This is the history of Chile. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the See also the history of South America and the history of present-day nations and states. The History of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from This is a list of articles on the History of contemporary countries states and dependencies
Chilean territory was possibly among the last areas to be populated in the Americas, though the proposal that the initial arrival of humans to the continent took place either along the Pacific coast southwards in a rather rapid expansion long preceding the Clovis culture, or even trans-Pacific migration, is attracting more interest in recent times. The Clovis culture (sometimes referred to as the Llano culture) is a Prehistoric Paleoindian culture that first appears in the archaeological The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions These theories are backed by the foundings in the Monte Verde archaeological site that predates the Clovis site by thousands of years. Monte Verde is an Archaeological site in south-central Chile, which has been dated to 14500 years before present Pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different indigenous peoples. Despite such diversity, it is possible to classify them into three major cultural groups: The northern peoples, who developed rich handicrafts and were influenced by pre-Incan cultures; the Mapuche culture, who inhabited the area between the river Choapa and the island of Chiloé, and lived primarily off agriculture; and the Patagonian culture, composed of various nomadic tribes, who supported themselves through fishing and hunting (and who in Pacific/Pacific Coast immigration scenario would be descended partly from the most ancient settlers). This The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. Choapa River or El Río Choapa is a river of Chile located in the Coquimbo Region. Chiloé Island ( Spanish: "Isla de Chiloé" also known as' Isla Grande de Chiloé "Greater Island of Chiloé", is the largest island
As the Inca Empire expanded it was only able to integrate the northern part of Chile. The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Incan attempts to colonize Central Chile were unsuccessful, having met fierce resistance by Mapuche warriors in the Battle of the Maule. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. The Battle of the Maule, in modern Chile, was fought between the Mapuche people and the Inca Empire. The Maule River subsequently became the boundary between the Incan empire and the Mapuche lands. The Maule river (in Mapudungun "rainy" is one of the most important rivers of Chile and is inextricably linked to this country's pre-Hispanic ( Inca
The first European to sight Chilean territory was Ferdinand Magellan, who crossed the Strait of Magellan on November 1, 1520. The Arauco War was a long conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people of the region of Araucanía, of modern Chile. Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães fɨɾˈnɐ̃ũ dɨ mɐgɐˈʎɐ̃ĩʃ Fernando de Magallanes (Spring 1480 &ndash April 27 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu The Straits of Magellan (rarely referred to as the Magellanic Straits) comprise a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi However, the title of discoverer of Chile is usually assigned to Diego de Almagro. Diego de Almagro ( Almagro, Spain, c 1475 &ndash Cuzco, Peru, July 8, 1538) also known as El Adelantado De Almagro was Francisco Pizarro's partner, and he received command of the southern part of the Inca Empire (Nueva Toledo). Francisco Pizarro González 1st Marqués de los Atabillos (c 1471 or 1476 &ndash 26 June 1541 was a Spanish Conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire He organized an expedition that brought him to central Chile in 1537, but he found little of value to compare with the gold and silver of the Incas in Peru. Left with the impression that the inhabitants of the area were poor, he returned to Peru, later to die in a Civil War.
After this initial excursion there was little interest from colonial authorities in further exploring modern-day Chile. However, Pedro de Valdivia, captain of the army, realizing the potential for expanding the Spanish empire southward, asked Pizarro permission to invade and conquer the southern lands. Pedro de Valdivia (c 1500 - January 1, 1554) was a Conquistador and first royal governor of Chile. With a couple of hundred men, he subdued the local inhabitants and founded the city of Santiago de Nueva Extremadura, now Santiago de Chile, on February 12, 1541. Santiago ( (litteraly in spanish Saint James) is the Capital of Chile, and the center of its largest Conurbation ( Greater Santiago Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the
Although Valdivia found little gold in Chile he could see the agricultural richness of the land. He continued his explorations of the region west of the Andes and founded over a dozen towns and established the first encomiendas. The encomienda system is a Trusteeship labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the The greatest resistance to Spanish rule came from the Mapuche culture, who opposed European conquest and colonization until 1880s; this resistance is traditionally labeled as the Arauco War. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. The Arauco War was a long conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people of the region of Araucanía, of modern Chile.
