western Xia, were a Qiangic - Tibetan people who moved to northwestern China sometime before Xi Xia redirects here For a Chinese general whose name may be transliterated as Xi Xia see Xi Qia The Western Xia Dynasty ( or Southern Song experienced a period of great technological development which can be explained in part by the military pressure that it felt from the north. This included the use of gunpowder weapons, which played a large role in the Song Dynasty naval victories against the Jin in the Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161 AD. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes The naval Battle of Tangdao (唐岛之战 took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China The naval Battle of Caishi (采石之战 took place in 1161 and was the result of an attempt by forces of the Jurchen Jin to cross the Yangtze Furthermore, China's first permanent standing navy was assembled and provided an admiral's office at Dinghai in 1132 AD, under the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers Dinghai (定海区 is a Chinese district of Zhoushan City made of 128 islands Emperor Renzong ( May 30, 1010 &ndash April 30, 1063) was the fourth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China.
The Song Dynasty is considered by many to be classical China's high point in science and technology, with innovative scholar-officials such as Su Song (1020-1101 AD) and Shen Kuo (1031-1095 AD). Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Sui Dynasty to Su Song ( style name: Zirong 子容 (1020&ndash1101 AD was a renowned Chinese statesman, astronomer, cartographer, Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese There was court intrigue with the political rivals of the Reformers and Conservatives, led by the chancellors Wang Anshi and Sima Guang, respectively. Background Under the Song Dynasty the unprecedented development of large estates whose owners managed to evade paying their share of Taxes resulted in an increasingly Life profession and works He was born in 1019 in present-day Yuncheng Shanxi to a wealthy family and obtained early success as a scholar and officer By the mid to late 13th century the Chinese had adopted the dogma of Neo-Confucian philosophy formulated by Zhu Xi. Neo-Confucianism (/( is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (朱熹 born October 18, 1130, Yuxi, Fujian province China &ndash died April 23, 1200 There were enormous literary works compiled during the Song Dynasty, such as the historical work of the Zizhi Tongjian. The Zizhi Tongjian ( was a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography. Culture and the arts flourished, with grandiose artworks such as Along the River During Qingming Festival and Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, while there were great Buddhist painters such as Lin Tinggui. Along the River During the Qingming Festival ( is the title of several Panoramic paintings the original version generally attributed to the Song Dynasty Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute ( are a series of Chinese songs and poems about the life of Han Dynasty (202 BCE&ndash220 CE poet Cai Wenji, accompanied Lin Tinggui ( Traditional Chinese:林庭珪 Hanyu Pinyin:Lín Tíngguì (? Wade-Giles: Lin T'ing-kuei (active circa 1174 - 1189
Jurchen tribes' Jin Dynasty, whose names are also rendered "Jin" in pinyin, was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war where firearms played an important role. The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe. The Pax Mongolica or " Mongol Peace " is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the alleged stabilizing effects of the conquest of the Mongol Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the Chinese.
Kublai Khan (忽必烈/元世祖), grandson of Genghis Khan (成吉思汗), wanting to adopt the customs of China, established the Yuan Dynasty (元朝). Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai This was the first dynasty to rule the whole of China from Beijing (北京) as the capital. Beijing had been ceded to Liao in AD 938 with the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan Yun (燕雲十六州，燕云十六州). Events By Place Asia The Liao Dynasty takes over Peking; they name Nanjing as their South Palace Before that, it had been the capital of the Jin, who did not rule all of China. This is an article for the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234 For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered "Jin" in Pinyin, see Jin Dynasty
Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.  The 14th century epidemics of plague is estimated to have killed 30% of the population of China. 
Throughout a short-lived Yuan Dynasty, there was strong sentiment, among the populace, against the rule of the foreigners, which finally led to peasant revolts. The Mongolians were pushed back to the steppes and replaced by the Ming Dynasty (明朝) in 1368. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led
Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex. Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry. ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles In particular, small-scale industries grew up, often specializing in paper, silk, cotton, and porcelain goods. For the most part, however, relatively small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country. Town markets mainly traded food, with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil.
Despite the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the early Ming Dynasty was not isolated. Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries Neo-Confucianism (/( is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japan (倭國，倭国), increased considerably. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching East Africa with the voyages of Zheng He (鄭和，郑和, original name Ma Sanbao 馬三保，马三保). The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui
Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋) or (Hong-wu, 洪武皇帝/明太祖), the founder of the dynasty, laid the foundations for a state interested less in commerce and more in extracting revenues from the agricultural sector. Early life Zhu Yuanzhang was born in 1328 in Pei County Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province as the youngest of four sons Early life Zhu Yuanzhang was born in 1328 in Pei County Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province as the youngest of four sons Perhaps because of the Emperor's background as a peasant, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike that of the Song and the Mongolian Dynasties, which relied on traders and merchants for revenue. Neo-feudal landholdings of the Song and Mongol periods were expropriated by the Ming rulers. Land estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out. Private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of Emperor Yong-le (永樂皇帝，永乐皇帝/明成祖), independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. The Yongle Emperor ( Wade-Giles: Yung-lo May 2, 1360 &ndash August 12, 1424) born Zhu Di ( Chu Ti These laws might have paved the way to removing the worst of the poverty during the previous regimes.
The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire. The emperor's role became more autocratic, although Zhu Yuanzhang necessarily continued to use what he called the "Grand Secretaries"[錦衣衛] to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records. It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.
Emperor Yong-le strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute. A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops (some estimate as many as 1. 9 million) was created. The Chinese armies conquered Annam (安南) while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The Chinese gained influence in Eastern Turkestan. Turkestan (literally meaning "Land of the Turks" is a region in Central Asia, which today is largely inhabited by Turkic peoples. Several maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor. Domestically, the Grand Canal was expanded, and proved to be a stimulus to domestic trade. The Grand Canal of China ( also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal ( is the longest ancient Canal or artificial River in the world Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced. Many books were printed using movable type. The imperial palace in Beijing's Forbidden City reached its current splendor. The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial Palace from the mid- Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It was also during these centuries that the potential of south China came to be fully exploited. New crops were widely cultivated and industries such as those producing porcelain and textiles flourished. However, it was also during this period that China fell substantially behind Europe in technological and military power, an event known as the "Great Divergence. The Great Divergence is the period beginning in the 18th century in which the " West " (namely Britain, followed closely by the rest of Western Europe "
During the Ming dynasty the last construction on the Great Wall was undertaken to protect China from foreign invasions. The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th While the Great Wall had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watch towers were redesigned, and cannons were placed along its length.
The Qing Dynasty (清朝, 1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus (滿族，满族). Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen and invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century. The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644). This is a list of wars and human-made disasters by death toll.  Even though the Manchus started out as alien conquerors, they quickly adopted the Confucian norms of traditional Chinese government. They eventually ruled in the manner of traditional native dynasties.
The Manchus enforced a 'queue order' forcing the Han Chinese to adopt the Manchu queue hairstyle and Manchu-style clothing. The queue or cue is a hairstyle in which the hair is worn long and gathered up into a pigtail The traditional Chinese clothing, or Hanfu (漢服，汉服) was also replaced by Manchu-style clothing. Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu ( also known as Hanzhuang ( 漢裝) Huafu ( 華服) or guzhuang ( 古裝, meaning Qipao (bannermen dress (旗袍) and Tangzhuang (唐裝)), usually regarded as traditional Chinese clothing nowadays, are actually Manchu-style clothing. The cheongsam is a body-hugging (modified in Shanghai) one-piece Chinese Dress for women The penalty for not complying was death.
Emperor Kangxi (康熙皇帝/清聖祖) ordered the creation of the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters ever put together at the time. The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( The Manchus set up the "Eight Banners" system (八旗制度) in an attempt to avoid being assimilated into Chinese society. The "Eight Banners" were military institutions, set up to provide a structure with which the Manchu "bannermen" were meant to identify. Banner membership was to be based on traditional Manchu skills such as archery, horsemanship, and frugality. In addition, they were encouraged to use the Manchu language, rather than Chinese. Bannermen were given economic and legal privileges in Chinese cities.