Valdivia died at the Battle of Tucapel, defeated by Lautaro, a young Mapuche toqui (war chief), but the European conquest was well underway. The Battle of Tucapel (also known as the Disaster of Tucapel) is the name given to a battle fought between Spanish Conquistador forces led by Pedro Lautaro (In Mapudungun: "Lef-Traru" Speedy Crested Caracara) was a Mapuche military leader and protagonist in the War of Arauco Toqui (from the Mapudungun toki "axe axe-bearer" is a title conferred by the Mapuche (an indigenous Chilean people to those who are chosen as their leader The Spaniards never subjugated the Mapuche territories; various attempts at conquest, both by military and peaceful means, failed. The Great Uprising of 1598 swept all Spanish presence south of the Bío-Bío River except Chiloé (and Valdivia which was decades later reestablished as a fort), and the great river became the frontier line between Mapuche lands and the Spanish realm. The Biobío River (Also known as Bío Bío or Bio-Bio) is the second largest River in Chile. North of that line cities grew up slowly, and Chilean lands eventually became an important source of food for the Viceroyalty of Peru. Created in 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled
Chile was the least wealthy realm of the Spanish Crown for most of its colonial history. Only in the 18th century did a steady economic and demographic growth begin, an effect of the reforms by Spain's Bourbon dynasty and a more stable situation along the frontier. The Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the French Bourbon dynasty, after the decay
The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte; and can be divided into 3 stages. Chilean War of Independence, was an armed conflict between the people of Chile and Spanish colonial authorities which started on September 10, 1810 Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte King of Naples and Sicily, King of Spain (during a time) and the Indies (never de facto and never de iure A national junta was established in the name of Ferdinand VII— the deposed king — on September 18, 1810. Early life In his youth he occupied the painful position of an heir apparent who was jealously excluded from all share in government by his parents and the royal favorite Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1810 ( MDCCCX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year This period is known as the "Patria Vieja" (old republic). The second was characterized by the Spanish attempts to reimpose arbitrary rule during the period known in Chile as the Reconquista ("Reconquest": the term echoes the Reconquista in which the Christian kingdoms retook Iberia from the Muslims) which in turn led to a prolonged struggle under José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile's most renowned patriot and a member of South America's Irish diaspora. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín ( 25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850) was an Argentine Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme ( August 20, 1778 &ndash October 24, 1842) South American independence leader was one of the commanders The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael consists of Irish Emigrants and their descendants in countries such as Great Britain, the United States Other revolutionary leaders included the guerrilla leader Manuel Rodríguez and the exiled British admiral Thomas Cochrane, who commanded the Chilean Navy from 1817-1822. Manuel Javier Rodríguez Erdoíza ( February 27 1785 - May 26 1818) Chilean Lawyer and guerrilla leader Admiral Lord Sir Thomas Alexander Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquês do Maranhão GCB, RN (14 December
Chilean independence was formally proclaimed on February 12, 1818, and the last of its territory, Chiloé, was wrested from Spanish rule by 1826. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1818 ( MDCCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé consists of several islands lying off the coast of Chile.
The political revolt brought little social change however and nineteenth century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, family politics, and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The system of presidential power eventually predominated, but wealthy landowners continued to control Chile.
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by persistently suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of the Araucanía. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. The Occupation of the Araucania (1861–1883 was a series of Military campaigns agreements and penetrations by the Chilean army and Settlers In 1881, it signed a treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan, but conceding all of oriental Patagonia, and a considerable fraction of the territory it had during colonial times. Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Straits of Magellan (rarely referred to as the Magellanic Straits) comprise a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande Llao LLaojpg|thumb|250px| Lake Nahuel Huapi, near Bariloche, Argentina As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia (1879-1883), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms
In the 1870s, the church influence started to diminish slightly with the passing of several laws that took some old roles of the church into the State's hands such as the registry of births and marriages. Events and Trends Technology The invention of the prototype telephone by Alexander G
In 1886, José Manuel Balmaceda was elected president. Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common José Manuel Emiliano Balmaceda Fernández ( July 19, 1840 – September 19, 1891) was a Chilean political figure and President His economic policies visibly changed the existing liberal policies. He began to violate the constitution and slowly began to establish a dictatorship. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Congress decided to depose Balmaceda, who refused to step down. Jorge Montt, among others, directed an armed conflict against Balmaceda, which soon extended into the Chilean Civil War of 1891. Jorge Montt Álvarez ( April 26, 1847 - October 8, 1922) was vice-admiral of the Chilean Navy and President of Chile The Chilean Civil War of 1891 was an armed conflict between forces supporting Congress and forces supporting the sitting President, José Manuel Balmaceda Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Defeated, Balmaceda fled to Argentina's embassy, where he committed suicide. Jorge Montt became the new president.