Over the next half-century, the Manchus consolidated control of some areas originally under the Ming, including Yunnan. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led They also stretched their sphere of influence over Xinjiang, Tibet and Mongolia. Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East But during the nineteenth century, Qing control weakened. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Britain's desire to continue its opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840. The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 Britain and other major powers, including the United States, France, Russia, Germany, and Japan thereupon forcibly occupied "concessions" and gained special commercial privileges. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanjing. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders The Treaty of Nanking (Treaty of Nanjing signed 29 August, 1842, was the unequal treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between
A large rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864), involved around a third of China falling under control of the Taiping Tianguo, a quasi-Christian religious movement led by the "Heavenly King" Hong Xiuquan. This is a list of Revolutions and Rebellions BC 499 BC - 493 BC: Ionian Revolt. The Taiping Rebellion or Rebellion of Great Peace was a large-scale Revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China Only after fourteen years were the Taipings finally crushed - the Taiping army was destroyed in the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864. The Third Battle of Nanking was the last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, occurring in 1864 after the death of the king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Hong Year 1864 ( MDCCCLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The death toll during the 15 years of the rebellion was about 20 million, making it the second deadliest war in human history.
In addition, more costly rebellions in terms of human lives and economics followed with the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, Nien Rebellion, Muslim Rebellion, Panthay Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion. Punti-Hakka Clan Wars or Hakka-Punti Clan Wars ( Chinese 土客械鬥 refers to battles or conflicts between the Hakka and the Punti in The Nien Rebellion ( Western historians have traditionally used the Wade-Giles transcription "Nien" rather than Hanyu Pinyin "Nian" was an epic armed uprising that The Dungan Revolt was a religious war It also known as the Hui Minorities' War and the Muslim Rebellion. The Panthay Rebellion (known in PRC as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 1856&ndash1873 was a separatist movement of the Hui people and Chinese Muslims The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence  In many ways, the rebellions and the unequal treaties the Qing were forced to sign with the imperialist powers are symptomatic of the Qing's inability to deal with the new challenges of the 19th century. Unequal Treaties is a term used in reference to the type of Treaties signed by several East Asian states including Qing Dynasty China, late
By the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty had put down the rebellions at enormous cost and loss of life. Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was completed in 1869 Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China This undermined the credibility of the Qing regime and, spearheaded by local initiatives by provincial leaders and gentry, contributed to the rise of warlordism in China. The Qing Dynasty under the Emperor Guangxu (光緒皇帝/清德宗) proceeded to deal with the problem of modernization through the Self-Strengthening Movement (自強運動，自强运动). The Guangxu Emperor (光緒帝 (14 August 1871&ndash14 November 1908 born Zaitian (載湉 was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty Self-Strengthening Movement ( c 1861–1895 was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions However, between 1898 and 1908 the Empress Dowager Cixi had the reformist Guangxu imprisoned for being 'mentally disabled'. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Empress Dowager Cixi 1 ( ( November 29 1835 – November 15 1908) popularly known in China as the The Empress Dowager (慈禧太后), with the help of conservatives, initiated a military coup, effectively removed the young Emperor from power, and overturned most of the more radical reforms. He died one day before the death of the Empress Dowager (some believe Guangxu was poisoned by Cixi). Official corruption, cynicism, and imperial family quarrels made most of the military reforms useless. As a result, the Qing's "New Armies" were soundly defeated in the Sino-French War (1883-1885) and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). The New Armies ( Traditional Chinese: 新軍 Simplified Chinese: 新军 Pinyin: Xīnjūn Manchu: Ice cooha) were the modernized The Sino-French War ( Chinese:, French: Guerre franco-chinoise, Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh) was a limited conflict fought The First Sino-Japanese War ( 日清戦争 Romaji: Nisshin Sensō ( 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a war fought between
At the start of the 20th century, the Boxer Rebellion threatened northern China. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence This was a conservative anti-imperialist movement that sought to return China to old ways. The Empress Dowager, probably seeking to ensure her continued grip on power, sided with the Boxers when they advanced on Beijing. In response the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China. The Eight-Nation Alliance ( was an alliance of 8 nations ( Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Consisting of British, Japanese, Russian, Italian, German, French, US and Austrian troops, the alliance defeated the Boxers and demanded further concessions from the Qing government.