By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. The Parliamentary Era in Chile began in 1891, at the end of the Civil War, and spanned until 1925 and the establishment of the 1925 Constitution. A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in 1924 set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. Division General Luis Altamirano Talavera ( July 5, 1867 - July 25, 1938) was a Chilean military officer minister Vice President The ruido de sables (saber noise) incident of September 1924, provoked by discontent of young officers, mostly lieutenants from middle and working classes, lead to the establishment of the September Junta and the exile of Alessandri. Saber-noise or saber-rattling ( Spanish: ruido de sables) refers to a historical incident in Chilean history that took place on September Government Junta of Chile ( September 11, 1924 - January 23, 1925) (also known as the September Junta) was the political structure However, fears of a conservative restoration in progressive sectors of the army led to another coup in January, which ended with the establishment of the January Junta as interim government while waiting for Alessandri's return. The Chilean coup d'état of 1925 took place on January 23, 1925, when the Chilean military overthrew the September Junta. Government Junta of Chile ( January 27, 1925 - March 20, 1925) (also known as the January Junta) was the political structure established The latter assumed power in March, and a new Constitution giving increased powers to the president was approved in September 1935. Alessandri broke with the classical liberalism's policies of laissez faire by creating a Central Bank and imposing a revenue tax. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” The Central Bank of Chile (Banco Central de Chile is the Central bank of Chile. However, social discontents were also crushed, leading to the Marusia massacre in March 1925 followed by the La Coruña massacre. The Marusia massacre (Masacre de Marusia (March 1925 was the response of the Chilean government under president Arturo Alessandri to a strike by the workers
The longest lasting of the ten governments between those years was that of Gen. Carlos Ibáñez, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship. General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo ( November 3 1877 &ndash April 28 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and Political figure When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years.
The Seguro Obrero Massacre took place on September 5, 1938, in the midst of a heated three-way election campaign between the ultraconservative Gustavo Ross Santa María, the radical Popular Front's Pedro Aguirre Cerda, and the newly-formed Popular Alliance candidate, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. The Seguro Obrero massacre ( Spanish: Matanza del Seguro Obrero) was the Chilean government's response to an attempted Coup d'etat by the National Socialist Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A popular front is a broad Coalition of different political groupings often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group Pedro Abelino Aguirre Cerda ( February 6, 1879 - November 25, 1941) was a Chilean Political figure. General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo ( November 3 1877 &ndash April 28 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and Political figure The National Socialist Movement of Chile supported Ibáñez's candidacy, which had been announced on September 4. Movimiento Nacional Socialista de Chile was a political movement in Chile, during the Presidential Republic Era, which initially supported the ideas of Adolf Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself In order to preempt Ross's victory, the National Socialists mounted a coup d'etat that was intended to take down the rightwing government of Arturo Alessandri Palma and place Ibáñez in power. Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma ( December 20 1868 &ndash August 24 1950) was a Chilean Political figure and reformer who
During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932-52), the state increased its role in the economy. The Radical Party ( Partido Radical) of Chile was a political party formed in 1863 by some dissatisfied liberals. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez to office for another 6 years. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez in 1958. Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez ( May 19, 1896 &ndash August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964 and was the
The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1964. Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian (and often specifically Catholic) principles to public policy Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911&ndash1982 was a Chilean political figure and President of Chile from 1964 to 1970 Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive.
In the presidential election of 1970, Salvador Allende gained the presidency of Chile. Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973 and head of the Popular Unity government he was the first Marxist ever to be elected The Chilean coup d'état of 1973 is a landmark in the History of Chile and the Russo-American Cold War. A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (June 26 1908 – September 11 1973 was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup d'état of Allende was a Marxist and a member of Chile's Socialist Party, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP) coalition of the Socialist, Communist, Radical, and Social-Democratic Parties, along with dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish Partido Socialista de Chile or PS is part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition Unidad Popular ( UP) ( English: "People's Unity" was a coalition of Political parties in Chile that stood behind the successful candidacy The Popular Unitary Action Movement or MAPU ( Movimiento de Acción Popular Unitario) is a small leftist Political party in Chile. His program included land reform and the nationalization of U. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government S. interests in Chile's major copper mines. Allende had two main competitors in the election — Radomiro Tomic, representing the incumbent Christian Democratic party, who ran a left-wing campaign with much the same theme as Allende's, and the right-wing former president Jorge Alessandri. Radomiro Tomić Romero ( 7 May 1914 – 3 January 1992) was a Chilean politician Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez ( May 19, 1896 &ndash August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964 and was the
Allende received a plurality of the votes cast, getting 36% of the vote against Alessandri's 34% and Tomic's 27%. This was not the first time the leading candidate received less than half of the popular vote. Such had been the case in every post-war election, save that of 1964 — Alessandri himself was elected president in 1958 with 31%. In the absence of an absolute majority, the Chilean constitution required the president-elect to be confirmed by the Chilean parliament. This procedure had previously been a near-formality, yet became quite fraught in 1970. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After assurances of legality on Allende's part, and in spite of pressure from the U. S. government, Tomic's Christian Democrats voted together with Allende's supporters to confirm him as president. Allende received 153 votes to Alessandri's 35. Following his election, indigenous and peasant forces across the country violently took control of ranches, forcibly fulfilling Allende's land redistribution promises.
Immediately after the election, the United States expressed its disapproval and raised a number of economic sanctions against Chile. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In addition, the CIA's website reports that the agency aided three different Chilean opposition groups during that time period and "sought to instigate a coup to prevent Allende from taking office(. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all )"  
In the first year of Allende's term, the short-term economic results of Minister of the Economics Pedro Vuskovic's expansive monetary policy were unambiguously favorable: 12% industrial growth and an 8. Pedro Vuskovic Bravo ( February 25, 1924 – May 10, 1993) was a Chilean economist Political figure, minister and author 6% increase in GDP, accompanied by major declines in inflation (down from 34. 9% to 22. 1%) and unemployment (down to 3. 8%). However, these results were not sustained and in 1972 the Chilean escudo had runaway inflation of 140%. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time The combination of inflation and government-mandated price-fixing led to the rise of black markets in rice, beans, sugar, and flour, and a "disappearance" of such basic commodities from supermarket shelves. 
By 1973, Chilean society had grown highly polarized, between strong opponents and equally strong supporters of Salvador Allende and his government. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Military actions and movements, separate from the civilian authority, began to manifest in the countryside. A failed military coup was attempted against Allende in June 1973.
In its "Declaration of the Breakdown of Chile’s Democracy", on August 22, 1973, the Chamber of Deputies of Chile asserted that Chilean democracy had broken down and called for Allende's removal, by military force if necessary, to restore constitutional rule. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. The Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Cámara de Diputados is the lower house of Chile 's bicameral Congress. Less than a month later, on September 11, 1973, the Chilean military deposed Allende, who allegedly committed suicide as the Presidential Palace was surrounded and bombed. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (June 26 1908 – September 11 1973 was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup d'état of The Coin House ( Spanish for "Mint Palace" or simply La Moneda, is the seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. Subsequently, rather than restore governmental authority to the civilian legislature, Augusto Pinochet exploited his role as Commander of the Army to seize total power and to establish himself at the head of a junta. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November The Chilean coup d'état of 1973 is a landmark in the History of Chile and the Russo-American Cold War. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy,
Controversy surrounds alleged CIA involvement in the coup. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all As early as the Church Committee Report (1975), publicly available documents have indicated that the CIA attempted to prevent Allende from taking office after he was elected in 1970; the CIA itself released documents in 2000 acknowledging this and that Pinochet was one of their favored alternatives to take power. The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Still, they deny having taken any active role in the events in Chile after Allende took office. (See: U.S. intervention in Chile)
Following the coup in 1973, Chile was ruled by a military regime which lasted until 1990. The United States intervention in Chilean's politics started during the War of Chilean Independence. The army established a junta, made up of the army commander, General Augusto Pinochet; the navy commander, Admiral José Toribio Merino; the air commander, Gustavo Leigh; and the director of the carabineros; César Mendoza. Admiral Santiago José Toribio Merino Castro ( December 14, 1915 - August 30, 1996) was a Chilean Admiral, President of the Air General Gustavo Leigh Guzmán ( September 19, 1920 - September 29, 1999) was a Chilean general who represented the Air Force in the General César Leonidas Mendoza Durán ( September 11, 1918 &ndash September 13, 1996) was a member of the Government Junta Resigning after disagreements with Pinochet on July 24, 1978, Leigh was replaced by General Fernando Matthei. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. Fernando Matthei Aubel (b July 11 1925) is a retired Chilean Air Force General that was part of the military junta that ruled Chile Mendoza resigned after the carabineros were blamed for the deaths of three communists in 1985 and was replaced by Rodolfo Stange. General Rodolfo Stange Oelckers (b September 30, 1925) is a Chilean politician and former senator
The military dictatorship pursued decidedly laissez-faire economic policies. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” During Pinochet's 16 years in power, Chile moved away from a largely state controlled economy towards a free-market economy, increasingly controlled by a few large economic groups that fostered an increase in domestic and foreign private investment.
After the coup, Chileans witnessed a large-scale order, which started as soon as October 1973, with at least 70 persons murdered by the Caravan of Death. General Augusto Pinochet, one of the most controversial figures in recent Chilean history was head of the military junta that ruled Chile from The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army Death squad that following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between The four-man junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet abolished civil liberties, dissolved the national congress, banned union activities, prohibited strikes and collective bargaining, and erased the Allende administration's agrarian and economic reforms. thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. The junta jailed, tortured, and executed thousands of Chileans. According to the Rettig commission and the Valech Report, close to 3,200 were executed, murdered or "disappeared", and at least 29 000 imprisoned and tortured; higher estimates exist. The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report by a commission designated by then President Patricio Aylwin The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 According to the Latin American Institute on Mental Health and Human Rights (ILAS), "situations of extreme trauma" affected about 200,000 persons; this figure includes individuals killed, tortured or exiled, and their immediate families.
The secret police, DINA (Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional) spread its network throughout the country and carried out targeted assassinations abroad, made possible by Operation Condor, an operations and intelligence sharing network of the security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, formed in the mid-1970s. Secret police (sometimes political police) are a Police agency which operates in Secrecy to maintain National security against internal Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional ( English: National Intelligence Directorate) or DINA was the Chilean Secret police in the government AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. For other uses of Operation Condor please see Operation Condor (disambiguation Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor Operação Condor was a campaign For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America The junta also set up at least six concentration camps. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial
The regime outlawed or suspended all political parties and suspended dissident labour and peasant leaders and clergymen. Eduardo Frei and other Christian Democratic leaders initially supported the coup. Eduardo Frei may refer to either of two presidents of Chile Eduardo Frei Montalva Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle See Later, they assumed the role of an opposition to the military rulers, but soon lost most of their influence. Meanwhile, left-wing Christian Democratic leaders like Radomiro Tomic were jailed or forced into exile. The church, which at first expressed its gratitude to the armed forces for saving the country from the danger of a "Marxist dictatorship," became increasingly critical of the regime's social and economic policies.
In 1974, the country was divided into 13 regions (it had previously been divided into provinces). This design has continued until today.
The junta embarked on a radical program of liberalization and privatization, slashing tariffs as well as government welfare programs and deficits. In general liberalization (or liberalisation) refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions usually in areas of social or economic policy Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in The new economic program was designed by a group of technocrats known as the Chicago boys because many of them had been trained or influenced by University of Chicago professors. The Chicago Boys (c 1970s were a group of about 25 young Chilean economists who trained at the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago.
The economy grew rapidly from 1976 to 1981, fueled by the influx of private foreign loans until the debt crisis of the early 1980s. A loan is a type of Debt. This article focuses exclusively on monetary loans although in practice any material object might be lent Despite high growth in the late 1970s, income distribution became more regressive. Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of Income and Economic inequality While the upper 5% of the population received 25% of the total national income in 1972, it received 50% in 1975. Wage and salary earners got 64% of the national income in 1972 but only 38% at the beginning of 1977. Malnutrition affected half of the nation's children, and 60% of the population could not afford the minimum protein and food energy per day. Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Food energy is the amount of Energy in food that is available through Digestion. Infant mortality increased sharply. Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births Beggars flooded the streets.
The junta relied on the army, the police, the oligarchy, huge foreign corporations, and foreign loans to maintain itself. As a whole, the armed services received large salary increases and new equipment. The oligarchy recovered most of its lost industrial and agricultural holdings, for the junta sold to private buyers most of the industries expropriated by Allende's Popular Unity government. This period saw the expansion of monopolies and widespread speculation.
Financial conglomerates became major beneficiaries of the liberalized economy and the flood of foreign bank loans. Large foreign banks received large sums in repayments of interest and principal from the junta; in return, they lent the government millions more. International lending organizations such as the World Bank, the IMF, and the Inter-American Development Bank lent vast sums. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The Inter-American Development Bank (preferred abbreviation IDB, although sometimes found as IADB) was established and headquartered in Washington D Foreign multinational corporations such as International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), Dow Chemical, and Firestone, all expropriated by Allende, returned to Chile. ITT Corporation, is a global diversified manufacturing company with 2007 revenues of $9 The Dow Chemical Company () is an American Multinational corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan. The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply pneumatic tires for wagons buggies and other forms of wheeled transportation
Chile's main industry, copper mining, remained in government hands, but new mineral deposits were open to private investment. Capitalist involvement was increased, the national pension system and healthcare were privatized, and Superior Education was also placed in private hands. The Pension System -Spanish Sistema Previsional - refers to old-age disability and survivor pensions for workers in Chile One of the junta's economic moves was fixing the exchange rate in the early 1980s, leading to a boom in imports and a collapse of domestic industrial production; this together with a world recession caused a serious economic crisis in 1982, where GDP plummeted by 14%, and unemployment reached 33%. At the same time a series of massive protests were organized trying to cause the fall of the regime, without success.
After the economic crisis of 1982, Hernan Buchi became Minister of Finance from 1985 to 1989. He allowed the peso to float and reinstated restrictions on the movement of capital in and out of the country. He introduced banking legislation, simplified and reduced the corporate tax. Chile pressed ahead with privatizations, including public utilities plus the re-privatization of companies that had returned to the government during the 1982–1983 crisis. Under these new policies, the rate of inflation dropped from about 1,000% per year to about 10% per year. While this was still a high rate of inflation, it allowed the economy to start recovering. From 1984 to 1990, Chile's gross domestic product grew by an annual average of 5. 9%, the fastest on the continent. Chile developed a good export economy, including the export of fruits and vegetables to the northern hemisphere when they were out of season, and commanded high prices.
An important initiative begun in 1981 and carried on until today, aimed at modernizing the use of Information and Communication technology, greatly contributed to disentangle the traditional bureaucratic and cumbersome clerical procedures in all dealings with branches of the government, from civil registry to import/export documentation, thereby fostering a more agile economy and a more efficient public administration. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Information and Communications Technology - or technologies ( ICT) is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of Information A civil registry or population registry is a repository or Database maintained by a State listing Vital statistics about all of its Citizens Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy.
The military junta began to change during the late 1970s. Due to problems with Pinochet, Leigh was expelled from the junta in 1978 and replaced by General Fernando Matthei. Fernando Matthei Aubel (b July 11 1925) is a retired Chilean Air Force General that was part of the military junta that ruled Chile Due to the Caso Degollados ("slit throats case"), in which three Communist party members were assassinated, César Mendoza, member of the junta since 1973 and representants of the carabineros, resigned in 1985 and was replaced by Rodolfo Stange. The Caso Degollados ( Spanish: "Case of the Slit Throats" was a politically motivated crime and political scandal that took place in Chile The Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile is a Chilean political party that advocates Communism. General César Leonidas Mendoza Durán ( September 11, 1918 &ndash September 13, 1996) was a member of the Government Junta Carabineros de Chile are the uniformed Chilean national Police force and Gendarmery, created on April 27, 1927. General Rodolfo Stange Oelckers (b September 30, 1925) is a Chilean politician and former senator The next year, Carmen Gloria Quintana was burnt alive in what became known as the Caso Quemado ("Burnt Alive case"). Carmen Gloria Quintana Arancibia (born c 1968) is a Chilean woman who suffered severe almost fatal burns in an incident where she and other youngsters were detained Rodrigo Andrés Rojas De Negri ( March 7, 1967 - July 6, 1986) was a young Photographer who was burned alive during a street demonstration
Problems with Argentina coming from the 19th century reached a high in 1978, with disagreements over the Beagle Canal. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The two countries agreed to papal mediation over the canal. Chilean-Argentine relations remained bad, however, and Chile helped the United Kingdom during the Falklands War. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the
Chile's constitution was approved in a national plebiscite held in September 1980. The current Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile, approved by Chilean voters in a tightly controlled Plebiscite on September 11 1980 It came into force in March 1981. It established that in 1988 there would be another plebiscite in which the voters would accept or reject a single candidate proposed by the Military Junta. Pinochet was, as expected, the candidate proposed, and he was denied a second 8 year term by 54. 5% of the vote. 
After Pinochet's defeat in the 1988 plebiscite, the Constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the constitution, create more seats in the senate, diminish the role of the National Security Council and equalize the number of civilian and military members (four members each). The Chilean transition to democracy (colloquially known in Chile as the Transición) began on September 11, 1980, when a Constitution establishing Many among Chile's political class consider these and other provisions as "authoritarian enclaves" of the constitution and have pressed for reform.
Representing the Concertación coalition which supported the return to democracy, gathering the Christian Democrat Party (PDC), the Socialist Party (PS), the Party for Democracy (PPD) and the Social Democrat Radical Party (PRSD), Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin won a sweeping victory in the first democratic elections, in December 1989, since the 1970 election won by Salvador Allende. The Concert of Parties for Democracy (Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia more often known as the Concertación, is a coalition of Center-left The Christian Democratic Party of Chile ( Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a Political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish Partido Socialista de Chile or PS is part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition The Party for Democracy ( Partido por la Democracia) is a governing Political party in Chile; it is social democratic in its political orientation The Social Democratic Radical Party ( Partido Radical Socialdemócrata) is a Social democratic party in Chile. Patricio Aylwin Azócar (born November 26, 1918) was the first President of Chile after its return to democratic rule in 1990 following A presidential election was held in Chile on 14 December 1989. A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (June 26 1908 – September 11 1973 was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup d'état of Patricio Aylwin had gathered around him 3,850,023 votes (55. 17%), while the center-right supermarket tycoon Francisco Javier Errázuriz, who represented the UCCP party, managed to take 15. The Progressive Union of the Centrist Center (Spanish Unión del Centro Centro Progresista, UCCP was a small center-right Chilean Party 05% of the vote, which had as main effects to lower right-wing candidate Hernán Büchi's score to 29. Hernán Büchi Buc (born 1949 is a Chilean economist and politician 40% (approximately 2 million votes, almost half of Patricio Aylwin).
The Concertación coalition would dominate Chilean politics for the next two decades, with its most recent victory being the 2006 election of Socialist candidate Michelle Bachelet. Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria beˈɾonika mɪˈʃɛl baʃˈle ˈxeɾja / --> (born September 29 1951) is a center-left politician and It established in February 1991 the National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation, which released in February 1991 the Rettig Report on human rights violations during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship. The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report by a commission designated by then President Patricio Aylwin The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report by a commission designated by then President Patricio Aylwin This report, contested by human rights NGOs and associations of political prisoners, counted 2,279 cases of "disappearances" which could be proved and registered. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. Of course, the very nature of "disappearances" made such investigations very difficult, while many victims were still intimidated by the authorities, and did not dare go to the local police center register themselves on lists, since the police officers were the same as during the dictatorship. The same problem arose, several years later, for the Valech Report, released in 2004 and which counted almost 30,000 victims of torture, among testimonies from 35,000 persons. The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally However, the Rettig Report did list important detention and torture centers, such as the Esmeralda ship, the Víctor Jara Stadium, Villa Grimaldi, etc. Construction The ship is the sixth to carry the name Esmeralda. Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez ( September 28, 1932 – September 15, 1973) was a Chilean teacher Theatre director, Villa Grimaldi was a complex of buildings used for the Interrogation and Torture of Political prisoners by DINA, the Chilean The registering of victims of the dictatorship, and then, in the 2000s, trials of militaries guilty of human right violations, would dominate the
In the 1993 election, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle of the Christian Democratic Party was elected president for a 6-year term leading the Concertacion coalition, and took office in March 1994. Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) is a Chilean politician and civil engineer. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Following an agreement between Pinochet and Andrés Zaldívar Larraín, president of the Senate, the latter voted to abolish the date of 11 September as a National Holiday which celebrated the 1973 coup. José Andrés Rafael Zaldívar Larraín, (born March 18, 1936) popularly known as El Chico Zaldívar ("Tiny Zaldívar" is a prominent The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile 's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile Supporters of Pinochet had blocked until then any such attempt.  The same year, Pinochet traveled to London for an operation. But under orders of Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, he was arrested there, lifting world-wide attention, not only because of the past history of Chile and South America, but also because this was one of the first arrest of a dictator based on the universal juridiction principle. Baltasar Garzón Real (born October 26, 1955 in Torres, Jaén, Spain) is a Judge in Spain. General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the UK government Pinochet tried to defend himself by referring to the State Immunity Act of 1978, an argument rejected by the British justice. However, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw took the responsibility to release him on medical grounds, and refused to extradite him to Spain. John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. Thereafter, Pinochet returned to Chile in March 2000. Upon descending the plane on his wheelchair, he stood up and saluted the cheering crowd of supporters, including an army band playing his favorite military march tunes, which was awaiting him at the airport in Santiago. President Ricardo Lagos, who had just sworn in on March 11, said the retired general's televised arrival had damaged the image of Chile, while thousands demonstrated against him. Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer economist and social democrat politician who served as president of 
Representing the Concertación coalition for democracy, Ricardo Lagos had won the election just a few months before, by a very tight score of less than 200,000 votes (51,32%) against Joaquín Lavín (less than 49%), who represented the right-wing Alliance for Chile. The Concert of Parties for Democracy (Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia more often known as the Concertación, is a coalition of Center-left A presidential election was held in Chile on December 12 1999. Joaquín José Lavín Infante (b Santiago, October 23 1953) is a Chilean Right-wing politician and economist The Alliance for Chile ( Spanish "Alianza por Chile" also known as La Alianza (The Alliance is a coalition of Center-right Chilean None of the six candidates had obtained an absolute majority on the first turn held on December 12, 1999. Lagos was sworn in March 11, 2000, for a 6-year term.
In 2002 Chile signed an association agreement with the European Union (comprising FTA, political and cultural agreements), in 2003, an extensive free trade agreement with the United States, and in 2004 with South Korea, expecting a boom in import and export of local produce and becoming a regional trade-hub. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː
Meanwhile, the trials concerning human rights violations during the dictatorship continued. Pinochet was stripped of his parliamentary immunity in August 2000 by the Supreme Court, and indicted by judge Juan Guzmán Tapia. Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity is a system in which members of the Parliament or Legislature are granted partial immunity from The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest Court in Chile. It also administrates the lower courts in the nation Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia (b April 22, 1939) is a retired Chilean judge who became famous internationally for being the first judge to prosecute former Guzmán had ordered in 1999 the arrest of five militaries, including General Pedro Espinoza Bravo of the DINA, for their role in the Caravan of Death following the 11 September coup. Brigadier Pedro Espinoza Bravo was a Chilean Army officer and member of the DINA, the secret police which operated during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990 Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional ( English: National Intelligence Directorate) or DINA was the Chilean Secret police in the government The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army Death squad that following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between Arguing that the bodies of the "disappeared" were still missing, he made jurisprudence which had as effect to lift any prescription on the crimes committed by the militaries. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature A statute of limitations is a Statute in a Common law Legal system that sets forth the maximum period of time after certain events that legal proceedings Pinochet's trial continued until his death on December 10, 2006, with an alternance of indictments for specific cases, lifting of immunities by the Supreme Court or to the contrary immunity from prosecution, with his health a main argument for, or against, his prosecution. The Supreme Court affirmed in March 2005 Pinochet's immunity concerning the 1974 assassination of General Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires, which had taken place in the frame of Operation Condor. General Carlos Prats González ( February 24, 1915 - September 30, 1974) was a Chilean Army officer a Political figure For other uses of Operation Condor please see Operation Condor (disambiguation Operation Condor (Operación Cóndor Operação Condor was a campaign However, he was deemed fit to stand trial for Operation Colombo, during which 119 political opponents were "disappeared" in Argentina. Operation Colombo was an operation undertaken by the DINA (the Chilean Secret police) in 1975 The Chilean justice also lifted his immunity on the Villa Grimaldi case, a detention and torture center in the outskirts of Santiago. Villa Grimaldi was a complex of buildings used for the Interrogation and Torture of Political prisoners by DINA, the Chilean Pinochet, who still benefited from a reputation of righteousness from his supporters, lost legitimacy when he was put under house arrest on tax fraud and passport forgery, following the publication by the US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of a report concerning the Riggs Bank in July 2004. The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations ( PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U Riggs Bank was a Washington DC -based commercial bank with branches located in the surrounding metropolitan area and offices around the world The report was a consequence of investigations on financial funding of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the US. The bank controlled between USD $4 million and $8 million of Pinochet's assets, who lived in Santiago in a modest house, dissimulating his wealth. According to the report, Riggs participated in money laundering for Pinochet, setting up offshore shell corporations (referring to Pinochet as only "a former public official"), and hiding his accounts from regulatory agencies. Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial Transactions in order to conceal the Identity, source and/or destination of Money, A shell Corporation is defined in Barron's Finance & Investment Handbook as "a company that is incorporated but has no significant assets or operations Related to Pinochet's and his family secret bank accounts in United States and in Caraïbs islands, this tax fraud filing for an amount of 27 million dollars shocked the conservative sectors who still supported him. Ninety percent of these funds would have been raised between 1990 and 1998, when Pinochet was chief of the Chilean armies, and would essentially have come from weapons traffic (when purchasing Belgian 'Mirage' air-fighters in 1994, Dutch 'Léopard' tanks, Swiss 'Mowag' tanks or by illegal sales of weapons to Croatia, in the middle of the Balkans war. The arms industry is a global Industry and Business which Manufactures and sells Weapons and Military technology and equipment. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912–1913 in the course of which the Balkan League ( Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece ) His wife, Lucía Hiriart, and his son, Marco Antonio Pinochet, were also sued for complicity. María Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez (born December 10 1922) also known as Lucía Hiriart de Pinochet, is the widow (married in January 1943 of former For the fourth time in seven years, Pinochet was indicted by the Chilean justice. 
The Chilean authorities took control in August 2005 of the Colonia Dignidad "community", directed by ex-Nazi Paul Schäfer. Villa Baviera (Bavaria Village formerly known as Colonia Dignidad (Dignidad Colony is a Chilean hamlet in Parral Commune Linares Province In the context of this article the term ex-Nazi, or more correctly ex-Nazi Party member refers either to those few who were once Nazis and resigned from the Paul Schäfer Schneider (born December 4, 1921) is the founder and former leader of a sect and agricultural commune of German immigrants called Colonia
The Concertación again won the 2006 presidential election. A presidential election took place in Chile on Sunday December 11 2005. Michelle Bachelet, first woman president, won against Sebastián Piñera (Alliance for Chile), with more than 53% of the votes. Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria beˈɾonika mɪˈʃɛl baʃˈle ˈxeɾja / --> (born September 29 1951) is a center-left politician and Miguel Juan Sebastián Piñera Echenique (born December 1 1949) is a Chilean businessman and politician
Suggested historical references are: Paul Drake et al. , Chile: A Country Study (Library of Congress, 1994). Brian Lovemen, Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism, 3rd. ed. , (Oxford University Press). John L. Rector, The History of Chile, (Palgrave Macmillian, 2005). Simon Collier and William F. Sater, A History of Chile, 1808-1994, (Cambridge University Press).