Frustrated by the Qing court's resistance to reform and by China's weakness, young officials, military officers, and students—inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen (孫中山，孙中山)—began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and creation of a republic. This article discusses history of the state which currently governs Taiwan Area. Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often
Slavery in China was abolished in 1910, although the practice apparently still continues unofficially in some regions. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another 
A revolutionary military uprising, the Wuchang Uprising, began on October 10, 1911 in Wuhan (武漢，武汉). The Wuchang Uprising of October 10 1911 started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year ( is the capital of Hubei province and is the most populous city in central People's Republic of China. The provisional government of the Republic of China (中華民國，中华民国) was formed in Nanjing on March 12, 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as President, but Sun was forced to turn power over to Yuan Shikai (袁世凱), who commanded the New Army and was Prime Minister under the Qing government, as part of the agreement to let the last Qing monarch abdicate (a decision he would later regret). REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often The President of the Republic of China ( is the Head of state of the Republic of China (ROC (commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s Yuan Shikai ( Courtesy Weiting 慰亭 Pseudonym: Rong'an 容庵 ( September 16, 1859 &ndash June 6, The New Armies ( Traditional Chinese: 新軍 Simplified Chinese: 新军 Pinyin: Xīnjūn Manchu: Ice cooha) were the modernized This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Puyi ( ( February 7, 1906 &ndash October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor Yuan Shikai proceeded in the next few years to abolish the national and provincial assemblies and declared himself emperor in 1915. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Yuan's imperial ambitions were fiercely opposed by his subordinates, and faced with the prospect of rebellion, Yuan abdicated and died shortly afterwards in 1916, leaving a power vacuum in China. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year His death left the republican government all but shattered, ushering the warlord era when China was ruled by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders. The Warlord era is the period in the History of the Republic of China, from 1916 to the late-1930s when the country was divided among military cliques, a division
In 1919, the May Fourth Movement (五四運動，五四运动) began as a response to the insult imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I, but quickly became a protest movement about the domestic situation in China. The May Fourth Movement ( was an anti- imperialist, cultural and political movement in early modern China. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The discrediting of liberal Western philosophy amongst Chinese intellectuals was followed by the adoption of more radical lines of thought. This in turn planted the seeds for the irreconcilable conflict between the left and right in China that would dominate Chinese history for the rest of the century.
In the 1920s, Sun Yat-Sen established a revolutionary base in south China, and set out to unite the fragmented nation. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often With Soviet assistance, he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC, 中國共產黨，中国共产党). The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the After Sun's death from cancer in 1925, one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石，蒋介石), seized control of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party or KMT, 國民黨，国民党) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition (北伐). Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash Having defeated the warlords in south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North. In 1927, Chiang turned on the CPC and relentlessly chased the CPC armies and its leaders from their bases in southern and eastern China. Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1934, driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic (中華蘇維埃共和國，中华苏维埃共和国), the CPC forces embarked on the Long March (長征，长征) across China's most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan'an in Shanxi Province (陝西省延安市). The Chinese Soviet Republic ( it is also translated as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, though it is generally referred to in The Long March ( was a massive Military retreat undertaken by the Red Armies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP the forerunner of the People's Liberation Yan'an ( is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province in China. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China.
During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung, 毛澤東，毛泽东). The Long March ( was a massive Military retreat undertaken by the Red Armies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP the forerunner of the People's Liberation Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led The bitter struggle between the KMT and the CPC continued, openly or clandestinely, through the 14-year long Japanese invasion (1931-1945), even though the two parties nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese invaders in 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) portion of World War II. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The war between the two parties resumed following the Japanese defeat in 1945. By 1949, the CPC occupied most of the country. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. (see Chinese Civil War)
Chiang Kai-shek fled with the remnants of his government to Taiwan in 1949 and his Nationalist Party would control the island as well as a few neighboring islands until democratic elections in the early 1990s. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Since then, the political status of Taiwan has always been under dispute. The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu should remain effectively independent as territory
With the proclamation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) (中華人民共和國,中华人民共和国) on October 1, 1949, Taiwan was again politically separated from mainland China. The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of Mainland China since October 1, 1949, when after a near complete victory Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu should remain effectively independent as territory Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However, the actual political and legal status of Taiwan is disputed. The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu should remain effectively independent as territory Since the 1990s, the Republic of China government that governs Taiwan along with associated islands as well as some small islands off the coast of Fujian has been pushing to gain greater international recognition, while the People's Republic of China vehemently opposes involvement by third parties, and insists that foreign relations not deviate from the One-China policy. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. This article is about the People's Republic of China province The One-China policy ( is a principle that there is one China and that Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are all part of
From hunter-gatherers to farmers
Jin, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties
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Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (